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Adenovirus infections [keywords]
- [Clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors of Bordetella pertussis infection]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Paul Pediatr 2014 Dec; 32(4):292-8.
To identify clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors for Bordetella pertussis infection.This was a retrospective study, which analyzed medical records of all patients submitted to a molecular dignosis (qPCR) for B. pertussis from September 2011 to January 2013. Clinical and laboratorial data were reviewed, including information about age, sex, signs/symptoms, length of hospitalization, blood cell counts, imaging findings, coinfection with other respiratory pathogens and clinical outcome.222 cases were revised. Of these, 72.5% had proven pertussis, and 60.9% were under 1 year old. In patients aging up to six months, independent predictors for B. pertussis infection were cyanosis (OR 8.0, CI 95% 1.8-36.3; p=0.007) and lymphocyte count >10(4)/μL (OR 10.0, CI 95% 1.8-54.5; p=0.008). No independent predictors of B. pertussis infection could be determined for patients older than six months. Co-infection was found in 21.4% of patients, of which 72.7% were up to six months of age. Adenovirus was the most common agent (40.9%). In these patients, we were not able to identify any clinical features to detect patients presenting with a respiratory co-infection, even though longer hospital stay was observed in patients with co-infections (12 vs. 6 days; p=0.009).Cyanosis and lymphocytosis are independent predictors for pertussis in children up to 6 months old.
- Rapid generation of clinical-grade antiviral T cells: selection of suitable T-cell donors and GMP-compliant manufacturing of antiviral T cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Transl Med 2014 Dec 16; 12(1):336.
BackgroundThe adoptive transfer of allogeneic antiviral T lymphocytes derived from seropositive donors can safely and effectively reduce or prevent the clinical manifestation of viral infections or reactivations in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). Allogeneic third party T-cell donors offer an alternative option for patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients. Therefore we established a registry of potential third-party T-cell donors (allogeneic cell registry, alloCELL) providing detailed data on the assessment of a specific individual memory T-cell repertoire in response to antigens of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (ADV), and human herpesvirus (HHV) 6.MethodsTo obtain a manufacturing license according to the German Medicinal Products Act, the enrichment of clinical-grade CMV-specific T cells from three healthy CMV-seropositive donors was performed aseptically under GMP conditions using the CliniMACS cytokine capture system (CCS) after restimulation with an overlapping peptide pool of the immunodominant CMVpp65 antigen. Potential T-cell donors were selected from alloCELL and defined as eligible for clinical-grade antiviral T-cell generation if the peripheral fraction of IFN-¿+ T cells exceeded 0.03% of CD3+ lymphocytes as determined by IFN-¿ cytokine secretion assay.ResultsStarting with low concentration of IFN-¿+ T cells (0.07-1.11%) we achieved 81.2%, 19.2%, and 63.1% IFN-¿+CD3+ T cells (1.42x106, 0.05x106, and 1.15x106) after enrichment. Using the CMVpp65 peptide pool for restimulation resulted in the activation of more CMV-specific CD8+ than CD4+ memory T cells, both of which were effectively enriched to a total of 81.0% CD8+IFN-¿+ and 38.4% CD4+IFN-¿+ T cells. In addition to T cells and NKT cells, all preparations contained acceptably low percentages of contaminating B cells, granulocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. The enriched T-cell products were stable over 72 h with respect to viability and ratio of T lymphocytes.ConclusionsThe generation of antiviral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by CliniMACS CCS can be extended to a broad spectrum of common pathogen-derived peptide pools in single or multiple applications to facilitate and enhance the efficacy of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.
- [Simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses and influenza A virus subtypes using multiplex PCR]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Mikrobiyol Bul 2014 Oct; 48(4):652-60.
