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- Butyrate-producing probiotics reduce nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease progression in rats: new insight into the probiotics for the gut-liver axis. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63388.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The gut-derived endotoxin plays an essential role in the pathophysiological development and progression of NAFLD. By using rat models of choline-deficient/L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet-induced NAFLD, we examined whether MIYAIRI 588-a butyrate-producing probiotic - prevents the progression of pathophysiological changes from steatosis to hepatocarcinogenesis. In vivo experiments showed that treatment with MIYAIRI 588 reduced CDAA-diet-induced hepatic lipid deposition and significantly improved the triglyceride content, insulin resistance, serum endotoxin levels, and hepatic inflammatory indexes. We also found that MIYAIRI 588 substantially increased the activation of hepatic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AKT and the expression of lipogenesis- or lipolysis-related proteins. MIYAIRI 588 also improved CDAA-diet-induced delocalization and substantially decreased the expression of the tight-junction proteins intestinal zonula occluden-1 and occludin in CDAA-diet-fed rats. Further, the MIYAIRI 588-treated rats also showed remarkable induction of nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its targeted antioxidative enzymes, which suppressed hepatic oxidative stress. In vitro studies revealed that treatment with sodium butyrate (NaB) also activated AMPK and AKT and enhanced Nrf2 expression by precluding ubiquitination, thereby increasing the half-life of the Nrf2 protein. Pharmacological studies and siRNA knockdown experiments showed that NaB-mediated AMPK activation induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Sirtuin 1, leading to the increased assembly of mammalian TOR complex 2 and phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 and subsequent induction of Nrf2 expression and activation. These favorable changes caused an obvious decrease in hepatic fibrous deposition, GST-P-positive foci development, and hepatocarcinogenesis. Our data clearly established that the probiotic MIYAIRI 588 has beneficial effects in the prevention of NAFLD progression.
- Structural Basis for Rab1 De-AMPylation by the Legionella pneumophila Effector SidD. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Pathog 2013 May; 9(5):e1003382.
The covalent attachment of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to proteins, a process called AMPylation (adenylylation), has recently emerged as a novel theme in microbial pathogenesis. Although several AMPylating enzymes have been characterized, the only known virulence protein with de-AMPylation activity is SidD from the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. SidD de-AMPylates mammalian Rab1, a small GTPase involved in secretory vesicle transport, thereby targeting the host protein for inactivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying Rab1 recognition and de-AMPylation by SidD are unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the catalytic region of SidD at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure reveals a phosphatase-like fold with additional structural elements not present in generic PP2C-type phosphatases. The catalytic pocket contains a binuclear metal-binding site characteristic of hydrolytic metalloenzymes, with strong dependency on magnesium ions. Subsequent docking and molecular dynamics simulations between SidD and Rab1 revealed the interface contacts and the energetic contribution of key residues to the interaction. In conjunction with an extensive structure-based mutational analysis, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for a remarkable adaptation of SidD to its host cell target Rab1 which explains how this effector confers specificity to the reaction it catalyses.
- Antiapoptotic effects of cerium oxide and yttrium oxide nanoparticles in isolated rat pancreatic islets. [Journal Article]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 May; 32(5):544-53.
Type I diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by the impairment of pancreatic β-cells mainly mediated through oxidative stress and related apoptosis. Islets transplantation seems a promising treatment for these patients, but during islets transplant, various types of stresses related to the isolation and transplantation procedure compromise the function and viability of islets. We recently hypothesized that the combination of cerium oxide (CeO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles with a potential free radical scavenger behavior should be useful to make isolated islets survive until transplanted. In the present study, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in isolated rat pancreatic islets exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the protective effects of CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles were investigated. Exposure of islets to H2O2 (50 µm, 2 h) increased intracellular oxidant formation such as reactive oxygen species and subsequently apoptosis and decreased viability, glucose-induced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Pretreatment with CeO2 and/or Y2O3 nanoparticles reduced the oxidant formation and apoptosis and increased viability, glucose-induced ATP production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These results suggest that this combination may protect β-cell apoptosis by improving the oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic pathway.
- [Role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) in the regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier function under hypoxia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2013 May; 16(5):479-83.
