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Adjustment disorder [keywords]
- Evaluation of enhanced attention to local detail in anorexia nervosa using the embedded figures test; an FMRI study. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63964.
The behavioural literature in anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorders has indicated an overlap in cognitive profiles. One such domain is the enhancement of local processing over global processing. While functional imaging studies of autism spectrum disorder have revealed differential neural patterns compared to controls in response to tests of local versus global processing, no studies have explored such effects in anorexia nervosa. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with the embedded figures test, to explore the neural correlates of this enhanced attention to detail in the largest anorexia nervosa cohort to date. On the embedded figures tests participants are required to indicate which of two complex figures contains a simple geometrical shape. The findings indicate that whilst healthy controls showed greater accuracy on the task than people with anorexia nervosa, different brain regions were recruited. Healthy controls showed greater activation in the precuneus whilst people with anorexia nervosa showed greater activation in the fusiform gyrus. This suggests that different cognitive strategies were used to perform the task, i.e. healthy controls demonstrated greater emphasis on visuospatial searching and people with anorexia nervosa employed a more object recognition-based approach. This is in accordance with previous findings in autism spectrum disorder using a similar methodology and has implications for therapies addressing the appropriate adjustment of cognitive strategies in anorexia nervosa.
- Red blood cell count as an indicator of microvascular complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- Vasc Health Risk Manag 2013.:237-43.
Rheological disorders of red blood cells (RBC) and decreased RBC deformability have been involved in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with T2DM.This study involved 369 patients with T2DM: 243 with one or more microvascular complications and 126 without microvascular complications. Anticoagulated blood was collected and analyzed in an automated blood cell counter. The presence of risk factors for microvascular complications was determined.The proportion of patients with microvascular complications increased as the RBC count decreased (P < 0.001). After adjustment for known risk factors for microvascular complications by logistic regression analysis, lower quartiles of RBC count were associated with a higher risk of microvascular complications compared with the reference group composed of the highest quartile (first quartile, odds ratio 4.98, 95% confidence interval 1.54-6.19, P = 0.008; second quartile, odds ratio 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.17-5.28, P = 0.024).A decreased RBC count is associated with microvascular complications in Chinese patients with T2DM. The RBC count is a potential marker to improve further the ability to identify diabetic patients at high risk of microvascular complications.
- Obesity in Men With Childhood ADHD: A 33-Year Controlled, Prospective, Follow-up Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatrics 2013 May 20.
OBJECTIVE:To compare BMI and obesity rates in fully grown men with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We predicted higher BMI and obesity rates in: (1) men with, versus men without, childhood ADHD; (2) men with persistent, versus men with remitted, ADHD; and (3) men with persistent or remitted ADHD versus those without childhood ADHD.
METHODS:Men with childhood ADHD were from a cohort of 207 white boys (referred at a mean age of 8.3 years), interviewed blindly at mean ages 18 (FU18), 25 (FU25), and 41 years (FU41). At FU18, 178 boys without ADHD were recruited. At FU41, 111 men with childhood ADHD and 111 men without childhood ADHD self-reported their weight and height.
RESULTS:Men with childhood ADHD had significantly higher BMI (30.1 ± 6.3 vs 27.6 ± 3.9; P = .001) and obesity rates (41.4% vs 21.6%; P = .001) than men without childhood ADHD. Group differences remained significant after adjustment for socioeconomic status and lifetime mental disorders. Men with persistent (n = 24) and remitted (n = 87) ADHD did not differ significantly in BMI or obesity rates. Even after adjustment, men with remitted (but not persistent) ADHD had significantly higher BMI (B: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.22 to 4.50]) and obesity rates (odds ratio: 2.99 [95% CI: 1.55 to 5.77]) than those without childhood ADHD.
CONCLUSIONS:Children with ADHD are at increased risk of obesity as adults. Findings of elevated BMI and obesity rates in men with remitted ADHD require replication.
- Marital adjustment for patients with epilepsy in China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epilepsy Behav 2013 May 17; 28(1):99-103.