This study was conducted to investigate the respiratory viruses and subtyping of influenza A virus when positive by multiplex PCR in patients with flu-like symptoms, after the pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from 700 patients (313 female, 387 male; age range: 24 days-94 yrs, median age: 1 yr) between December 2010 - January 2013 with flu-like symptoms including fever, headache, sore throat, rhinitis, cough, myalgia as defined by the World Health Organization were included in the study. Nucleic acid extractions (Viral DNA/RNA Extraction Kit, iNtRON, South Korea) and cDNA synthesis (RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kits, Fermentas, USA) were performed according to the manufacturer's protocol. Multiplex amplification of nucleic acids was performed using DPO (dual priming oligonucleotide) primers and RV5 ACE Screening Kit (Seegene, South Korea) in terms of the presence of influenza A (INF-A) virus, influenza B (INF-B) virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the other respiratory viruses. PCR products were detected by automated polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Screen Tape multiple detection system. Specimens which were positive for viral nucleic acids have been further studied by using specific DPO primers, FluA ACE Subtyping and RV15 Screening (Seegene, South Korea) kits. Four INF-A virus subtypes [human H1 (hH1), human H3 (hH3), swine H1 (sH1), avian H5 (aH5)] and 11 other respiratory viruses [Adenovirus, parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1-4, human bocavirus (HBoV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rhinovirus types A and B, human coronaviruses (HCoV) OC43, 229E/NL63] were investigated with those tests. In the study, 53.6% (375/700) of the patients were found to be infected with at least one virus and multiple respiratory virus infections were detected in 15.7% (59/375) of the positive cases, which were mostly (49/59, 83%) in pediatric patients. RSV and rhinovirus coinfections were the most prevalent (18/29, 62.7%) dual infections. The distribution of 436 respiratory viruses identified from 375 patients were as follows; 189 (43.3%) RSV, 93 (21.4%) rhinovirus, 86 (19.8%) INF-A, seven (1.6%) INF-B, 22 (5%) PIV types 1-3, 14 (3.2%) HMPV, 11 (2.5%) HCoV, nine (2%) HBoV, and five (1.2%) adenovirus. Fifty-five (64%) out of 86 INF-A viruses were subtyped as hH3, 24 (27.9%) were sH1 and seven (8.1%) were hH1. Avian H5 was not detected in any samples. The overall prevalence rates of INF-A, INF-B, RSV and other respiratory viruses were 12%, 1%, 27%, and 14.6%, respectively. RSV was the most prevalent respiratory agent in pediatric (161/313, 51%) cases, while INF-A virus in adult (24/62, 38.7%) patients. Influenza viruses were detected as responsible pathogens in 13.3% (93/700) of the patients with flu-like symptoms. Among the cases, a 1-month-old baby was infected with three virus strains (INF-A hH1+INF-A sH1+HCoV OC43) and a 82-year-old patient was infected with two INF-A virus subtypes (hH3 + sH1). INF-A viruses were mostly detected (79/86) in winter period, from December to March. INF-A virus sH1, was the most prevalent subtype in flu cases till February 2011 (22/86), after replaced by INF-A virus hH3. Beginning from February 2012, a significant increase observed in the cases infected with INF-A virus subtype hH3 (39/86). In conclusion, the identification and surveillance of influenza virus types and subtypes circulating in populations have importance both for epidemiological data and selection of vaccine strains.
- Antiviral activity of a Bacillus sp. P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals. [Journal Article]
- Braz J Microbiol 2014; 45(3):1089-94.
P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine influenza virus (EIV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 10(4.5) TCID50 to 10(2.75) TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections.
- Retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical factors associated with etiology of febrile respiratory illness among US military basic trainees. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Infect Dis 2014 Dec 5; 14(1):576.
