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Adenovirus infections [keywords]
- [Respiratory virus infections in adult patients hospitalized in an internal medicine unit]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Chil 2014 Jun; 142(6):696-701.
Respiratory viral infections (RVi) can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations.To investigate the frequency and clinical manifestations of RVi among adult patients during winter hospitalizations.All patients admitted to the hospital with flu like disease and those with fever or exacerbation of any underlying disease during hospitalization without an evident cause, were prospectively enrolled. A direct immunofluorescence (DIF) of nasopharyngeal aspirate for influenza A (IA) and B, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and metapneumovirus, was performed. Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded.Between May and September 2012, 975 adults were admitted to the Internal Medicine Unit of Puerto Montt Hospital and in 128 (13%) patients, DIF was carried out. DIF was positive in 44 patients (34%) aged 65 ± 20 years, 68.2% females, corresponding to 4.5% of total hospitalizations. Eighty six percent of the latter had at least one co-morbidity, mainly asthma and chronic respiratory diseases in 34.1%, diabetes in 29.5%, cardiac problems in 25% and congestive heart failure in 20.5%. The most common RVi were RSV (n = 21, 48%) and IA (n = 17, 39%). Six patients had a nosocomial RVi. Patients infected with IA had a significantly higher frequency of fever and bronchial hyper reactivity than those infected with RSV. RVi were associated with exacerbation of underlying disease in 62% of cases and pneumonia in 27%. Two patients had a viral pericarditis.RVi are an important cause of adult morbidity and their detection should be routine in adult patients hospitalized during winter.
- Risk factors of prolonged hospital stay in children with viral severe acute respiratory infections. [Journal Article]
- J Infect Dev Ctries 2014; 8(10):1285-93.
Severe acute lower respiratory infections (SARIs) are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in young children, especially in developing countries. The present study focused on detection of risk factors for prolonged hospital stays among children with viral SARIs.A sentinel surveillance study was conducted at Cairo University Hospital (CUH) between February 2010 and May 2011. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from all children admitted with SARIs. Viruses were identified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Out of 1,046 children, 380 (36%) were positive for one or more viruses; these included respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (22.9%), adenovirus (6.2%), parainfluenza viruses (PIVs1-3) (5.1%), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) (4.5%), influenza A (1.4%), and influenza B (0.6%). Viral etiology was mainly detected in children under one year of age (88.9%). Prolonged length of stay was independently associated with the presence of cyanosis and underlying chronic illness (OR 7.4, CI: 1.8-30.32 [p = 0.005], OR 2.5, CI: 1.36-4.64 [p = 0.004], respectively). Virus type did not affect the length of hospital stay (p > 0.05). Oxygen therapy was required in 91% of the patients. A total of 43 patients (11.6%) required intensive care admission. Twenty-one patients (5.5%) died, and 15 of them (71.4%) had an underlying chronic illness.The study demonstrated the important burden of respiratory viruses as a cause of SARI in hospitalized children in a tertiary Egyptian hospital. Cyanosis and underlying chronic illness were significantly associated with prolonged length of stay.
- Accurate identification of neutralizing antibodies to adenovirus Ad36, -a putative contributor of obesity in humans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Diabetes Complications 2014 Sep 16.
In children and adults, human adenovirus serotype 36 (Ad36) is linked with increased adiposity, and important metabolic alterations. Since this property is not shared by many other human adenovirus serotypes, it is imperative to specifically identify exposure to Ad36. Although serum neutralization assay (SNA) is the gold standard to specifically detect neutralizing antibodies (NA) to Ad36, it requires 2-weeks to complete and considerable training to interpret the results. Whereas, an enzyme-immuno assay (EIA) may provide a quicker and objective determination.Evaluate the accuracy of commercially available EIA kits to detect NA to Ad36. Modify SNA to reduce time and increase objectivity.Sera of 15 seropositive or 16 seronegative subjects confirmed by SNA were used to test: 1) reproducibility of SNA to detect Ad36 exposure, by repeating assays twice; 2) an EIA that detects antibodies to all human adenovirus serotypes (NS-EIA) (Abcam-108705); 3) an EIA supposedly specific for Ad36 antibody (Ad36-EIA) (MyBioSource,#MBS705802), and 4) the concordance of SNA with a novel combination of SNA and immune-staining (SN-IS) kit (Cell BioLabs,#VPK-111).The SNA showed exact reproducibility. NS-EIA detected adenovirus antibodies in 94% samples, confirming the non-specificity of the assay for Ad36 serotype. All seronegative samples (as determined by SNA) were false positive by Ad36-EIA. In 97% samples, SN-IS showed fidelity with Ad36-antibody status as determined by SNA.The available EIA kits are not specific for detecting NA to Ad36. The modified SNA with immune-staining reduces assay time and increases accuracy of detecting by reducing subjectivity.
