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Acute intermittent porphyria [keywords]
- Circadian rhythms in acute intermittent porphyria - a pilot study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Invest 2013 Apr 3.
BACKGROUND:Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited disorder of haem synthesis wherein a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen (PBG) deaminase (PBGD) with other factors may give rise to biochemical and clinical manifestations of disease. The biochemical hallmarks of active AIP are relative hepatic haem deficiency and uncontrolled up-regulation of hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase-1 (ALAS1) with over-production of ALA and PBG. The treatment of choice is intravenous haem, which restores the deficient regulatory haem pool of the liver and represses ALAS1. Recently, haem has been shown to influence circadian rhythms by controlling their negative feedback loops. We evaluated whether subjects with AIP exhibited an altered circadian profile.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:Over a 21-h period, we measured levels of serum cortisol, melatonin, ALA, PBG and mRNA levels (in peripheral blood mononuclear cells) of selected clock-controlled genes and genes involved in haem synthesis in 10 Caucasian (European-American) women who were either postmenopausal or had been receiving female hormone therapy, six of whom have AIP and four do not and are considered controls.
RESULTS:Four AIP subjects with biochemical activity exhibited higher levels of PBG and lower levels and dampened oscillation of serum cortisol, and a trend for lower levels of serum melatonin, than controls or AIP subjects without biochemical activity. Levels of clock-controlled gene mRNAs showed significant increases over baseline in all subjects at 5 a.m. and 11 p.m., whereas mRNA levels of ALAS1, ALAS2 and PBGD were increased only at 11 p.m. in subjects with active AIP.
CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study provides evidence for disturbances of circadian markers in women with active AIP that may trigger or sustain some common clinical features of AIP.
- Role of genetic testing in the management of patients with inherited porphyria and their families. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Clin Biochem 2013 Apr 19.
The porphyrias are a group of mainly inherited metabolic conditions that result from partial deficiency of individual enzymes in the haem biosynthesis pathway. Clinical presentation is either with acute neurovisceral attacks, skin photosensitivity or both, and is due to overproduction of pathway intermediates. The primary diagnosis in the proband is based on biochemical testing of appropriate samples, preferably during or soon after onset of symptoms. The role of genetic testing in the autosomal dominant acute porphyrias (acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria) is to identify presymptomatic carriers of the family specific pathogenic mutation so that they can be counselled on how to minimize their risk of suffering an acute attack. At present the additional genetic factors that influence penetrance are not known, and all patients are treated as equally at risk. Genetic testing in the erythropoietic porphyrias (erythropoietic protoporphyria, congenital erythropoietic porphyria and X-linked dominant protoporphyria) is focused on predictive and preconceptual counselling, prenatal testing and genotype-phenotype correlation. Recent advances in analytical technology have resulted in increased sensitivity of mutation detection with success rates of greater than 90% for most of the genes. The ethical and consent issues are discussed. Current research into genetic factors that affect penetrance is likely to lead to a more refined approach to counselling for presymptomatic gene carriers.
- Best practice guidelines on clinical management of acute attacks of porphyria and their complications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Clin Biochem 2013 Apr 19.
The British and Irish Porphyria Network guidelines describe best practice in the clinical assessment, investigation and management of acute porphyria attacks and their complications, including severe attacks with neuropathy. Acute attacks of porphyria may occur in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP) and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP). Aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria (ADP) is a very rare autosomal recessive porphyria; only six cases substantiated by mutation analysis have yet been described in the literature.Urinary porphobilinogen (PBG) is always raised in an acute attack due to AIP, VP or HCP and this analysis is essential to confirm the diagnosis. A positive result in a qualitative or semi-quantitative screening test must be followed by PBG quantitation at the earliest opportunity. However in a severely ill patient, treatment should not be delayed.Removal of precipitating factors, effective analgesia and control of symptoms with safe medication, attention to nutrition and fluid balance are essential. The indications for use of intravenous haem arginate are set out, together with advice on its administration. A small proportion of acute porphyria patients develop recurrent attacks and management options that may be considered include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, 'prophylactic' regular haem arginate infusion or ultimately, liver transplantation.
- Hepatocyte transplantation ameliorates the metabolic abnormality in a mouse model of acute intermittent porphyria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Transplant 2013 Apr 12.
