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Actinomyces, drugs for [keywords]
- Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- J Periodontol 2012 Jun; 83(6):797-804.
Certain plants used in folk medicine serve as a source of therapeutic agents that have antimicrobial and other multipotential effects. This prospective, randomized, placebo, and positively controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic effects of a commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis.Ninety patients diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into three groups: group 1, placebo toothpaste; group 2, toothpaste containing aloe vera; and group 3, toothpaste with polymer and fluoride containing triclosan. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using a gingival index, plaque was assessed using a modification of the Quigley-Hein index, and microbiologic counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by questionnaire.Toothpaste containing aloe vera showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with toothpaste containing triclosan.Toothpaste containing aloe vera may be a useful herbal formulation for chemical plaque control agents and improvement in plaque and gingival status.
- Antimicrobial effects of o-cymen-5-ol and zinc, alone & in combination in simple solutions and toothpaste formulations. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int Dent J 2011 Aug.:33-40.
This study aimed to evaluate antimicrobial effects of an o-cymen-5-ol/zinc system.o-Cymen-5-ol and zinc gluconate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined against Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Candida albicans. Synergy was investigated by checkerboard MIC/MBC; inhibition of P. gingivalis protease activity and S. mutans glycolysis were investigated. Slurried toothpastes containing the system were assessed in kill time assays against S. mutans and E. coli.o-Cymen-5-ol MIC was between 1.7 mM to 3.4 mM; MBC was 3.4 mM to 6.7 mM. Zinc gluconate MIC was 2.8 mM to 11 mM; MBC was between 11 mM and >44 mM. The two agents in solution showed synergy (FICI≤0.50) against P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum, with MIC of 0.42 mM/0.69 mM for o-cymen-5-ol/zinc gluconate, respectively. Zinc inhibited glycolysis and protease to a greater degree than o-cymen-5-ol; glycolysis inhibition by the two agents was additive. o-Cymen-5-ol/zinc chloride in toothpaste showed greater effects than placebo (120s log10 kill=7.35±0.40 and 4.02±0.40, respectively).The zinc/o-cymen-5-ol system has direct antimicrobial effects and inhibits oral disease-related processes. Synergistic effects were seen against anaerobes. A system combining o-cymen-5-ol and zinc shows properties desirable for incorporation in toothpastes.
- Effects of fruit and vegetable low molecular mass fractions on gene expression in gingival cells challenged with Prevotella intermedia and Actinomyces naeslundii. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Biomed Biotechnol 2011.:230630.
Low molecular mass (LMM) fractions obtained from extracts of raspberry, red chicory, and Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to be an useful source of specific antibacterial, antiadhesion/coaggregation, and antibiofilm agent(s) that might be used for protection towards caries and gingivitis. In this paper, the effects of such LMM fractions on human gingival KB cells exposed to the periodontal pathogens Prevotella intermedia and Actinomyces naeslundii were evaluated. Expression of cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and β4 integrin (β4INT) genes, that are involved in cell proliferation/differentiation and adhesion, and of the antimicrobial peptide β2 defensin (HβD2) in KB cells was increased upon exposure to either live or heat-killed bacteria. All LMM fractions tested prevented or reduced the induction of gene expression by P. intermedia and A. naeslundii depending on the experimental conditions. Overall, the results suggested that LMM fractions could modulate the effects of bacteria associated with periodontal disease in gingival cells.
- Antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsion on cariogenic planktonic and biofilm organisms. [In Vitro, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Arch Oral Biol 2012 Jan; 57(1):15-22.