To investigate the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) in the regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier function under hypoxia.Intestinal epithelial barrier was established by Caco-2 monolayers. Cells were divided into four groups: normoxia (Nx), normoxia plus Forskolin(Nx+FSK), hypoxia(Hx), hypoxia plus SQ22536(Hx+SQ22536). cAMP concentrations of different groups were assessed by cAMP enzyme immunoassay kit. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of claudin-1 and occludin under normoxic and hypoxic condition. Caco-2 monolayers were grown on Millicell filters, and transepithelial electrical resistance(TER) was measured using a Millipore electric resistance system.The concentration of cAMP under hypoxic conditions(Hx group) was higher compared with Nx group [(6.30±0.50) pmol/L vs. (2.38±0.18) pmol/L, P<0.01]. At the same time, both mRNA and protein expressions of claudin-1 and occluding were lower in Hx group than those in Nx group(all P<0.05). TER decreased by 76.30±0.64(P<0.01). When the monolayers were exposed to hypoxia plus SQ22536 (Hx+SQ22536 group), the concentration of cAMP was(2.12±0.23) pmol/L, which was lower than that under hypoxic conditions(Hx group, P<0.01). Both mRNA and protein expressions of claudin-1 and occludin were higher compared to Hx group (all P<0.01). TER increased by 32.96±2.16 (P<0.05).When Caco-2 cells are exposed to hypoxia, barrier function, claudin-1 and occludin expression are diminished in parallel with a high level of intracellular cAMP compared with the normoxic condition. Inhibition of the intracellular cAMP level under hypoxia can maintain the intestinal epithelial function through regulating the claudin-1 and occludin expression and attenuate the permeability of intestinal mucosa.
- Neuroprotective effect of EGb761(R) and low-dose whole-body γ-irradiationin a rat model of Parkinson's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol Ind Health 2013 May 21.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate the pretreatment effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761(®)) and low-dose whole-body γ-irradiation on the neurological dysfunction in the reserpine model of PD. Male Wistar rats were pretreated orally with EGb761 or fractionated low-dose whole-body γ-irradiation or their combination, then subjected to intraperitoneal injection of reserpine (5 mg/kg body weight) 24 h after the final dose of EGb761 or radiation. Reserpine injection resulted in the depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) level, increased catalepsy score, increased oxidative stress indicated via depletion of glutathione (GSH), increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and iron levels, decreased DA metabolites metabolizing enzymes; indicated by inhibition by glutathione-S-transferase, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activities, mitochondrial dysfunction; indicated by declined complex I activity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and increased apoptosis; indicated by decreased mitochondrial B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein level and by transmission electron microscope. EGb761 and low-dose γ-radiation ameliorated the reserpine-induced state of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in brain. It can be concluded that EGb761, a widely used herbal medicine and low dose of γ-irradiation have protective effects for combating Parkinsonism possibly via replenishment of GSH levels.
- Adenosine A2A receptors in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a [(11)C]TMSX brain PET study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013 May 22.
In this study, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with a radioligand to adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR)-a potent regulator of inflammation-was used to gain insight into the molecular alterations in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (GM) in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Normal-appearing white matter and GM, despite seeming normal in conventional mangnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are important loci of widespread inflammation, neuronal damage, and source of progressive disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dynamic PET imaging using A2AR-specific [(11)C]TMSX and brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging were performed to eight SPMS patients and seven healthy controls. Distribution volumes (VT) of [(11)C]TMSX were analyzed from 13 regions of interest using Logan plot with arterial plasma input. The SPMS patients had significantly increased [(11)C]TMSX-VT in NAWM compared with controls (mean (s.d.): 0.55 (±0.08) vs. 0.45 (±0.05); P=0.036). Both the increased VT and the decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in NAWM were associated with higher expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores (P=0.030 and P=0.012, respectively), whereas the T2-lesion load of SPMS patients did not correlate with EDSS. This study shows, that A2ARs are increased in the brain of SPMS patients, and that [(11)C]TMSX-PET provides a novel approach to learn about central nervous system pathology in SPMS in vivo.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 22 May 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.85.
