Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Acute renal failure [keywords]
- Renoprotection and the Bardoxolone Methyl Story - Is This the Right Way Forward? A Novel View of Renoprotection in CKD Trials: A New Classification Scheme for Renoprotective Agents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephron Extra 2013 1; 3(1):36-49.
In the June 2011 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the BEAM (Bardoxolone Methyl Treatment: Renal Function in CKD/Type 2 Diabetes) trial investigators rekindled new interest and also some controversy regarding the concept of renoprotection and the role of renoprotective agents, when they reported significant increases in the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with an eGFR of 20-45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) of body surface area at enrollment who received the trial drug bardoxolone methyl versus placebo. Unfortunately, subsequent phase IIIb trials failed to show that the drug is a safe alternative renoprotective agent. Current renoprotection paradigms depend wholly and entirely on angiotensin blockade; however, these agents [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] have proved to be imperfect renoprotective agents. In this review, we examine the mechanistic limitations of the various previous randomized controlled trials on CKD renoprotection, including the paucity of veritable, elaborate and systematic assessment methods for the documentation and reporting of individual patient-level, drug-related adverse events. We review the evidence base for the presence of putative, multiple independent and unrelated pathogenetic mechanisms that drive (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD progression. Furthermore, we examine the validity, or lack thereof, of the hyped notion that the blockade of a single molecule (angiotensin II), which can only antagonize the angiotensin cascade, would veritably successfully, consistently and unfailingly deliver adequate and qualitative renoprotection results in (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD patients. We clearly posit that there is this overarching impetus to arrive at the inference that multiple, disparately diverse and independent pathways, including any veritable combination of the mechanisms that we examine in this review, and many more others yet to be identified, do concurrently and asymmetrically contribute to CKD initiation and propagation to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in our CKD patients. We conclude that current knowledge of CKD initiation and progression to ESRD, the natural history of CKD and the impacts of acute kidney injury on this continuum remain in their infancy and call for more research. Finally, we suggest a new classification scheme for renoprotective agents: (1) the single-pathway blockers that block a single putative pathogenetic pathway involved in CKD progression, as typified by ACE inhibitors and/or ARBs, and (2) the multiple-pathway blockers that are able to block or antagonize the effects of multiple pathogenetic pathways through their ability to simultaneously block, downstream, the effects of several pathways or mechanisms of CKD to ESRD progression and could therefore concurrently interfere with several unrelated upstream pathways or mechanisms. We surmise that maybe the ideal and truly renoprotective agent, clearly a multiple-pathway blocker, is on the horizon. This calls for more research efforts from all.
- Outcomes in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the North Indian population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Womens Health 2013.:101-108.
Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy seriously endanger the safety of the mother and fetus during pregnancy. Very few studies have explored hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in India, even though this disease has been associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the disease pattern and risk factors associated with the disorder and assess the maternal and fetal outcomes in cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.This case-control study was carried out over 1 year from 2011 to 2012 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 149 patients were enrolled in the study. As seven were lost to follow-up, analysis was carried out on 142 cases. Patients were further classified according to the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group (2000) as having mild preeclampsia (65 cases), severe preeclampsia (32 cases), or eclampsia (45 cases). Thirty-one healthy pregnant non-hypertensive women were enrolled into the study as controls.The most common manifestation was edema, seen in 90% of cases. Proteinuria was also relatively common, 26.76% of patients with proteinuria of ≥300 mg/24 hours, 47.88% with proteinuria of ≥2 g/24 hours, and 25.35% with a urinary protein excretion of 3-5 g/24 hours. Central nervous system involvement was observed in 42.2% of cases, elevated bilirubin levels in 47.0%, visual symptoms in 6.4%, vaginal bleeding in 11.3%, and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome was reported in 2.80%. Maternal deaths occurred in 2.8% of cases, all of which were from the eclampsia group. Stillbirths occurred in 16.9% of cases, and overall neonatal death observed in 4.23% of cases.Women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were more prone to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes than normotensive pregnant women, but we observed a decreasing trend in the present study compared with that reported in other studies, which might be due to the increased number of hospital deliveries that occurred in our study.
- Massive hepatic necrosis with toxic liver syndrome following portal vein ligation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 May 14; 19(18):2826-2829.
Right portal vein ligation (PVL) is a safe and widespread procedure to induce controlateral liver hypertrophy for the treatment of bilobar colorectal liver metastases. We report a case of a 60-year-old man treated by both right PVL and ligation of the glissonian branches of segment 4 for colorectal liver metastases surrounding the right and median hepatic veins. After surgery, the patient developed massive hepatic necrosis with secondary pulmonary and renal insufficiency requiring transfer to the intensive care unit. This so-called toxic liver syndrome finally regressed after hemofiltration and positive oxygen therapy. Diagnosis of acute congestion of the ligated lobe was suspected. The mechanism suspected was an increase in arterial inflow secondary to portal vein ligation concomitant with a decrease in venous outflow due to liver metastases encircling the right and median hepatic vein. This is the first documented case of toxic liver syndrome in a non-cirrhotic patient with favorable issue, and a rare complication of PVL.