Marriage is a major source of social support and a predictor of health; however, marriages that involve people with epilepsy are more likely to fail. To explore this issue in China, we compared the marital adjustment of patients with epilepsy to control subjects using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). A total of 136 married persons with epilepsy and 145 healthy control subjects were recruited. The DAS score was significantly lower in people with active epilepsy than in the controls (102.0±17.8 vs. 109.2±15.8, p<0.001). A hierarchical regression showed that depression and social support satisfaction were significant predictors for DAS. Psychosocial variables accounted for 24.0% of the variance in DAS after control for demographic and seizure-related factors in patients with active epilepsy. The result suggests that people with active epilepsy in our sample encountered more marital discord than controls. Treatment to control mood disorder and support intervention might be important for their marital adjustment.
- Association between perceived unmet health care needs and risk of adverse health outcomes among patients with chronic medical conditions. [Journal Article]
- Open Med 2013; 7(1):e21-30.
Adults with chronic medical conditions are more likely to report unmet health care needs. Whether unmet health care needs are associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes is unclear.Adults with at least one self-reported chronic condition (arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, mood disorder, stroke) from the 2001 and 2003 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey were linked to national hospitalization data. Participants were followed from the date of their survey until March 31, 2005, for the primary outcomes of all-cause and cause-specific admission to hospital. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmission to hospital, and in-hospital death. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the association between unmet health care needs, admission to hospital, and length of stay, with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, and health status. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between unmet needs, readmission, and in-hospital death. Further analyses were conducted by type of unmet need.Of the 51 932 adults with self-reported chronic disease, 15.5% reported an unmet health care need. Participants with unmet health care needs had a risk of all-cause admission to hospital similar to that of patients with no unmet needs (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94-1.15). When stratified by type of need, participants who reported issues of limited resource availability had a slightly higher risk of hospital admission (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.28). There was no association between unmet needs and length of stay, readmission, or in-hospital death.Overall, unmet health care needs were not associated with an increased risk of admission to hospital among those with chronic conditions. However, certain types of unmet needs may be associated with higher or lower risk. Whether unmet needs are associated with other measures of resource use remains to be determined.
- Haplotype TGTG from SNPs 45T/G and 276G/T of the adiponectin gene contributes to risk of polycystic ovary syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Endocrinol Invest 2013 May 20.
Background:Haplotypes of adiponectin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might be related to metabolic disorders.
Aim:To assess whether the prevalence of SNPs 45T/G and 276G/T of the adiponectin gene and their haplotypes differ between PCOS and non-hirsute cycling controls and to investigate the relationship between these haplotypes and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Subjects and
Methods:In this case-control study, 80 women with PCOS and 1,500 non-hirsute controls with regular cycles underwent clinical and laboratory measurements. Genotype distribution was analyzed by conventional polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
Results:Compared to controls, PCOS women had greater body mass index (BMI) (31.0±7.9 kg/m² vs. 23.4±4.6 kg/m²; p<0.001), waist circumference (92.2±18.8 cm vs. 74.5±10.2 cm;p<0.001), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (124.6±19.9 vs. 111.5±13.0 mmHg and 79.2±12.5 vs. 71.8±10.6 mmHg;p<0.025), as well as a worse lipid profile (p<0.007), even after adjustment for age and BMI. Genotype distribution was similar in PCOS and controls (45T/G:p=0.399; 276G/T:p=0.135). Six haplotypes were inferred and their frequencies differed significantly between the groups (p=0.001). The TGTG haplotype was more frequent in PCOS than controls (41.3 vs. 18.9%). In PCOS, the GG genotype for SNP 276 (p=0.031) and the TGTG haplotype (p=0.023) were associated with higher systolic blood pressure vs. other genotypes and haplotypes. Body composition, glucose, insulin and lipid profile were similar across genotypes and haplotypes in both groups.
Conclusions:Haplotype TGTG from adiponectin gene variants 45T/G and 276G/T is related to susceptibility to PCOS, and might be associated with increased blood pressure in PCOS.