- The Role of β-Adrenergic Blockers in Parkinson's Disease: Possible Genetic and Cell-Signaling Mechanisms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2013 May 21.
Genetic studies have identified numerous factors linking β-adrenergic blockade to Parkinson's disease (PD), including human leukocyte antigen genes, the renin-angiotensin system, poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1, nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. β-Adrenergic blockade has also been implicated in PD via its effects on matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase 2, and nitric oxide synthase. β-Adrenergic blockade may have a significant role in PD; therefore, the characterization of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with PD is needed.
- Estrogen reduces lipid content in the liver exclusively from membrane receptor signaling. [Journal Article]
- Sci Signal 2013; 6(276):ra36.
Estrogen induces signal transduction through estrogen receptor α (ERα), which localizes to both the plasma membrane and nucleus. Using wild-type mice, ERα knockout (ERKO) mice, or transgenic mice expressing only the ligand-binding domain of ERα exclusively at the plasma membrane (MOER), we compared the transcriptional profiles of liver tissue extracts after mice were injected with the ERα agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT). The expression of many lipid synthesis-related genes was comparably decreased in livers from MOER or wild-type mice but was not suppressed in ERKO mice, indicating that only membrane-localized ERα was necessary for their suppression. Cholesterol, triglyceride, and fatty acid content was decreased only in livers from wild-type and MOER mice exposed to PPT, but not in the livers from the ERKO mice, validating the membrane-driven signaling pathway on a physiological level. PPT-triggered activation of ERα at the membrane induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase to phosphorylate sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 (Srebf1), preventing its association with and therefore its proteolytic cleavage by site-1 protease. Consequently, Srebf1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, preventing the expression of cholesterol synthesis-associated genes. Thus, we showed that inhibition of gene expression mediated by membrane-localized ERα caused a metabolic phenotype that did not require nuclear ERα.
- Adenosine stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease at an early stage. [Journal Article]
- J Xray Sci Technol 2013 Jan 1; 21(2):317-22.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of adenosine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and to compare it with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) at an early stage. Forty-one patients suspected with CAD were randomly divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n=21) adenosine stress was undertaken; the exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in Group 2 (n=20). Coronary angiography (CAG) was performed in each patient within 2 weeks before or after single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Adenosine stress group vs. exercise stress group, the sensitivity was 92.86% vs. 100.0%, specificity 57.14% vs. 60.0%, positive predictive value 81.25% vs. 71.43%, negative predictive value 80.0% vs. 100.0%, accuracy 80.95% vs. 80.0% respectively. Detection rates of vessels of coronary artery lesions were 66.67% in Group 1 and 72.22% in Group 2 (P> 0.05). The side effects were mild and transient. Our results demonstrated that adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and reliable diagnostic method for an early stage of CAD. As a comparative sensitivity and accuracy with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, adenosine stress testing may provide a feasible alternative pharmacological stress method in myocardial SPECT for detection of CAD.
- Endogenous A1 Adenosine Receptor Protects Mice from Acute Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicology 2013 May 18.
Previous studies have indicated a critical role of adenosine and its receptors in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) to acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Wild-type (WT) and A1AR(-/-) mice were intragastrically administered with ethanol (5g/kg), and hepatic injury was evaluated 6h thereafter. Mice lacking A1AR were more susceptible to ethanol-induced liver damage than WT mice, as evidenced by higher serum transaminase levels and increased extent of histopathological changes. Ethanol induced triglycerides accumulation in the serum and liver, and this accumulation was augmented in A1AR(-/-) mice. Analysis of gene expression in the liver revealed up-regulated mRNA levels of genes related to lipogenesis (including: FAS, SCD1, ACC1, DGAT2, and PPARγ) in A1AR(-/-) mice after ethanol treatment. In addition, lack of A1AR aggravated lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase depletion caused by acute ethanol exposure. A subsequent study revealed that, pretreatment with A1AR antagonist DPCPX increases the sensitivity of mice to ethanol-induced liver injury. In conclusion, these results indicated that endogenous A1AR activation protects mice against acute ethanol -induced liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and decreasing lipid accumulation.