Adenovirus infections [keywords]
- Reassuringly low carriage of enteropathogens among healthy Swedish children in day care centres. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Public Health 2016 Aug 12.
Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and has a considerable impact on health and socio-economy. Day care centres are high-risk environments for infections. The aim of this study was to investigate if asymptomatic preschool children constitute a reservoir for potential enteropathogens.In total, 438 individual diapers were collected from day care centres in Uppsala, Sweden, during spring and autumn, and molecular techniques were used to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage of multiple enteropathogens.Faecal samples were analysed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (xTAG(®) Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel; Luminex Corporation, Toronto, Canada) targeting 21 different pathogens. Samples with a median fluorescence intensity above threshold were re-analysed with a second PCR assay.Sixteen of the 438 samples were positive for enteropathogens, 1.6% for enteric adenovirus, 0.7% for Campylobacter spp., and 0.7% for norovirus.Preschool children in Uppsala constitute a limited reservoir for potential enteropathogens.
- Regulation of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor Expression is Dependent on CFTR in Airway Epithelial Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Microbiol 2016 Aug 16.
The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), in addition to serving as viral receptor, is a component of tight junctions and plays an important role in tissue homeostasis. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in lung epithelial cells are linked to inflammation and susceptibility for respiratory tract infections. Here we demonstrate that CAR expression and infectivity with adenovirus (Ad) are increased in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells. Inhibition of CFTR or histone deacetylase (HDAC) enhanced CAR expression while CFTR overexpression or restoration of the diminished HDAC activity in CF cells reduced CAR expression. This connects the CFTR to CAR expression and infectivity with Ad through HDAC.
- Detection of respiratory viruses in shelter dogs maintained under varying environmental conditions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Braz J Microbiol 2016 Jul 19.
Three dog shelters in Rio Grande do Sul were investigated for associations between the occurrence of respiratory viruses and shelter environmental conditions. Nasal secretions randomly collected during the cold season were tested via PCR, and this data collection was followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons. In shelter #1 (poor sanitary and nutritional conditions, high animal density and constant contact between dogs), 78% (58/74) of the nasal samples were positive, 35% (26/74) of which were in single infections and 44% (32/74) of which were in coinfections. Shelters #2 and #3 had satisfactory sanitary and nutritional conditions, outdoors exercise areas (#2) and animal clustering by groups (#3). In shelter #2, 9% (3/35) of the samples were positive for Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and 6% (2/35) were positive for Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1). In shelter #3, 9% (7/77) of the samples were positive for Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2), and 1% (1/77) were positive for Canine distemper virus (CDV). The amplicon sequences (CPIV and CDV nucleoprotein gene; CAdV-2 E3 gene; CaHV-1 glycoprotein B gene) showed 94-100% nucleotide identity with GenBank sequences. Our results demonstrate that CPIV, CAdV-2 and CDV are common in dog shelters and that their frequencies appear to be related with environmental and nutritional conditions. These results indicate the need for control/prevention measures, including vaccination and environmental management, to minimize these infections and improve dog health.
- Human cytomegalovirus infection downregulates vitamin-D receptor in mammalian cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2016 Aug 9.
Vitamin D (VD) is essential for the human body and involved in a wide variety of critical physiological processes including bone, muscle, and cardiovascular health, as well as innate immunity and antimicrobial responses. Here, we elucidated the significance of the VD system in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, which is one of the most common opportunistic infections in immunocompromised or -suppressed patients. We found that expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was downregulated in CMV-infected cells within 12h [hrs] post infection [p.i.] to 12% relative to VDR expression in mock-infected fibroblasts and did not recover during the CMV replication cycle of 96h. None of the biologically active metabolites of VD, cholecalciferol, calcidiol, or calcitriol, inhibit CMV replication significantly in human fibroblasts. In a feedback loop, expression of CYP24A1 dropped to 3% by 12h p.i. and expression of CYP27B1 increased gradually during the replication cycle of CMV to 970% probably as a consequence of VDR inhibition. VDR expression was not downregulated during influenza virus or adenovirus replication. The potent synthetic vitamin D analog EB-1089 was not able to inhibit CMV replication or antagonize its effect on VDR expression. Only CMV replication, and none of the other viral pathogens evaluated, inhibited the vitamin D system in vitro. In view of the pleiotropism of VDR, CMV-mediated downregulation may have far-reaching virological, immunological, and clinical implications and thus warrant further evaluations in vitro and in vivo.
- Respiratory Viral Infections and Coinfections in Children With Cancer, Fever and Neutropenia: Clinical Outcome of Infections Caused by Different Respiratory Viruses. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Sep; 35(9):949-54.
Respiratory viral infections in episodes of fever and neutropenia (FN) in children with cancer are not well characterized. We compared the clinical outcome of infections caused by different respiratory viruses (RVs) and by RV coinfection in this population.Children with cancer and FN at 3 hospitals in Chile were prospectively evaluated by clinical examination, blood cultures and detection of 17 RVs using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (nasopharyngeal samples). Clinical characterization and outcome variables were determined and compared by the type of RV detected.A total of 1044 episodes of FN in 525 children were included. At least 1 RV was detected in 46%. In 350 of 1044 (34%) episodes, we detected only RVs, of which 284 (81%) were classified as a single-RV infection and 66 (19%) as a viral coinfection. Respiratory symptoms were present at admission in 65% of the episodes with any detected RV. Median age was 6 years (interquartile range, 3-10), and 51% were women. The most common RVs detected were rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, influenza, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus. Episodes caused by different types of RVs had no differences in the clinical outcome (days of hospitalization, days of fever, O2 requirement, admission to the intensive care unit and death) and when comparing single and viral coinfection.To our knowledge, this is the largest report comparing clinical outcome in FN episodes caused by different RVs in children with cancer. A positive polymerase chain reaction for RV at admission was significantly associated with the presence of respiratory symptoms. Our data showed a favorable outcome in all episodes with RV detection, including single and viral coinfections.
