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- Phylogenetic findings suggest possible new habitat and routes of infection of human eumyctoma. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 May; 7(5):e2229.
Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128) using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored.
- Multiple cardiac mycetomas in an immunosuppressed child. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2013 May 17.
- The First Korean Case of Disseminated Mycetoma Caused by Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis in a Patient on Long-Term Corticosteroid Therapy for the Treatment of Microscopic Polyangiitis. [Journal Article]
- Ann Lab Med 2013 May; 33(3):203-7.
Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis is predominantly associated with invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated mycetoma caused by N. pseudobrasiliensis in a 57-yr-old woman with microscopic polyangiitis, who was treated for 3 months with corticosteroids. The same organism was isolated from mycetoma cultures on the patient's scalp, right arm, and right leg. The phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were consistent with both Nocardia brasiliensis and N. pseudobrasiliensis, i.e., catalase and urease positivity, hydrolysis of esculin, gelatin, casein, hypoxanthine, and tyrosine, but no hydrolysis of xanthine. The isolate was identified as N. pseudobrasiliensis based on 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene sequencing. The patient was treated for 5 days with intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam, at which time both the mycetomas and fever had subsided and discharged on amoxicillin/clavulanate. This case highlights a very rare presentation of mainly cutaneous mycetoma caused by N. pseudobrasiliensis. This is the first reported case of N. pseudobrasiliensis infection in Korea.
- Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis: a completely neglected medico-social dilemma. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Adv Exp Med Biol 2013.:179-89.
Mycetoma is a debilitating disease with a highly particular geographical distribution. The mycetoma belt circles the entire world just above the equator and defines the region with the highest prevalence and incidence. Although the disease is seen in Central America, India and all across Africa, Sudan seems to be the homeland of mycetoma. Mycetoma is an infectious disease caused either by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or true fungi (eumycetoma). In Sudan most cases are caused by the fungal species Madurella mycetomatis. The precise natural habitat of this fungus is still an enigma, but its DNA can easily be found in soil and plant samples in endemic areas. Although the entire human population in these areas are in regular contact with the fungus, most individuals are unaffected. Thus mycetoma is an ideal clinical and experimental model system for the study of host-pathogen interactions. Also, given its relative importance locally, improvements in clinical and laboratory diagnostics and knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease are badly needed. This chapter describes the current state of affairs in the field of eumycetoma caused by M. mycetomatis. The value of laboratory research on this disease and future perspective for control and prevention of the infection are discussed.
- Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Mycetoma Patients React Differently to Madurella mycetomatis Antigens than Healthy Endemic Controls. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 Apr; 7(4):e2081.
- Retnla down-regulation and IL-13-rich environment correlate with inflammation severity in experimental actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis. [Journal Article]
- Pathog Dis 2013 Apr; 67(3):214-20.
Nocardia brasiliensis (Nb) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may cause actinomycetoma when immune response is unable to control the pathogenic invasion. We used comparative real-time PCR to evaluate the expression level of molecules indicative of either classical or alternative activation of macrophages, as well as of cytokines involved in macrophage polarization, during the experimental infection in BALB/c mice. We found induction or increased expression of the pro-inflammatory markers csf2/GM-CSF, interferon-gamma, and nos2/iNOS. The expression of Ym1 and IL-13, which are usually related with alternative activation of macrophage, was also increased. However, retnla/FIZZ1 expression decreased sharply during the infection. We concluded that Nb infection induces both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory environment, in which there is a strong inverse correlation between IL-13 and retnla expression.
- [Actinomycetoma of the knee due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum described in the Comoro Islands]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ann Dermatol Venereol 2013 Apr; 140(4):287-90.
Mycetoma is a chronic skin and soft tissue infection encountered in the dry tropical regions and are caused by fungi (eumycetoma) or bacteria (actinomycetoma).A 25-year-old man consulted at the hospital on Mayotte Island for a left knee injury sustained 10 years earlier in a motorcycle accident with broken skin occurring in Anjouan in the Comoro Islands. Clinical and histological diagnosis of mycetoma was made, and in the absence of microbiological diagnosis, empirical antifungal therapy was initiated. Given the poor outcome, new biopsies were performed and resulted in the identification of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. More than 1 year later, the patient had fully recovered and after administration of several and extended antibiotic courses including cotrimoxazole and linezolid.Bacterial mycetomas are usually described in semi-arid regions and the occurrence of this disease is unexpected in humid tropical areas such as the Comoro Islands. N. otitidiscaviarum is rarely involved in this infection, particularly in Africa.
- Co-existence of HIV, active tuberculosis and aspergilloma in a single individual--a case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Indian J Tuberc 2013 Jan; 60(1):55-8.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease as old as mankind, whereas in India the first case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was reported in 1986. HIV and TB are so closely connected that their relationship is often described as a co-epidemic. Aspergilloma (Fungal Ball, Mycetoma) represents a saprophytic growth of aspergillus that colonizes in the preformed cavities commonly due to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We report a case of HIV, active pulmonary tuberculosis and aspergilloma occurring in the same patient. Despite our best efforts, we could not lay our hands on any similar case in the medical literature.
- Oral eumycetoma of infancy: A rare presentation and a brief review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2013 Mar 20.
Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue, which may involve bone. The disease is caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). Both types of organism are important soil saprophytes, and therefore infection is normally acquired by traumatic inoculation of the skin by contaminated material. Clinically, mycetomas are characterized by tumefaction, draining sinuses and discharging grains. The grains are aggregates of fungal hyphae or bacterial filaments, and grain size, colour and consistency provide the initial clue to the causative organism. To our knowledge, this probably is the first case report of oral eumycetoma of infancy. Review of literature shows only ten cases of eumycetoma involving the head and neck, including the present case. Histological examinations of the biopsies were the cornerstone in the diagnosis of mycetoma. The distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma is essential for treatment. Direct microscopic examination of the grain and histopathological examination, using histochemical staining will distinguish between the two. Treatment consists of long courses of antifungals and antibacterials agents, often combined with surgery.
- Oral cavity eumycetoma: a rare and unusual condition. [Journal Article]
- Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013 Apr; 115(4):e23-5.
In this short communication, we report on a 25-year-old male patient who presented with a longstanding painless swelling under the tongue. It was of a gradual onset and course, but 2 months before presentation it suddenly increased in size. Local examination revealed a tender firm pigmented mass in the midline of the mouth floor. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, salivary glands tumours, mucocele or vascular anomaly. The investigations done were not conclusive. He underwent surgical exploration, and mycetoma was a surgical surprise. Although mycetoma is common problem in the tropics, such a presentation is a rarity. In tropical and subtropical regions, mycetoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity masses.