BackgroundBasic trainees in the US military have historically been vulnerable to respiratory infections. Adenovirus and influenza are the most common etiological agents responsible for febrile respiratory illness (FRI) among trainees and present with similar clinical signs and symptoms. Identifying demographic and clinical factors associated with the primary viral pathogens causing FRI epidemics among trainees will help improve differential diagnosis and allow for appropriate distribution of antiviral medications. The objective of this study was to determine what demographic and clinical factors are associated with influenza and adenovirus among military trainees.MethodsSpecimens were systematically collected from military trainees meeting FRI case definition (fever ¿38.0 °C with either cough or sore throat; or provider-diagnosed pneumonia) at eight basic training centers in the USA. PCR and/or cell culture testing for respiratory pathogens were performed on specimens. Interviewer-administered questionnaires collected information on patient demographic and clinical factors. Polychotomous logistic regression was employed to assess the association between these factors and FRI outcome categories: laboratory-confirmed adenovirus, influenza, or other FRI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated for individual predictors and clinical combinations of predictors.ResultsAmong 21,570 FRI cases sampled between 2004 and 2009, 63.6% were laboratory-confirmed adenovirus cases and 6.6% were laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. Subjects were predominantly young men (86.8% men; mean age 20.8¿±¿3.8 years) from Fort Jackson (18.8%), Great Lakes (17.1%), Fort Leonard Wood (16.3%), Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD) San Diego (19.0%), Fort Benning (13.3%), Lackland (7.5%), MCRD Parris Island (8.7%), and Cape May (3.2%). The best multivariate predictors of adenovirus were the combination of sore throat (odds ratio [OR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.66¿3.25), cough (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.11¿2.57), and fever (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.90¿2.26) with a PPV of 77% (p¿¿¿.05). A combination of cough, fever, training week 0¿2 and acute onset were most predictive of influenza (PPV =38%; p¿¿¿.05).ConclusionsSpecific demographic and clinical factors were associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza and adenovirus among military trainees. Findings from this study can guide clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of military trainees presenting with FRI.
- Prevalence of adenovirus respiratory tract and hiv co-infections in patients attending the University of Ilorin, teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- BMC Res Notes 2014; 7(1):870.
Adenovirus co-infections in HIV patients cause wide-spread morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, but little research has documented the burden and distribution of these pathogens. This study was conducted between December, 2010 and March, 2011 to investigate the prevalence of Adenovirus Respiratory Tract and HIV co-infections in Patients attending the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Nigeria.One Hundred and Eighty Four (184) patients were recruited with confirmed HIV positive status. Investigation was done by serology using the Human Adenovirus IgG ELISA Kit to test for the presence of the Immunoglobulin G (antibody) against the virus. This was conducted and juxtaposed simultaneously with responses received from the questionnaires provided to each participant to correlate the relationship of the co-infections to their socio-demographic factors (Age, Gender, Occupation and location of residence), risk factors (Average hours of exposure per day (time spent outdoor daily), proximity of their apartments to livestock settlements), recent occurrence of respiratory tract infections/conjunctivitis and their ART status.This study recorded a prevalent rate of 38% (70 patients) to the co-infections. Nevertheless, 62% (114 patients) tested negative to the co-infections.There was statistical significance between the ages of HIV patients and Adenovirus co-infection (p < 0.05). However, there was no significance with respect to gender of the subjects (p > 0.05). The findings also showed that there were statistical significance for all the risk factors; Occupation, Location and Proximity to Livestock settlement, recent respiratory tract infection/conjunctivitis, and ART status in relation to Adenovirus and HIV co-infections (p < 0.05).
- Environmental sampling for respiratory pathogens in Jeddah airport during the 2013 Hajj season. [Journal Article]
- Am J Infect Control 2014 Dec; 42(12):1266-9.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common during the Hajj season and are caused by a variety of organisms, which can be transmitted via the air or contaminated surfaces. We conducted a study aimed at sampling the environment in the King Abdul Aziz International (KAAI) Airport, Pilgrims City, Jeddah, during Hajj season to detect respiratory pathogens.Active air sampling was conducted using air biosamplers, and swabs were used to sample frequently touched surfaces. A respiratory multiplex array was used to detect bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens.Of the 58 environmental samples, 8 were positive for at least 1 pathogen. One air sample (1 of 18 samples, 5.5%) tested positive for influenza B virus. Of the 40 surface samples, 7 (17.5%) were positive for pathogens. These were human adenovirus (3 out of 7, 42.8%), human coronavirus OC43/HKU1 (3 out of 7, 42.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (1 out of 7, 14.2%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (1 out of 7, 14.2%). Chair handles were the most commonly contaminated surfaces. The handles of 1 chair were cocontaminated with coronavirus OC43/HKU1 and H influenzae.Respiratory pathogens were detected in the air and on surfaces in the KAAI Airport in Pilgrims City. Larger-scale studies based on our study are warranted to determine the role of the environment in transmission of respiratory pathogens during mass gathering events (eg, Hajj) such that public health preventative measures might be better targeted.
- Clinical epidemiology and molecular profiling of human bocavirus in faecal samples from children with diarrhoea in Guangzhou, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epidemiol Infect 2014 Dec 3.:1-15.