Nanoemulsions (NE) are a unique class of disinfectants produced by mixing a water immiscible liquid phase into an aqueous phase under high shear forces. NE have antimicrobial properties and are also effective anti-biofilm agents.The effectiveness of nanoemulsion and its components was determined against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei by live/dead staining. In vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of nanoemulsion against planktonic S. mutans, L. casei, Actinomyces viscosus, Candida albicans and mixed culture was determined by a serial dilution technique to obtain minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC). In addition, efficacy was investigated by kinetics of killing, adherence and biofilm assays.Compared to its components, nanoemulsion showed notable antimicrobial activity against biofilm organisms, up to 83.0% kill within 1min. NE dilutions ranging from 243 to 19683 were effective against planktonic S. mutans, L. casei, A. viscosus, C. albicans and mixed culture of these four strains as shown through MIC/MBC assays. NE showed antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells at high dilutions, confirmed by time kill studies. The level of adhesion on glass surface was reduced by 94.2-99.5% in nanoemulsion treated groups (p<0.001). 4-Day-old S. mutans, L. casei, A. viscosus, C. albicans and mixed cultures biofilms treated with NE showed reductions of bacterial counts with decreasing dilutions (p<0.001).These results suggest that nanoemulsion has effective anti-cariogenic activity against cariogenic microorganisms and may be a useful medication in the prevention of caries.
- Mandibular Actinomyces osteomyelitis complicating florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- BMC Oral Health 2011.:21.
Apart from neoplastic processes, chronic disfiguring and destructive diseases of the mandible are uncommon.We report, perhaps for the first time, the simultaneous occurrence of two such conditions in one patient, in a case that emphasizes the importance of bone biopsy in establishing the correct diagnosis. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a chronic, disfiguring condition of the maxillofacial region. This relatively benign disease is primarily observed in middle-aged women of African ancestry. Cervicofacial actinomycosis is an uncommon and progressive infection caused by bacilli of the Actinomyces genus that typically involves intraoral soft tissues but may also involve bone. The accurate diagnosis of actinomycosis is critical for successful treatment. A diagnosis of osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces bacteria was diagnosed by bone biopsy in a 53 year-old African-American woman with a longstanding history of FCOD after she presented with a new draining ulcer overlying the mandible.Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of actinomycosis arising in the setting of FCOD, and the importance of bone biopsy and cultures in arriving at a definitive and timely diagnosis.
- Antimicrobial sesquiterpenoids from Laurus nobilis L. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Prod Res 2011 Aug; 25(14):1295-303.
Activity-guided fractionations of leaf extracts from Laurus nobilis L. led to the isolation of a known sesquiterpene lactone, deacetyl laurenobiolide (1). Compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity against periopathic pathogens (Actinomyces viscosus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), opportunistic Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus). Furthermore, acetylation and cyclisation of deacetyl laurenobiolide (1) yielded laurenobiolide (2) and a new compound, (5S,6R,7S,8S,10R)-6,8-dihydroxyeudesma-4(15),11(13)-dien-12-oic acid 12,8-lactone (3), respectively. Compounds 2 and 3 also showed antimicrobial activities. All compounds 1-3 demonstrated growth inhibitory effects with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 31 to 1000 µg mL(-1). This is the first report of compounds 1-3 showing antimicrobial activities.
- Garlic allicin as a potential agent for controlling oral pathogens. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Med Food 2011 Nov; 14(11):1338-43.
Garlic has been used medicinally throughout human history. Allicin is considered the most therapeutic constituent of garlic. This study tested the antimicrobial activity of garlic allicin on oral pathogens associated with dental caries and periodontitis. Allicin was found effective against all the tested bacteria. The broth dilution method revealed that planktonic growth of the cariogenic, gram-positive species Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, and Actinomyces oris was inhibited by an allicin concentration of 600 μg/mL or higher. Planktonic growth of the tested gram-negative periopathogenic species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum was inhibited by a minimum allicin concentration of 300 μg/mL. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic, gram-negative pathogen and the bacterium most associated with chronic periodontitis, demonstrated the lowest sensitivity to allicin (2,400 μg/mL). Gel zymography and the synthetic chromogenic substrate N(α)-benzoyl-L-arginine 4-nitroanilide hydrochloride demonstrated that allicin inhibits the proteases of P. gingivalis, including the arginine and lysine gingipains known as major virulence factors of this organism. A gingipain-inactivated mutant demonstrated high sensitivity to allicin (<300 μg/mL), revealing that gingipains confer resistance to allicin. Live/dead staining followed by analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that allicin was bactericidal to S. mutans grown in mature biofilms. However, this bactericidal effect was reduced as biofilm depth increased. In conclusion, these results support the traditional medicinal use of garlic and suggest the use of allicin for alleviating dental diseases.
