- A protective role for IL-1 signaling during mouse adenovirus type 1-induced encephalitis. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2016 Nov 30
- IL-1β, an inflammatory cytokine and IL-1 receptor ligand, has diverse activities in the brain. We examined whether IL-1 signaling contributes to the encephalitis observed in mouse adenovirus type 1 (...
IL-1β, an inflammatory cytokine and IL-1 receptor ligand, has diverse activities in the brain. We examined whether IL-1 signaling contributes to the encephalitis observed in mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection, using mice lacking the IL-1 receptor, Il1r1(-/-) Il1r1(-/-) mice had lower survival, higher disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), higher brain viral loads, and higher brain inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than control C57BL/6 mice. We also examined infections of mice defective in IL-1β production (Pycard(-/-)mice) and mice defective in trafficking of TLRs to the endosome (Unc93b1(-/-) mice). Pycard(-/-) and Unc93b1(-/-) mice had lower survival (similar to Il1r1(-/-) mice) than control mice, but unlike Il1r1(-/-) mice, did not have increased brain viral loads or BBB disruption. Based on brain cytokine levels, MAV-1-infected Unc93b1(-/-) mice had a very different inflammatory profile from infected Il1r1(-/-) and Pycard(-/-) mice. Histological examination demonstrated pathological findings consistent with encephalitis in control and knockout mice; however, intranuclear viral inclusions were seen only in Il1r1(-/-) mice. A time course of infection of control and Il1r1(-/-) mice evaluating the kinetics of viral replication and cytokine production revealed differences between the mouse strains primarily at 7 - 8 days after infection, when mice began succumbing to MAV-1 infection. In the absence of IL-1 signaling, we noted an increase in the transcription of type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes. Together these results indicate that IL-1 signaling is important during MAV-1 infection and suggest that in its absence, increased IFN-β signaling may result in increased neuroinflammation.
- Treatment of Adenoviral Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Using Cidofovir With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Case Series and Literature Review. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Intensive Care Med 2016 Nov 30
- Adenovirus infections are associated with respiratory (especially upper respiratory) infection and gastrointestinal disease and occur primarily in infants and children. Although rare in adults, sever...
Adenovirus infections are associated with respiratory (especially upper respiratory) infection and gastrointestinal disease and occur primarily in infants and children. Although rare in adults, severe lower respiratory adenovirus infections including pneumonia are reported in specific populations, such as military recruits and immunocompromised patients. Antiviral treatment is challenging due to limited clinical experience and lack of well-controlled randomized trials. Several previously reported cases of adenoviral pneumonia showed promising efficacy of cidofovir. However, few reports discussed the efficacy of cidofovir in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We experienced 3 cases of adenoviral pneumonia associated with ARDS and treated with cidofovir and respiratory support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). All 3 patients showed a positive clinical response to cidofovir and survival at 28 days. Cidofovir with early ECMO therapy may be a therapeutic option in adenoviral ARDS. A literature review identified 15 cases of adenovirus pneumonia associated with ARDS.
- Case-control study of diarrheal disease etiology in individuals over 5 years in southwest China. [Journal Article]
- GPGut Pathog 2016; 8:58
- CONCLUSIONS: DEC was the most predominant pathogen in diarrhea cases, but it was largely overlooked because the lack of laboratory capacities. Because of the high prevalence of co-infections, it is recommended the urgent development of alternative laboratory methods to assess polymicrobial infections. Such methodological improvements will result in a better prevention and treatment strategies to control diarrhea illness in China.
- Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza are the key viral pathogens in children <2 years hospitalized with bronchiolitis and pneumonia in Islamabad Pakistan. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2016 Nov 24
- Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active s...
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0.05). The average weight of the study group was 6.1 ± 2.25 kg. ≥1 viral pathogens were detected in 75% cases. Major respiratory viruses included RSV-A: 44%, RSV-B: 23%, Influenza-A: 24.5%, Influenza-B: 7%, Adenovirus: 8.4% and HmPV: 5.2%. A single, dual or multiple viral pathogens were detected in 43%, 27% and 5.2% patients respectively. Common symptoms were cough (95%), apnoea (84%), fever (78%), wheeze (64.5%), nasal congestion (55%) and rhinorrhea (48%). Among the RSV positive cases, 2-6 months age group had highest detection rate for RSV-A (30%, n = 21/69) and RSV-B (20%, n = 14/69) while patients infected with Influenza-A were in 2.1-6 months age group (61%, 23/38). Statistically significant difference was observed between RSV-positive and negative cases for nutrition status (p = 0.001), cigarette/wood smoke exposure (p = 0.001) and concomitant clinical findings. Most patients had successful outcome on combination therapy with bronchodilators, inhaled steroids and antibiotics. Our findings underscore high burden of ALRI in Pakistan. Interventions targeting viral pathogens coupled with improved diagnostic approaches are critical for better prevention and control.
- Clinical Impact of Mixed Respiratory Viral Infection in Children with Adenoviral Infection. [Journal Article]
- ICInfect Chemother 2016 Nov 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viral coinfection with ADV occurred more frequently in children younger than 24 months of age compared with children aged 24 months or older. Respiratory viral coinfection may increase the severity of ADV infection, however, appropriate therapy prevented prolonged hospitalization and poor prognosis due to coinfection.
- Suppression of Adenovirus Replication by Cardiotonic Steroids. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2016 Nov 23
- The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome, potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin...
