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Adenovirus infections [keywords]
- Viral respiratory infections among Hajj pilgrims in 2013. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virol Sin 2014 Nov 14.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged in the Arabian Gulf region, with its epicentre in Saudi Arabia, the host of the 'Hajj' which is the world's the largest mass gathering. Transmission of MERS-CoV at such an event could lead to its rapid worldwide dissemination. Therefore, we studied the frequency of viruses causing influenza-like illnesses (ILI) among participants in a randomised controlled trial at the Hajj 2013. We recruited 1038 pilgrims from Saudi Arabia, Australia and Qatar during the first day of Hajj and followed them closely for four days. A nasal swab was collected from each pilgrim who developed ILI. Respiratory viruses were detected using multiplex RT-PCR. ILI occurred in 112/1038 (11%) pilgrims. Their mean age was 35 years, 49 (44%) were male and 35 (31%) had received the influenza vaccine pre-Hajj. Forty two (38%) pilgrims had laboratory-confirmed viral infections; 28 (25%) rhinovirus, 5 (4%) influenza A, 2 (2%) adenovirus, 2 (2%) human coronavirus OC43/229E, 2 (2%) parainfluenza virus 3, 1 (1%) parainfluenza virus 1, and 2 (2%) dual infections. No MERS-CoV was detected in any sample. Rhinovirus was the commonest cause of ILI among Hajj pilgrims in 2013. Infection control and appropriate vaccination are necessary to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses at Hajj and other mass gatherings.
- Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Nov; 8(11):e3335.
Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests can be difficult. This study aimed to identify viral etiologies as a cause of fever in children and their co-infections with malaria.A cross sectional study was conducted for 6 months at Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania. The participants were febrile children aged 2-13 years presented at the outpatient department. Diagnostic tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and PCR were used.A total of 364 patients were enrolled, of these 83(22.8%) had malaria parasites, 76 (20.9%) had presumptive acute dengue infection and among those, 29(38.2%) were confirmed cases. Dengue was more likely to occur in children ≥ 5 years than in <5 years (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35-3.86). Presumptive acute Chikungunya infection was identified in 17(4.7%) of patients. We observed no presenting symptoms that distinguished patients with Chikungunya infection from those with dengue infection or malaria. Co-infections between malaria and Chikungunya, malaria and dengue fever as well as Chikungunya and dengue were detected. Most patients with Chikungunya and dengue infections were treated with antibacterials. Furthermore, our results revealed that 5(5.2%) of patients had influenza virus while 5(12.8%) had rotavirus and 2(5.1%) had adenovirus.Our results suggest that even though viral diseases are a major public health concern, they are not given due recognition as a cause of fever in febrile patients. Emphasis on laboratory diagnostic tests for proper diagnosis and management of febrile patients is recommended.
- Associations between Co-Detected Respiratory Viruses in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Jpn J Infect Dis 2014; 67(6):469-475.
Viruses are the major etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in young children. Although respiratory virus co-detections are common, analysis of combinations of co-detected viruses has never been conducted in Japan. Nineteen respiratory viruses or subtypes were surveyed using multiplex real-time PCR on 1,044 pediatric (patient age < 6 years) ARI specimens collected in Osaka City, Japan between January 2010 and December 2011. In total, 891 specimens (85.3%) were virus positive (1,414 viruses were detected), and 388 of the virus-positive specimens (43.5%, 388/891) were positive for multiple viruses. The ratio of multiple/total respiratory virus-positive specimens was high in children aged 0-35 months. Statistical analyses revealed that human bocavirus 1 and human adenovirus were synchronously co-detected. On the other hand, co-detections of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV-1) with HPIV-3, HPIV-3 with human metapneumovirus (hMPV), hMPV with respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), hMPV with influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009 (FLUA (H1N1) 2009), RSV A with RSV B, and human rhinovirus and FLUA (H1N1) 2009 were exclusive. These results suggest that young children (<3 years) are highly susceptible to respiratory viruses, and some combinations of viruses are synchronously or exclusively co-detected.
- Evaluation of viruses and their association with ocular lesions in pinnipeds in rehabilitation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Ophthalmol 2014 Nov 17.
To assess whether corneal lesions in stranded pinnipeds were associated with viral infections, and to identify the potential pathogen(s) associated with the lesions.Twenty-nine California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 18 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and 34 Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsii).DNA and RNA were extracted from ocular swabs, corneal tissue, and aqueous humor and screened for herpesvirus, adenovirus, poxvirus, and calicivirus families by PCR.The results indicated a high overall prevalence of viruses, with adenoviruses and herpesviruses detected in all three host species. Three novel adenoviruses (PhAdV-1, PhAdV-2, OtAdV-2) and two novel herpesviruses (PhHV-6, OtHV-4) were detected. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of viral infection or coinfection among groups of individuals with or without corneal lesions, nor were lesion type, onset, or presence of concurrent disease significantly associated with a viral infection.The results suggested that viral presence in ocular tissues was common, not significantly associated with ocular disease and thus should not preclude release of an otherwise healthy animal. We could not confirm a correlation of virus presence with lesion due to the high percentage of virus-positive, clinically normal animals. This implied that seals and sea lions can have ocular tissues infected with several viruses without having readily evident associated lesions. This difficulty in correlating viral presence, particularly herpesviruses, with ocular lesions was also a common finding in studies with terrestrial species and highlighted the difficulty of confirming a virus as a primary pathogen in ocular lesions.
- Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children in southwestern Saudi Arabia using multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. [Journal Article]
- Saudi Med J 2014 Nov; 35(11):1348-53.
To investigate 15 respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) using multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and to analyze the clinical and epidemiological features of these viruses.In a cross-sectional study, 135 children, ≤5 years of age who presented with ARTIs in Najran Maternity and Children Hospital, Najran, Saudi Arabia between October 2012 and July 2013 were included. The clinical and sociodemographic data, and the laboratory results were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Two nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from each child: one for bacteriological examination, and the second for viral detection using multiplex RT-PCR.A single viral pathogen was detected in 76 patients, viral coinfections in 9, and mixed viral and bacterial pathogens in 15. Respiratory syncytial virus was isolated in 33 patients, human rhinovirus (hRV) in 22, adenovirus (AdV) in 19, human metapneumovirus in 13, influenza virus in 10, parainfluenza virus in 7, human corona virus (hCoV) in 4, and human bocavirus in one.Respiratory syncytial virus, hRV, and AdV were the most frequent viruses, accounting for more than two-thirds of the cases. Other viruses, such as MPV, hCoV NL63, and hCoV OC43, may play a role in pediatric ARTIs. Of significance is the potential use of multiplex RT-PCR to provide epidemiological and virological data for early detection of the emergence of novel respiratory viruses in the era of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
- Pulmonary function of a paediatric cohort of patients with postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans. A long term follow-up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2014 Nov 11.
Postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic respiratory disease that usually follows a severe adenovirus infection.To determine the evolution of pulmonary function and clinical outcome of children with postinfectious BO during childhood.The study included patients diagnosed with postinfectious BO in whom at least two spirometries were performed within a minimum interval of 3 months.46 met the inclusion criteria. The mean (±SD) follow-up period was 12.5 (±3.5) years. 197 spirometries and 41 plethysmographies were performed. Initial (9±3 years old) lung function was as follows (z score, mean±SD): forced vital capacity (FVC) -3.8±1; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) -4.4±1; FEV1/FVC -2.2±1; forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75 -3.7±1; total lung capacity (TLC) 120±26%; residual volume (RV) 309±108%; and RV/TLC 55±13. During childhood, FVC and FEV1 increased by a mean of 11%/year (95% CI 9.3% to 12.6%; p<0.0001) and 9%/year (95% CI 7.7% to 10.2%; p<0.0001), and the FEV1/FVC ratio decreased by 1.9%/year (95% CI 1% to 2.8; p<0.001). The z score for FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC decreased by 0.07 z score/year (95% CI 0.1 to 0.01; p<0.05), 0.09 z score/year (95% CI 0.1 to 0.05; p<0.01) and 0.04 z score/year (95% CI 0.09 to 0.001; p<0.02), respectively. During the follow-up period, 69% of patients required at least one hospital readmission and five required mechanical ventilation. Nine patients developed a thoracic deformity, and seven whose bronchiectasis did not respond to clinical treatment underwent a lobectomy.After a 12 year follow-up period, pulmonary function remained severely impaired, showing an obstructive pattern with air trapping that slowly improved during childhood. An unequal growth of lung parenchyma over the airways suggests dysinaptic growth. Patients required frequent readmission due to recurrent respiratory infections, and hypoxaemia improved slowly over time.
- Virus profile in children with acute respiratory infections with various severities in Beijing, China. [Journal Article]
- Chin Med J (Engl) 2014 Nov; 127(21):3706-11.
Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children globally. This study aimed to determine the virus profile in children with ARI presenting with different severities.Clinical specimens collected from children with ARI in Beijing from September 2010 to March 2011 were investigated for 18 respiratory viruses using an xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Fast (RVP Fast) assay. The Pearson chi-square analysis was used to identify statistical significance.Of 270 cases from three groups of ARI patients, including Out-patients, In-patients and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), viruses were detected in 176 (65.2%) specimens with the RVP Fast assay. The viral detection rate from the Out-patients group (50.0%) was significantly lower than that from the In-patients (71.1%) and ICU-patients (74.4%) groups. The virus distribution was different between the Out-patients group and the other hospitalized groups, while the virus detection rate and distribution characteristics were similar between the In-patients and ICU-patients groups. The co-infection rates of the Out-patients group, the In-patients group, and the ICU-patients group were 15.6%, 50.0% and 35.8%, respectively. In addition to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus (ADV), human rhinovirus (HRV) was frequently detected from children with serious illnesses, followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV), human bocavirus (HBoV) and coronaviruses. Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) was detected in children with lower respiratory illness, but rarely from those with serious illnesses in the ICU-patient group.In addition to so-called common respiratory viruses, virus detection in children with ARI should include those thought to be uncommon respiratory viruses, especially when there are severe ARI-related clinical illnesses.