SUMMARY To understand the clinical epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection in children with diarrhoea in Guangzhou, South China, we collected 1128 faecal specimens from children with diarrhoea from July 2010 to December 2012. HBoV and five other major enteric viruses were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Human rotavirus (HRV) was the most prevalent pathogen, detected in 250 (22·2%) cases, followed by enteric adenovirus (EADV) in 76 (6·7%) cases, human astrovirus (HAstV) in 38 (3·4%) cases, HBoV in 17 (1·5%) cases, sapovirus (SaV) in 14 (1·2%) cases, and norovirus (NoV) in 9 (0·8%) cases. Co-infections were identified in 3·7% of the study population and 23·5% of HBoV-positive specimens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 14 HBoV strains to be clustered into species HBoV1 with only minor variations among them. Overall, the detection of HBoV appears to partially contribute to the overall detection gap for enteric infections, single HBoV infection rarely results in severe clinical outcomes, and HBoV sequencing data appears to support conserved genomes across strains identified in this study.
- Intussusception is associated with the detection of adenovirus C, enterovirus B and rotavirus in a rotavirus vaccinated population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Virol 2014 Nov 4; 61(4):579-584.
Intussusception, a condition where one segment of intestine invaginates into another, occurs predominantly in infants and young children. A number of potential causes have been identified including infectious agents and rotavirus vaccination. Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination of infants in Western Australia, a laboratory surveillance programme testing notified intussusception cases for infectious agents was commenced. This led to a PCR-based study of the association between gastrointestinal viruses and intussusception.Conduct viral testing on stool samples from intussusception patients to determine viruses that may have an association with intussusception.A retrospective case-control study was conducted using stool samples collected from children with intussusception (n=74) and matched controls (n=289) between 2008 and 2011. Samples were tested for rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, rhinovirus, astrovirus, parechovirus and bocavirus. Adenovirus, enterovirus and rhinovirus species were determined by DNA sequencing.Human adenovirus C was detected in significantly more cases than controls with 31/74 (41.9%) cases testing positive compared to 39/289 (13.49%) controls (OR=4.38, p<0.001). A significant difference was seen in Enterovirus B detections with 11/74 (14.9%) cases testing positive compared to 21/289 (7.3%) controls (OR=2.24, p=0.04). Rotavirus was detected in 7/74 (9.46%) cases and 11/289 (3.81%) controls, which was also a significant difference (OR=2.88, p=0.045).Our results show that intussusception is associated with non-enteric adenovirus infections, and Enterovirus B infections. While a statistical association was seen with rotavirus and intussusception, we were not able to determine if this was related to vaccine strain or wild type rotavirus.
- A patient self-collection method for longitudinal monitoring of respiratory virus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Virol 2014 Nov 12.
Methods for the longitudinal study of respiratory virus infections are cumbersome and limit our understanding of the natural history of these infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients.To assess the feasibility and patient acceptability of self-collected foam nasal swabs for detection of respiratory viruses in SOT recipients and to define the virologic and clinical course.We prospectively monitored the course of symptomatic respiratory virus infection in 18 SOT patients (14 lung, 3 liver, and 1 kidney) using patient self-collected swabs.The initial study sample was positive in 15 patients with the following respiratory viruses: rhinovirus (6), metapneumovirus (1), coronavirus (2), respiratory syncytial virus (2), parainfluenza virus (2), and influenza A virus (2). One hundred four weekly self-collected nasal swabs were obtained, with a median of 4 samples per patient (range 1-17). Median duration of viral detection was 21 days (range 4-77 days). Additional new respiratory viruses detected during follow-up of these 15 patients included rhinovirus (3), metapneumovirus (2), coronavirus (1), respiratory syncytial virus (1), parainfluenza virus (1), and adenovirus (1). Specimen collection compliance was good; 16/18 (89%) patients collected all required specimens and 79/86 (92%) follow-up specimens were obtained within the 7±3 day protocol-defined window. All participants agreed or strongly agreed that the procedure was comfortable, simple, and 13/14 (93%) were willing to participate in future studies using this procedure.Self-collected nasal swabs provide a convenient, feasible, and patient-acceptable methodology for longitudinal monitoring of upper respiratory virus infection in SOT recipients.