The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome, potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Both drugs reduced the yield of four adenoviruses (HAdV-A31, B35, C5 and a species D conjunctivitis isolate) by at least 2- 3 logs by affecting one or more steps needed for genome replication. Immediate early E1A protein levels are unaffected by the drugs, but synthesis of the delayed protein E4orf6 and the major late capsid protein, hexon, are compromised. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that both drugs altered E1A RNA splicing (favouring the production of 13S over 12S RNA) early in infection and partially blocked the transition from 12S and 13S to 9S RNA at late stages of virus replication. Expression of multiple late viral protein mRNAs was lost in the presence of either drug, consistent with the observed block in viral DNA replication. The antiviral effect was dependent on continued presence of the drug and rapidly reversible. RIDK34, a derivative of convallotoxin, although, having more potent antiviral activity, did not show an improved selectivity index. All three drugs reduced metabolic activity to some degree without evidence of cell death. By blocking adenovirus replication at one or more steps beyond the onset of E1A expression and prior to genome replication, digoxin and digitoxin show potential as antiviral agents for treatment of serious adenovirus infections. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism(s) by which digoxin/digitoxin inhibit adenovirus replication will guide the development of novel antiviral therapies.
- Clinical and Molecular Features of Adenovirus Type 2, 3, and 7 Infections in Children in an Outbreak in Taiwan, 2011. [Journal Article]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2016 Nov 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Childhood HAdV-2, HAdV-3, and HAdV-7 infections may exhibit different clinical manifestations. Although HAdV-3 was the most prevalent genotype observed during the 2011 Taiwan outbreak, HAdV-7 caused more severe disease characteristics and outcomes.
- Fatal Community-acquired Pneumonia in Children Caused by Re-emergent Human Adenovirus 7d Associated with Higher Severity of Illness and Fatality Rate. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2016 Nov 16; 6:37216
- Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), such as community-acquired pneumonia. HAdV-7d, a re-emergent genomic variant, has been recently rep...
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), such as community-acquired pneumonia. HAdV-7d, a re-emergent genomic variant, has been recently reported in Asia and the United States after a several-decade absence. However, whether HAdV-7d is associated with higher severity than other types is currently unclear. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological investigation showed that fever, cough, and sore throat were the three most common respiratory symptoms of HAdV infections. HAdV-7 caused longer duration of fever, higher morbidity of tachypnea/dyspnea, pleural effusion, diarrhea, hepatosplenomegaly, consciousness alteration, as well as higher rates of pneumonia, mechanical ventilation and higher fatality rate (28.6%) than other types, particularly HAdV-3 and HAdV-2. The genomes of seven HAdV-7d isolates from mild, severe, and fatal cases were sequenced and highly similar with each other. Surprisingly, two isolates (2011, 2012) had 100% identical genomes with an earlier strain from a fatal ARD outbreak in China (2009), which elucidates the virus origin and confirms the unexpected HAdV genomic conservation and stability. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that L1 52/55-kDa DNA packaging protein may be associated with the higher severity of illness and fatality rate of HAdV-7. Clinicians need to be aware of HAdVs in children with ARD.
- Adenovirus 36 antibody detection: Improving the standard serum neutralization assay. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol Methods 2017; 239:69-74
- Adenovirus 36 (AdV36) causes weight gain in animal models, including non-human primates. In humans, AdV36-neutralizing antibodies are associated with adiposity; however, longitudinal studies in large...
Adenovirus 36 (AdV36) causes weight gain in animal models, including non-human primates. In humans, AdV36-neutralizing antibodies are associated with adiposity; however, longitudinal studies in large populations are needed to clarify AdV36's contribution. The current gold standard for detection of AdV36-specific antibody is the serum neutralization assay (SNA), which requires long incubation times and highly trained personnel. The standard SNA was modified using an immunocytochemical (ICC) approach, which allows for a more rapid and objective assessment of AdV36 antibodies. Using the ICC assay, virus-infected cells were detected as early as day 1 (D1) and by D5 were detected in 100% of microtiter wells versus 20.3% of wells detected by observing the cytopathic effect. Further, human sera tested with the ICC assay at D5 had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% and 95.7%, respectively, when compared to the standard SNA read at D11. Thus, the ICC assay decreased assay incubation time, provided a more objective and easily interpreted assessment, and had a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in determining serological status. The more rapid and objective ICC method will make large population studies feasible, improve comparability among laboratories, and contribute to understanding the role of AdV36 in obesity.
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- Meeting report: 29th International Conference on Antiviral Research in La Jolla, CA, USA. [Review]
- ARAntiviral Res 2016 Nov 01; 137:23-40
- The 29th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in La Jolla, CA, USA from April 17 to 21, 2016. This report opens with a tribute to the late Chris McGuigan, a Past-President o...
The 29th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in La Jolla, CA, USA from April 17 to 21, 2016. This report opens with a tribute to the late Chris McGuigan, a Past-President of ISAR, then continues with summaries of the principal invited lectures. Doug Richman (Elion Award) investigated HIV resistance, Bob Vince (Holý Award) showed how carbocyclic nucleoside analogs led to abacavir and Jerome Deval (Prusoff Award) explained how his group chose to seek a nucleoside analog to treat RSV. ALS-8176 was active in a human RSV-challenge study and is being evaluated in children. The first keynote address, by Richard H. Scheuermann, reported on the remarkable progress made in viral genomics. The second keynote address, by Heinz Feldmann, gave an overview of Ebola virus disease. There were four mini-symposia, Structural Biology, Diagnostic Technologies, DNA viruses and Zika virus. Diagnostic assays are approaching an ideal aim, a compact instrument, simple to use with any type of sample, no sample preparation and a result within an hour. The diversity of HCMV is far greater than for other herpesviruses, typically, an individual having >20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). During antiviral treatment, there is rapid CMV evolution which is presumed to be due to preferential selection of already present variants rather than by the creation of new variants. A selection of contributor presentations includes oral prodrugs for nucleoside triphosphate analogs, a new method for the synthesis of phosphoramidate prodrugs and the clinical evaluation of brincidofovir for treating transplant recipients with adenovirus infections.