- The use of brincidofovir for the treatment of mixed dsDNA viral infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Virol 2016 Aug 4.:1-4.
Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral infections constitute a major complication following solid organ and stem cell transplantation. Few therapeutic options are currently available for the treatment of such infections in highly immunocompromised hosts. Brincidofovir is an oral investigational drug with broad antiviral activity against dsDNA viruses in vitro, but clinical experience is limited. Here we report a young female who developed a mixed infection with adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and BK polyomavirus after an allogeneic stem cell transplant, and was successfully treated with brincidofovir.
- Adenovirus: Epidemiology, Global Spread of Novel Serotypes, and Advances in Treatment and Prevention. [Journal Article]
- Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2016 Aug; 37(4):586-602.
Adenoviruses (AdVs) are DNA viruses that typically cause mild infections involving the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or conjunctiva. Rare manifestations of AdV infections include hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, hemorrhagic colitis, pancreatitis, nephritis, or meningoencephalitis. AdV infections are more common in young children, due to lack of humoral immunity. Epidemics of AdV infection may occur in healthy children or adults in closed or crowded settings (particularly military recruits). The disease is more severe and dissemination is more likely in patients with impaired immunity (e.g., organ transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus infection). Fatality rates for untreated severe AdV pneumonia or disseminated disease may exceed 50%. More than 50 serotypes of AdV have been identified. Different serotypes display different tissue tropisms that correlate with clinical manifestations of infection. The predominant serotypes circulating at a given time differ among countries or regions, and change over time. Transmission of novel strains between countries or across continents and replacement of dominant viruses by new strains may occur. Treatment of AdV infections is controversial, as prospective, randomized therapeutic trials have not been conducted. Cidofovir is the drug of choice for severe AdV infections, but not all patients require treatment. Live oral vaccines are highly efficacious in reducing the risk of respiratory AdV infection and are in routine use in the military in the United States, but currently are not available to civilians.
- Brincidofovir clearance of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus-1 and adenovirus infection after stem cell transplantation. [CASE REPORTS]
- Transpl Infect Dis 2016 Aug 2.
Infections with adenovirus (AdV) and herpesviruses can result in considerable morbidity and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivations are usually prevented by acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, whereas cidofovir (CDV) has been used off indication to manage AdV infections. We report a child with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing multiple SCT, who experienced HSV-1 disease including severe mucositis and herpetic whitlow, as well as high viral load AdV DNAemia. Both ACV and CDV were ineffective; however, viral loads were decreased with brincidofovir, resulting in viral clearance. A subsequent Epstein-Barr virus disease with relevant meningoencephalitis responded to rituximab. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Safety evaluation of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine live, oral in military recruits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vaccine 2016 Jul 27.
Before the widespread adoption of vaccination, adenovirus type 4 and type 7 were long associated with respiratory illnesses among military recruits. When supplies were depleted and vaccination was suspended in 1999 for approximately a decade, respiratory illnesses due to adenovirus infections resurged. In March 2011, a new live, oral adenovirus vaccine was licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration and was first universally administered to military recruits in October 2011, leading to rapid, dramatic elimination of the disease within a few months. As part of licensure, a postmarketing study (Sentinel Surveillance Plan) was performed to detect potential safety signals within 42days after immunization of military recruits. This study retrospectively evaluated possible adverse events related to vaccination using data from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) database. Among 100,000 recruits who received the adenovirus vaccine, no statistically significant greater risk of prespecified medical events was observed within 42days after vaccination when compared with a historical cohort of 100,000 unvaccinated recruits. In an initial statistical analysis of International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, a statistically significant higher risk for 19 other (not prespecified) medical events occurring in 5 or more recruits was observed among vaccinated compared with unvaccinated groups. After case record data abstraction for attribution and validation, two events (psoriasis [21 vs 7 cases] and serum reactions [12 vs 4 cases]) occurred more frequently in the vaccinated cohort. A causal relation of these rare events with adenovirus vaccination could not be established given confounding factors in the DMSS, such as coadministration of other vaccines and incomplete or inaccurate medical information, for some recruits. Prospective surveillance assessing these uncommon, but potentially relevant, immune-related symptoms may be beneficial in defining potential causal association with adenovirus vaccination.
- Incidence and etiology of hospitalized acute respiratory infections in the Egyptian Delta. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 Jul 26.
Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are responsible for nearly two million childhood deaths worldwide. A limited number of studies have been published on the epidemiology of viral respiratory pathogens in Egypt.A total of 6113 hospitalized patients >1 month of age with suspected ARI were enrolled between June 23, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Naso- and oropharyngeal specimens were collected and tested for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses 1-3. Blood specimens from children 1-11 months were cultured and bacterial growth was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Results from a healthcare utilization survey on the proportion of persons seeking care for ARI was used to calculate adjusted ARI incidence rates in the surveillance population.The proportion of patients with a viral pathogen detected decreased with age from 67% in patients age 1-11 months to 19% in patients ≥65 years of age. Influenza was the dominant viral pathogen detected in patients ≥1 year of age (13.9%). The highest incidence rates for hospitalized ARI were observed in children 1-11 months (1757.9-5537.5/100 000 population) and RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in this age group.In this study population, influenza is the largest viral contributor to hospitalized ARIs and children 1-11 months of age experience a high rate of ARI hospitalizations. This study highlights a need for surveillance of additional viral pathogens and alternative detection methods for bacterial pathogens, which may reveal a substantial proportion of as yet unidentified etiologies in adults.