- Incidence of Adenoviral DNAemia in Polish Adults Undergoing Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2014 Nov 7.
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are important viral pathogens recognized increasingly in immunocompromised hosts, especially in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (alloHSCT). The clinical spectrum of HAdV disease ranges from asymptomatic viraemia and mild self-limiting disease to lower respiratory tract infection, multi-organ involvement and even death. Early detection and quantification of HAdV in peripheral blood using real-time PCR (qPCR) assay has been suggested as a useful monitoring tool, but is seldom used for regular surveillance of HAdV in haematology centers. A group of 112 alloHSCT recipients from two hospitals in Warsaw (Poland) was examined in the early post-transplant period using a quantitative qPCR assay. A total of 1,245 serum samples were evaluated for presence of HAdV DNA in patients where 66 (59 %) patients received grafts from unrelated donors whereas the other 46 (41 %) from sibling donors. HAdV sequences were detected in 64 (57 %) of the 112 patients. In 22 of all patients (20 %) HAdV DNA was detected only in a single positive sample, while 42 (37 %) had positive results in two or more subsequent sera. In total, DNAemia was present in 202 sera samples (16 %) with median time to observation of 47 days. Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was observed in 18 (28 %) adenovirus-infected transplant recipients and a significant correlation between HAdV infections and GvHD clinical presentation was found (p = 0.018). There is a high prevalence of HAdV infections in HSCT recipients in Poland during early post-transplant period. In consequence, we could only speculate if HAdV DNAemia could be also related to GvHD symptoms, enforcing the important pathogenic role of these viral infections in clinical complications post-alloHSCT.
- β-Amyloid peptides display protective activity against the human Alzheimer's disease-associated herpes simplex virus-1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biogerontology 2014 Nov 7.
Amyloid plaques, the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), contain fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and found to co-localize within amyloid plaques. Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 display anti-bacterial, anti-yeast and anti-viral activities. Here, fibroblast, epithelial and neuronal cell lines were exposed to Aβ 1-40 or Aβ 1-42 and challenged with HSV-1. Quantitative analysis revealed that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 inhibited HSV-1 replication when added 2 h prior to or concomitantly with virus challenge, but not when added 2 or 6 h after virus addition. In contrast, Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 did not prevent replication of the non-enveloped human adenovirus. In comparison, antimicrobial peptide LL-37 prevented HSV-1 infection independently of its sequence of addition. Our findings showed also that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 acted directly on HSV-1 in a cell-free system and prevented viral entry into cells. The sequence homology between Aβ and a proximal transmembrane region of HSV-1 glycoprotein B suggested that Aβ interference with HSV-1 replication could involve its insertion into the HSV-1 envelope. Our data suggest that Aβ peptides represent a novel class of antimicrobial peptides that protect against neurotropic enveloped virus infections such as HSV-1. Overproduction of Aβ peptide to protect against latent herpes viruses and eventually against other infections, may contribute to amyloid plaque formation, and partially explain why brain infections play a pathogenic role in the progression of the sporadic form of AD.
- Viral etiology of respiratory tract infections in children at the pediatric hospital in ouagadougou (burkina faso). [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e110435.
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in Africa. The circulation of viruses classically implicated in ARIs is poorly known in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to identify the respiratory viruses present in children admitted to or consulting at the pediatric hospital in Ouagadougou.From July 2010 to July 2011, we tested nasal aspirates of 209 children with upper or lower respiratory infection for main respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3, influenza A, B and C, rhinovirus/enterovirus), by immunofluorescence locally in Ouagadougou, and by PCR in France. Bacteria have also been investigated in 97 samples.153 children (73.2%) carried at least one virus and 175 viruses were detected. Rhinoviruses/enteroviruses were most frequently detected (rhinovirus n = 88; enterovirus n = 38) and were found to circulate throughout the year. An epidemic of RSV infections (n = 25) was identified in September/October, followed by an epidemic of influenza virus (n = 13), mostly H1N1pdm09. This epidemic occurred during the period of the year in which nighttime temperatures and humidity were at their lowest. Other viruses tested were detected only sporadically. Twenty-two viral co-infections were observed. Bacteria were detected in 29/97 samples with 22 viral/bacterial co-infections.This study, the first of its type in Burkina Faso, warrants further investigation to confirm the seasonality of RSV infection and to improve local diagnosis of influenza. The long-term objective is to optimize therapeutic management of infected children.