BackgroundAcute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized byinsufficient porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) activity. When hepatic heme synthesis isinduced, porphobilinogen (PBG) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) accumulate, which causesclinical symptoms such as abdominal pain, neuropathy and psychiatric disturbances.AimOur aim was to investigate if hepatocyte transplantation can prevent or minimize themetabolic alterations in an AIP mouse model.MethodsWe transplanted wild-type hepatocytes into AIP deficient mice and induced heme synthesiswith phenobarbital. ALA and PBG concentrations in plasma were monitored and the genetranscriptions of hepatic enzymes ALAS1, PBGD and CYP2A5 were analyzed. Results werecompared with controls and correlated to the percentage of engrafted hepatocytes.ResultsThe accumulation of ALA and PBG was reduced by approximately 50 % after the secondhepatocyte transplantation. We detected no difference in mRNA levels of PBGD, ALAS1 orCyp2A5. Engraftment corresponding to 2.7 % of the total hepatocyte mass was achievedfollowing two hepatocytes transplantations.ConclusionA lack of precursor production in less than three percent of the hepatocytes resulted in a 50 %reduction in plasma precursor concentrations. This disproportional finding suggests that ALAand PBG produced in PBGD deficient hepatocytes crossed cellular membranes and wasmetabolized by transplanted cells. The lack of effect on enzyme mRNA levels, suggests thatno significant efflux of heme from normal to PBGD-deficient hepatocytes takes place. Furtherstudies are needed to establish the minimal number of engrafted hepatocytes needed tocompletely correct the metabolic abnormality in AIP and whether amelioration of themetabolic defect by partial restoration of PBGD enzyme activity translates into a clinicaleffect in human AIP.
- Helper-dependent adenoviral liver gene therapy protects against induced attacks and corrects protein folding stress in acute intermittent porphyria mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Mol Genet 2013 Apr 16.
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a hepatic metabolic disease that results from haplo-insufficient activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The dominant clinical feature is acute intermittent attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endocrine or exogenous factors. Gene therapy vectors over-expressing PBGD protein in the liver offers potential as a cure for AIP. Here, we developed a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDA) encoding human PBGD (hPBGD) and assessed its therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of AIP. Intravenous or intrahepatic administration of HDA-hPBGD to AIP mice resulted in a sustained hepatic hPBGD expression in a dose-dependent manner. Intrahepatic administration conveyed full protection against induced porphyria attacks at a significantly lower viral dose than intravenous injection. Transgenic hPBGD accumulated only in the cytosol of hepatocytes as the endogenous protein. Characterization of PBGD-deficient mouse strains revealed that a strong PBGD deficiency causes the chronic disturbance of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum folding machineries. This disturbance was completely restored over time by the over-expression of hPBGD. HDA-hPBGD is a promising vector that protects against porphyria attacks and resolves the chronic folding stress associated with low levels of PBGD activity.
- On the repair of oxidative damage to apoferritin: a model study with the flavonoids quercetin and rutin in aerated and deaerated solutions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Free Radic Res 2013 May 2.
Ferritin (Ft) impairment through (•)O2(-), H2O2, and (•)OH production occurs in the cases of ketoses, diabetes mellitus, acute intermittent porphyria and tyrosinemia. In addition to (•)Trp and TyrO(•) radical production, ferrous iron liberation and Ft synthesis stimulation, site-specific oxidation reactions are induced leading to toxic iron accumulation in organs with high Ft content, for example, liver and brain. To elucidate the potential pathways to Ft recovery, repair of oxidative damage to horse spleen apoferritin (apoFt) and Ft by quercetin (QH) or rutin (RH) was studied in the presence and absence of oxygen. (•)Trp and TyrO(•) radicals were produced in pulse radiolysis through apoFt oxidation by (•)Br2(-) radicals. QH and RH bind to apoFt on eight sites with binding constants of ˜80,000 and ˜32,000 M(-1), respectively. In deaerated solutions, a repair of apoFt radicals is observed involving both bound and free flavonoids. This repair occurs by a fast intra- and a slow inter-molecular electron transfer from bound and free flavonoids, respectively. With QH, the rate constants are 10(4) s(-1) and 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) for the intra- and intermolecular repair reactions, respectively. Oxygen does not interfere with repair of apoFt or Ft by bound QH but inhibits 90% of Ft repair by RH. These results taken together indicate that flavonoid antioxidants may help alleviate Ft impairment in diseases involving an oxidative stress.
- An odd case of heteroallelic acute intermittent porphyria in the Argentinean population. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2013.:OL1855-60.
AIP is an acute liver disorder caused by a deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) characterized by neuroabdominal symptoms. It is an autosomal dominant disease. However, homozygous dominant AIP (HD-AIP) have been described. In some cases erythrodontia was observed. CEP is an autosomal recessive disease produced by mutations in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (UROS), characterized by severe cutaneous lesions and erythrodontia. The aim of the work was to establish the differential diagnosis of porphyria in a patient with abdominal pain, neurological attacks, skin symptoms and erythrodontia. The PBGD activity was reduced 50% and the genetic analysis indicated the presence of two genetic variants in the PBGD gene, p.G111R and p.E258G, a new genetic variant, revealing a case of heteroallelic HD-AIP. The patient, first diagnosed as a carrier of a dual porphyria: AIP / CEP based on the excretion profile of porphyrins, precursors and her clinical symptoms, would be an atypical case of human HD-AIP. These results would also suggest the presence of a phenocopy of the CEP, induced by an endogenous or exogenous factor. Our findings highlight the importance of genetic studies for a proper diagnosis of porphyria, prevention of its manifestation and its treatment.
- Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling of steroids in urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Biochem 2013 Mar 13.