- Renohepatic crosstalk: does acute kidney injury cause liver dysfunction? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013 May 17.
The concept of hepatorenal syndrome is well recognized, although incompletely understood. The converse clinical problem of hepatic dysfunction in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is less well recognized yet may be a contributor to the high patient morbidity and mortality seen in this group. This review draws together the available evidence for AKI's effect on the liver from animal models, pharmacological studies and recent clinical data. It examines liver function beyond clinically used blood tests, to determine the effect of AKI on hepatic synthetic function, acute phase response and drug metabolism. Parallels are drawn with other organ crosstalk in AKI and with liver-kidney interactions in chronic kidney disease. Definition of the pathophysiology of renohepatic crosstalk may lead to improved management strategies for this vulnerable patient group.
- Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion to Reduce Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: A Phase II Multicenter Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Care Med 2013 May 16.
OBJECTIVES:: Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury occurs in up to 50% of patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to discover if perioperative urinary alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate infusion reduces the prevalence of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury.
DESIGN:: This study was a phase IIb multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial.
SETTING:: This study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in New Zealand and Australia.
PATIENTS:: A total of 427 patients scheduled to undergo elective cardiac surgery, who were at increased risk of development of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury using recognized risk factors.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Patients were randomly allocated to receive either sodium bicarbonate (n = 215) or sodium chloride (n = 212) infusion, commencing at the start of anesthesia, in a dose of 0.5 mEq/kg/hr for the first hour and then 0.2 mmol/kg/hr for 23 hours. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients with development of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury, defined as an increase in creatinine greater than 25% or 0.5 mg/dL (44 µmol/L) from baseline to peak value within the first five postoperative days. Significant differences among the groups in both plasma and urinary biochemistry were achieved 6 hours after commencement of the infusion, and these changes persisted for more than 24 hours. A total of 100 out of 215 patients (47% [95% CI, 40-53%]) in the sodium bicarbonate group and 93 of 212 patients (44% [95% CI, 37-51%]) in the sodium chloride group with development of acute kidney injury within the first five postoperative days (p = 0.58). There were also no significant differences in ventilation hours, ICU or hospital length of stay, or mortality.
CONCLUSIONS::Perioperative alkalinization of blood and urine using an infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of acute kidney injury in patients following cardiac surgery.
- Severe antibody-mediated rejection following IVIG infusion in a kidney transplant recipient with BK-virus nephropathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transpl Immunol 2013 May 14.
Intravenous immune-globulin (IVIG) use in renal transplantation has increased, with common uses including desensitization, treatment of antibody mediated rejection and adjunctive therapy for BK virus nephropathy. Although considered generally safe, potential side effects can occur in up to 23% of patients including acute kidney injury. We present a case of an unexpected cause of acute kidney injury in a renal transplant recipient following IVIG infusion. A 48-year-old nonsensitized female with end stage renal disease secondary to polycystic kidney disease received a deceased donor kidney transplant. The initial post-transplant period was unremarkable however at three years post-transplant the patient develops BK virus nephropathy. Despite a reduction in immunosuppression, graft function worsened and IVIG infusion was commenced. Immediately following the IVIG infusion, the patient develops anuric acute kidney injury necessitating hemodialysis. Renal transplant biopsy performed before and after the IVIG infusion revealed the de novo development of acute antibody mediated rejection and donor specific antibodies in the serum. Anti-HLA and donor-specific antibodies were also confirmed in a diluted sample of the IVIG preparation. We argue that the anti-HLA antibodies present in the IVIG caused an acute antibody mediated rejection in this previously nonsensitized female.
- Sustained Activation of EGFR Triggers Renal Fibrogenesis after Acute Kidney Injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Pathol 2013 May 14.
Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently accompanied by maladaptive repair and renal fibrogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms that mediate these acute and chronic consequences of AKI remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in these processes using waved-2 (Wa-2) mice, which have reduced EGFR activity, and their wild-type (WT) littermates after renal ischemia. Renal EGFR phosphorylation was induced within 2 days after ischemia, increased over time, and remained elevated at 28 days in WT mice, but this was diminished in Wa-2 mice. At the early stage of postischemia (2 days), Wa-2 mice developed more severe acute renal tubular damage with less reparative responses as indicated by enhanced tubular cell apoptosis, and reduced dedifferentiation and proliferation as compared to WT animals. At the late stage of postischemia (28 days), Wa-2 mice exhibited a less severe renal interstitial fibrosis as shown by reduced activation/proliferation of renal myofibroblasts and decreased deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. EGFR activation also contributed to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, a cellular event associated with production of profibrogenetic factors, in the injured kidney. Collectively, these results indicate that severe AKI results in sustained activation of EGFR, which is required for reparative response of renal tubular cells initially, but eventually leads to fibrogenesis.
