- Detection of viruses in weekly stool specimens collected during the first 2-years of life: A pilot study of five healthy Australian infants in the rotavirus vaccine era. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Virol 2016 Oct 21
- Several viruses are associated with gastroenteritis in infants. This pilot study, nested within a larger community-based project of early childhood infections, collected daily symptom data and 511 we...
Several viruses are associated with gastroenteritis in infants. This pilot study, nested within a larger community-based project of early childhood infections, collected daily symptom data and 511 weekly stool samples from five healthy, fully-vaccinated, term infants from birth until their second birthday. Real-time PCR assays were used to detect six enteric viruses. Frequent, silent shedding of one or more of the six viruses was observed, particularly involving adenovirus where shedding could be for up to 3-months without gastrointestinal symptoms. These pilot data demonstrate that a positive PCR result for enteric viruses may not always indicate the cause of childhood gastroenteritis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Severe Pneumonia Associated with Adenovirus Type 55 Infection, France, 2014. [Letter]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2016; 22(11):2012-2014
- A study of vaccine-induced immune pressure on breakthrough infections in the Phambili phase 2b HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2016 Oct 15
- CONCLUSIONS: This study presents evidence of sieve effects in Gag and Nef; however could not confirm effects on specific amino acid sites. We propose that this weaker signal of vaccine immune pressure detected in the Phambili study compared to the Step study may have been influenced by differences in host genetics (HLA allele frequency) and reduced impact of vaccine-induced immune responses due to mismatch between the viral subtype in the vaccine and infecting subtypes.
- Fatal systemic adenoviral infection superimposed on pulmonary mucormycosis in a child with acute leukemia: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95(40):e5054
- CONCLUSIONS: ADV may cause severe infections not only in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, but also in patients undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia. The risk factors for severe ADV infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy should be determined in the future studies, and early antiviral therapy should be administered to immune compromised patients with systemic ADV infection.
- Immunohistochemistry Improves the Detection of Adenovirus in Gastrointestinal Biopsy Specimens From Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Clin Pathol 2016 Oct 15
- CONCLUSIONS: In HSCT recipients, cytopathic changes of adenovirus may be easily missed in H&E-stained sections of gastrointestinal biopsy specimens. Thus, the routine use of adenovirus immunohistochemistry in all cases is recommended. Both cases of CMV infection were apparent on H&E evaluation, so the judicious use of immunohistochemical stains for CMV in selected cases may be considered.
- Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation to prevent acute respiratory infections in infancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh (MDARI trial): protocol for a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016 Oct 13; 16(1):309
- CONCLUSIONS: If shown to reduce the risk of viral ARI in infancy, integration of maternal prenatal/postpartum vitamin D supplementation into antenatal care programs in South Asia may be a feasible primary preventive strategy to reduce the burden of ARI-associated morbidity and mortality in young infants.
- The ubiquity of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in the tonsils and adenoids of children and their impact on airway obstruction. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2016; 90:128-132
- CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic viral infections are common and directly related to the degree of airway obstruction significantly more often in adenoids than tonsils.
- Adenovirus. [Journal Article]
- MSMicrobiol Spectr 2016; 4(4)
- Adenoviruses are a highly prevalent infection that can cause a range of clinical syndromes in immunocompromised patients, ranging from localized disease of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tra...
Adenoviruses are a highly prevalent infection that can cause a range of clinical syndromes in immunocompromised patients, ranging from localized disease of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or urinary tract to disseminated disease. Adenovirus infections may develop in this unique population as the result of primary infection or reactivation of latent virus. Disease can be potentially progressive with high rates of mortality in patients with pneumonia and disseminated disease. Fortunately, cidofovir and its lipid ester, brincidofovir, appear to be effective for the treatment of adenovirus, although neither is specifically approved for this indication. Adenovirus should always be considered when immunocompromised patients present with any clinical syndrome that could be compatible with adenoviral infection. Once disease is suspected, cultures or molecular testing of appropriate specimens should be obtained and blood should be sent for adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) whenever adenovirus is suspected. Monitoring of quantitative viral loads in blood is helpful in predicting response to therapy with a significant drop (>1 log) associated with a higher probability of clinical response.
- Prevalence and Risk Factors of Respiratory Viral Infections in Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. [Journal Article]
- TJTohoku J Exp Med 2016; 240(2):131-139
- Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lead to high morbidity and mortality. Respiratory virus infection is considered as one of the important causes of COPD exacerbations. The...
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lead to high morbidity and mortality. Respiratory virus infection is considered as one of the important causes of COPD exacerbations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory virus infection in COPD exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Furthermore, we tried to examine if COPD exacerbations caused by viral infections have more severe clinical outcomes in comparison with those with non-viral causes. We enrolled the patients with acute exacerbations of COPD who were hospitalized in a university hospital, over a 2-year period. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and viruses were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. A total of 278 episodes of COPD exacerbations were recorded in 213 patients with COPD (number of females = 73). Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 78 episodes (28.1%) from 67 subjects. The most common virus was rhinovirus (38.8%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, influenza A, parainfluenza, adenovirus and metapneumovirus. In multivariate regression analysis adjusting for sex, age, BMI, lung function and history of exacerbations, female subjects were found to be significantly associated with viral infections in COPD exacerbations (Odds ratio 2.58, 95%CI 1.25-5.31, P = 0.010). The severity of COPD exacerbations were not different between positive and negative viral detections. In conclusion, the prevalence of viral infection was 28.1% in the hospitalized patients with COPD exacerbations. Moreover, female subjects are at significantly higher risk for viral infections in COPD exacerbations.
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- Activity of Ingavirin (6-[2-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)ethylamino]-5-oxo-hexanoic Acid) Against Human Respiratory Viruses in in Vivo Experiments. [Journal Article]
- PPharmaceuticals (Basel) 2011 Nov 25; 4(12):1518-1534
- Respiratory viral infections constitute the most frequent reason for medical consultations in the World. They can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from self-limited ...
Respiratory viral infections constitute the most frequent reason for medical consultations in the World. They can be associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from self-limited upper respiratory tract infections to more devastating conditions such as pneumonia. In particular, in serious cases influenza A leads to pneumonia, which is particularly fatal in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, obesity, young children and the elderly. In the present study, we show a protective effect of the low-molecular weight compound Ingavirin (6-[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylamino]-5-oxohexanoic acid) against influenza A (H1N1) virus, human parainfluenza virus and human adenovirus infections in animals. Mortality, weight loss, infectious titer of the virus in tissues and tissue morphology were monitored in the experimental groups of animals. The protective action of Ingavirin was observed as a reduction of infectious titer of the virus in the lung tissue, prolongation of the life of the infected animals, normalization of weight dynamics throughout the course of the disease, lowering of mortality of treated animals compared to a placebo control and normalization of tissue structure. In case of influenza virus infection, the protective activity of Ingavirin was similar to that of the reference compound Tamiflu. Based on the results obtained, Ingavirin should be considered as an important part of anti-viral prophylaxis and therapy.