- Antimicrobial activity of Gel-entrapped catechins toward oral microorganisms. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Biol Pharm Bull 2011; 34(5):638-43.
The oral cavity contains almost half of the commensal bacterial population present in the human body. An increase in the number of these microorganisms may result in systemic diseases such as infective endocarditis and aspiration pneumonia as well as oral infections. It is essential to control the total numbers of these microorganisms in order to suppress disease onset. Thus, we examined the antimicrobial activity of a newly developed gel-entrapped catechin (GEC) preparation against oral microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GEC was determined based on the relationship between a modified agar diffusion method and a broth microdilution method. GEC inhibited the growth of the Actinomyces, periodontopathic bacteria and Candida strains tested, but did not inhibit the growth of the oral streptococci that are important in the normal oral flora. Commercially available moisture gels containing antimicrobial components showed antimicrobial activity against all of the tested strains. After a series of washes and after a 24-h incubation, GEC retained the antimicrobial activity of the catechins. Catalase prevented GEC-induced growth inhibition of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans suggesting that hydrogen peroxide may be involved in the antimicrobial activity of catechins. These results suggest that GEC may be useful for controlling oral microorganism populations and reducing the accumulation of dental plaque, thereby helping to prevent periodontal disease and oral candidiasis.
- Development of a cell immobilization technique for the conversion of polysialogangliosides to monosialotetrahexosylganglioside. [Journal Article]
- Pharm Biol 2011 Aug; 49(8):805-9.
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM₁) prepared from the brain of pig or bovine is an effective clinical drug in the treatment of different nervous system diseases. Generally, polysialogangliosides are transformed into GM₁ by enzymic or chemical hydrolysis due to the very poor level of natural GM₁.To continuously obtain GM₁ by cell immobilization in a packed-bed reactor.Brevibacterium casei, which is Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the order Actinomyces and family Brevibacteriaceae, can produce high-activity sialidase, are encapsulated in silk fibroin hydrogel, and subsequently packed into a reactor. The crude ganglioside is pumped into the reactor and continuously turned to GM₁.The optimal silk fibroin concentration for hydrogel preparation is 6.0% (w/v). The optimal initial biomass for immobilization is ~12% (wet weight). The optimal conversion conditions are 35 °C and 6 mL/min of flow rate. Under above conditions, the maximum GM₁ productive strength and conversion ratio can reach to 4.2 g/L·h and 313.5%, respectively.Silk fibroin is a promising material for cell immobilization because it has predominant characteristics of higher permeability and intensity. Cell immobilization for continuous GM₁ transformation could eliminate the asialo GM₁ and decrease the foreign matter from transfer medium and metabolism product.In the packed-bed reactor, continuous production of GM₁ had been under effective running at least for 15 days indicating a potential for industrial production. It is significant that this is a first report on cell immobilization for GM₁ production.
- Chronic Postoperative Endophthalmitis Caused by Actinomyces meyeri. [Journal Article]
- Case Report Ophthalmol 2011; 2(1):95-8.
We report a female patient who developed chronic endophthalmitis after an uneventful cataract surgery. Cultures of aqueous humor and a vitreous sample showed positivity for Actinomyces meyeri. Intense anterior segment inflammation and a less evident impairment of the patient's posterior segment led us to treat her vigorously with pars plana vitrectomy combined with intraocular and topical antibiotics. The patient achieved a good recovery of vision without the need to remove the intraocular lens and to add systemic drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intraocular infection caused by A. meyeri after small-incision clear corneal phacoemulsification.