- Efficacy and safety of 12-weekly versus 4-weekly zoledronic acid for prolonged treatment of patients with bone metastases from breast cancer (ZOOM): a phase 3, open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lancet Oncol 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:Zoledronic acid reduces skeletal-related events in patients with breast cancer, but concerns have been raised about prolonged monthly administration. We assessed the efficacy and safety of a reduced dosing frequency of zoledronic acid in women treated previously with monthly zoledronic acid.
METHODS:We did this non-inferiority, phase 3 trial in 62 centres in Italy. We enrolled patients with breast cancer who had one or more bone metastases and had completed 12-15 months of monthly treatment with zoledronic acid. Patients were randomly assigned with a permutated block (size four to eight) random list stratified by centre in a 1:1 ratio to zoledronic acid 4 mg once every 12 weeks or once every 4 weeks, and followed up for at least 1 year. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was skeletal morbidity rate (skeletal-related events per patient per year) in the intention-to-treat population. We used a non-inferiority margin of 0·19. The trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2005-004942-15.
FINDINGS:We screened 430 patients and enrolled 425, of whom 209 were assigned to the 12-week group and 216 to the 4-week group. The skeletal morbidity rate was 0·26 (95% CI 0·15-0·37) in the 12-week group versus 0·22 (0·14-0·29) in the 4-week group. The between-group difference was 0·04 and the upper limit of one-tailed 97·5% CI was 0·17, which is lower than the non-inferiority margin. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were bone pain (56 [27%] patients in the 12-week group vs 65 [30%] in the 4-week group), nausea (24 [11%] vs 33 [15%]), and asthenia (18 [9%] vs 33 [15%]). Renal adverse events occurred in one patient (<1%) in the 12-week group versus two (1%) in the 4-week group. One patient (<1%) in the 4-week group had grade 1 acute renal failure. Osteonecrosis of the jaw occurred in four patients in the 12-week group versus three in the 4-week group. No treatment-related deaths were reported. Median N-terminal telopeptide concentration changed from baseline more in the 12-week group than in the 4-week group after 12 months (12·2%vs 0·0%; p=0·011).
INTERPRETATION:Our results raise the possibility of decreasing administration of zoledronic acid to a 12-weekly regimen to reduce exposure during the second year, while maintaining its therapeutic effects. However, the effects on N-terminal telopeptide should be investigated further before changing current practice. FUNDING: Novartis Farma.
- Glomerulonephritis associated with tuberculosis: A case report and literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2013 Jun; 29(6):337-342.
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused mycobacterium tuberculosis is rare; however, three case have been reported to date. Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a life-threatening disease and together with the presence of tuberculous infection is associated with a poor outcome if treatment is inadequate and delayed. We describe the case of a 31-year-old female patient with nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal failure secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. Renal biopsy showed crescent formation in 14 out of 27 glomeruli, and there was diffuse linear staining of immunoglobulin G deposits. Treatment included corticosteroids in combination with antituberculosis drugs for 2 months, and resulted in a significant improvement in renal function, the disappearance of proteinuria and pulmonary symptoms. We also present a review of the pertinent literature and discuss the pathophysiology of tuberculosis-related acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis.
- Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels predict cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury better than albuminuria or urinary cystatin C levels. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2013 Jun; 29(6):304-311.
Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major concern among clinicians in prescribing cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This study evaluated and compared the ability of urinary biomarkers, including urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) to predict cisplatin-induced AKI. Thirty-three cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy were prospectively studied, including 10 (30%) who developed AKI (the study group). Changes of urinary biomarkers were compared at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 12 hours, and 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days after cisplatin intravenous infusions (75mg/m(2)) versus the baseline. There was a significant increase in urinary NGAL levels from 12 hours to 4 days (p<0.05) compared to baseline after cisplatin infusion in the AKI group. The magnitude of these changes over time differed significantly by group (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve describing the relationship between urinary NGAL levels and AKI within 12 hours was 0.865 (95% confidence interval=0.691-1.000). Urinary NGAL levels independently predicted AKI 12 hours after cisplatin (p=0.045) after adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, baseline serum creatinine, and urinary total protein. Urinary NGAL levels may be an early biomarker of AKI in patients receiving cisplatin-based treatment.