- The IgCAMs CAR, BT-IgSF, and CLMP: structure, function, and diseases. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Adv Neurobiol 2014.:21-45.
The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the prototype of a small subfamily of IgCAMs composed of CAR itself, CLMP, BT-IgSF, ESAM, CTX, and A33. These six proteins are composed of one V-set and one C2-set Ig domains and a single transmembrane helix followed by a cytoplasmic stretch. They are localized in several tissues and organs and--except for ESAM, CTX, and A33--are expressed in the developing brain. CAR becomes downregulated at early postnatal stages and is absent from the adult brain. CAR, CLMP, and BT-IgSF mediate homotypic aggregation. Interestingly, cell adhesion experiments, binding studies, and crystallographic investigations on the extracellular domain reveal a flexible ectodomain for CAR that mediates homophilic and heterophilic binding. CAR has been extensively investigated in the context of gene therapy and diseases, while research on BT-IgSF and CLMP is at an early stage. Several mouse models as well as studies on patient tissues revealed an essential role for CAR in (1) the development of cardiac, renal, lymphatic, and intestinal tissue; (2) muscle pathology, remodeling, and regeneration; (3) tumor genesis/suppression and metastatic progression; and (4) in virus-mediated infections and gene therapy. Although the in vivo function of CAR in the brain has not been solved its developmentally regulated expression pattern in the brain as well as its function as CAM suggests that CAR might be implicated in neuronal network formation.
- Comparison of the FilmArray assay and in-house real-time PCR for detection of respiratory infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Infect Dis 2014 Oct 7.:1-5.
Recently, molecular methods capable of detecting almost all microbial agents that may cause acute respiratory infection have been introduced. The FilmArray Respiratory Panel assay, which integrates nucleic acid extraction, nested amplification and detection in a reaction pouch preloaded with all reagents required for detection of 17 viruses and 3 bacteria, was compared with an in-house real-time PCR that detects these agents in 8 parallel amplifications. When 128 clinical samples representing 18 of these agents were analysed by both assays the agreement was excellent, with kappa values ranging between 0.54 and 1.0. Discordances were mainly observed for adenovirus, but not when version 1.7 of FilmArray was used. The results show that these assays detect a wide range of pathogens with similar performance. FilmArray provides results after approximately 1 h, including ≈ 5 min hands-on time, and does not require advanced equipment or expertise in molecular diagnostics, making it a useful point-of-care-test for acute respiratory infections.
- [Analysis of epidemiological and clinical features of adenovirus infection in 80 children with acute respiratory tract infection]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Bing Du Xue Bao 2014 Jul; 30(4):408-11.
By analyzing the epidemiological and clinical features of adenovirus in children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI), we provide a theoretical basis for early clinical diagnosis and treatment. Nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from 3480 children with ARTI, who were hospitalized at the No. 2 Hospital of Changzhou from January 2011 to December 2012. Adenovirus were detected using direct immunofluorescence assays. A total of 80 samples were positive for adenovirus (2.30%). The rate of adenovirus infection during 2011 was significantly higher than that in 2012, and the infection rate was higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. The infection rate was 1.14% among children aged < 1-year-old and the rates were higher among children in other age ranges. Adenovirus was found to be an important ARTI pathogen in children in Changzhou, mainly affecting children older than 1 year. ADV infections have various clinical presentations, but affected children tend to be severely ill with poor outcomes.
- [Detection of respiratory viruses in influenza-like illness in Shijiazhuang, China in 2011]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Bing Du Xue Bao 2014 Jul; 30(4):391-5.