- A novel program for treating patients with trimorbidity: hepatitis C, serious mental illness, and active substance use. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:Advances in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment have yielded improved virological response rates, and yet, many individuals with psychiatric illness still fail to receive HCV therapy. Concerns about safety, adherence, and efficacy of HCV treatment are compounded and treatment is further deferred when substance use is also present. This is especially problematic given the disproportionately high rates of both mental health issues and substance use among individuals living with HCV.
OBJECTIVE:This study sought to examine HCV treatment outcomes in clients with serious mental illness (SMI) and with high rates of active substance use who were participating in a community-based HCV treatment program.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:A retrospective chart review of 129 clients was carried out. Patients were classified as having an SMI if they had a history of bipolar disorder, psychotic disorder, past suicide attempt or mental health related hospitalization.
RESULTS:Fifty-one patients were defined as having an SMI. Among the 46 patients with SMI and a detectable HCV viral load, HCV antiviral therapy was initiated in nine (19.6%). A relapse or an increase in substance use was common (77.8% or n=7), as was the requirement for adjustment or initiation of psychotropic medications (66.7% or n=6) during HCV antiviral therapy. Despite these barriers, rates of adherence to antiviral therapy were high and overall sustained virological response rates were comparable with published trials.
CONCLUSION:This study is the first to report HCV treatment outcomes in a population in which SMI and active polysubstance use was prevalent and suggests that with appropriate models of care, clients with trimorbidity can be treated safely and effectively.
- The Impact of Information on Attitudes Toward E-Mental Health Services. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2013 May 16.
Abstract E-mental health services are Internet-based treatment options for mental illness. There has been a proliferation of these services in recent years, with online programs now available for the treatment of mood, anxiety, eating, adjustment, and substance use disorders. (1) E-mental health services allow for greater dissemination of psychological treatments, are cost effective, and may overcome a number of client barriers to care. (1) However, the limited research available indicates that attitudes about e-mental health services are less than optimal. Past research has found that providing information about services can improve attitudes. This study investigated the relationship between knowledge of e-mental health services and attitudes toward e-mental health services. The attitudes examined were the perceived helpfulness of e-mental health services and the likelihood of using the services. Participants (N=217) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: provision of e-mental health information by means of film; provision of e-mental health information by text; or provision of no e-mental health information. Results indicated that participants perceived online programs without therapist assistance as being significantly less helpful, and reported reduced likelihood of engaging in these programs when compared to other e-mental health services. Participants in the text intervention group reported higher likelihood of e-mental health use in the future, whereas there were no effects for the film group. Results indicate that participants perceive important differences between types of e-mental health services, and that a brief text intervention can improve attitudes toward these services. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are discussed.
- Nonmelanoma skin cancer is associated with reduced Alzheimer disease risk. [Journal Article]
- Neurology 2013 May 21; 80(21):1966-72.
To explore the association of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the Einstein Aging Study, an epidemiologic study of aging in New York City.Community-residing volunteers aged 70 years or older were assessed annually, followed by multidisciplinary diagnostic consensus. Cancer status and type was obtained by self-report. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations between NMSC and subsequent risk of developing a neurocognitive disorder. To deduce a biologically specific association between AD and NMSC, we considered 3 nested outcomes groups: only AD (probable or possible AD as the sole diagnosis), any AD (probable AD or possible AD, as well as mixed AD/vascular dementia), and all-cause dementia.We followed 1,102 adults with a mean age of 79 years at enrollment. Prevalent NMSC was associated with reduced risk of only AD (hazard ratio = 0.21; 95% confidence interval = 0.051-0.87; p = 0.031) among subjects after adjustment for demographics, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. APOE ε4 genotypes were available in 769 individuals. The association was similar in magnitude, but nonsignificant, when the number of APOE ε4 alleles was included in the model. No significant association was found between NMSC and subsequent development of any AD or all-cause dementia.This population-based longitudinal study shows that individuals older than 70 years with NMSC have a significantly reduced risk of developing AD compared with individuals without NMSC. We deduce Alzheimer-specific neuroprotection, because the effect is attenuated or eliminated when considering less-specific diagnoses such as AD with another diagnosis (any AD) or all-cause dementia.
- Treatment of patients with dual hepatitis C and B by peginterferon α and ribavirin reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gut 2013 May 15.