This study aimed to investigate viral infections and the prevalence of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Shijiazhuang, China, in 2011 and to provide a scientific basis for the diagnosis and control of respiratory tract infections. Throat swab specimens were collected from 483 cases of ILI who were outpatients in the influenza surveillance sentinel hospitals in Shijiazhuang between January and December 2011. All specimens were examined by multiplex RT-PCR for the following 15 respiratory tract viruses: adenovirus (ADV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human parainfluenza virus (PIV types 1-4), influenza virus A (FluA), influenza virus B (FluB), human enterovirus (HEV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-A and -B), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV-229E/NL63 and -OC43/HKU1), and human bocavirus (HBoV). Among the 483 cases of ILI, 214 (44.31%) were positive for viruses, including ADV (8.7%), HEV (8.7%), RSV-A (8.07%), HRV (7.45%), FluA (5.38%), HCoV-OC43/ HKU1 (2.9%), PIV-3 (2.9%), HMPV (1.86%), PIV-1 (1.24%), HCoV-229E/NL63 (1.04%), PIV-2 (1.04%), HBoV (0.83%), and FluB (0.41%). Twenty-six (5.38%) of all cases were co-infected with two or more viruses, most commonly HEV/HRV with other viruses. Cases of viral infection were detected throughout the year, with peaks in January and February. ADV and HRV were detected throughout almost the whole year without obvious seasonality. HEV was detected between April and November, with a peak of prevalence in summer and autumn. FluA and FluB reached epidemic levels mainly in winter and spring. All cases of RSV were identified to be subtype A. PIV infection was mainly caused by PIV-3. The positive rate of HCoV-OC43/HKU1 infection was significantly higher than that of HCoV-229E/NL63. The leading five viruses that resulted in ILI Shijiazhuang in 2011 were HEV, ADV, RSV-A, HRV, and FluA, and these viruses have different epidemiological features.
- The sweet spot: defining virus-sialic acid interactions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Microbiol 2014 Sep 29.
Viral infections are initiated by attachment of the virus to host cell surface receptors, including sialic acid-containing glycans. It is now possible to rapidly identify specific glycan receptors using glycan array screening, to define atomic-level structures of virus-glycan complexes and to alter the glycan-binding site to determine the function of glycan engagement in viral disease. This Review highlights general principles of virus-glycan interactions and provides specific examples of sialic acid binding by viruses with stalk-like attachment proteins, including influenza virus, reovirus, adenovirus and rotavirus. Understanding virus-glycan interactions is essential to combating viral infections and designing improved viral vectors for therapeutic applications.
- Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans in children: a review of 42 cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Pediatr 2014 Sep 25; 14(1):238.
This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, radiological features and outcomes of 42 children with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO).Forty-two children diagnosed with PIBO were prospectively studied at the First Hospital of Jilin University in northern China between January, 2008 and January, 2013. Their clinical characteristics, lung high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings and pulmonary function tests were reported.In children with PIBO, adenovirus was the most common etiologic agent (21/42), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae). All of the patients presented with repeated wheezing and tachypnea. In addition, 22 patients required intensive management, while six patients required home oxygen therapy. HRCT findings were consistent with the PIBO diagnosis in all of the patients. Pulmonary function testing was useful in evaluating therapeutic responses. Systemic steroids combined with azithromycin were effective for PIBO treatment.Severe adenovirus bronchiolitis and M. pneumoniae infections have a higher risk of development for PIBO. HRCT and pulmonary function testing are useful in the diagnosis of PIBO. The degree of airway obstruction did not differ significantly between adenovirus and M. pneumoniae. A combination of steroids and azithromycin offers some benefit in treating these patients.
- Viral infection in placenta relevant cells - a morphological and immunohistochemical cell culture study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- APMIS 2014 Sep 22.
Viral infections in pregnancy are known to cause fetal malformation, growth restriction, and even fetal death. Macroscopic placental examination usually shows slight and unspecific changes. Histology may show secondary, non-specific tissue reaction, i.e. villitis with lymphocytic invasion. Primary specific morphology characteristics are known for some virus, like cytomegalovirus, parvovirus, and herpes simplex, however many viral infections show non-specific changes. Placenta relevant cells as human first trimester trophoblasts HTR8/SVneo, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and primary human embryonic fibroblasts were examined following infection with commonly occurring virus like adenovirus and enterovirus. Morphology in routine stained sections and virus-specific immunostains were studied 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 h after infection. Nuclear enlargement was seen in the infected cells. A specific diagnosis of adenovirus or enterovirus infection, however, was not possible without specific immunostains.