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- Simultaneous determination of lovastatin and niacin in tablet by first and third derivative spectrophotometry and H-point standard addition methods. [Journal Article]
- Res Pharm Sci 2012 Apr; 7(2):95-102.
Most cardiovascular diseases need to be treated by more than a simple drug and the use of combination products diminishes noncompliance. Advicor(®) as a combination product of a vitamin and a fat lowering agent has no monograph in official pharmacopeias for its quality control purposes. In this study, first and third derivative signals for NA and LV quantitation at the two pairs of wavelengths, 261 and 273 nm; 245 and 249 nm were monitored with the addition of standard solutions of NA or LV, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.03 and 0.32 mg/L for LV and NA, respectively. The limits of quantitation were 0.09 and 0.78 mg/L for LV and NA, respectively. RSD% for both interday and intraday precision was lower than 2.6 and 2.7% for LV and NA, respectively. Selectivity of the method was assessed for both degradation products produced in stress conditions and common excipients that may present in the pharmaceutical dosage forms. The recommended procedure was successfully applied to real samples.
- The comparative bioavailability of an extended-release niacin and lovastatin fixed dose combination tablet versus extended-release niacin tablet, lovastatin tablet and a combination of extended-release niacin tablet and lovastatin tablet. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Biopharm Drug Dispos 2007 Sep; 28(6):297-306.
Lovastatin and extended-release (ER) niacin in a fixed dose combination (Advicor) is approved for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Since both drugs are extensively metabolized, this study investigated the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of their co-administration following single-dose administration. In a 4-way crossover study 40 subjects received: two 1000/20 Advicor tablets (ADV), two 1000 mg niacin ER tablets (NSP), two 20mg lovastatin tablets (Mevacor; MEV), and two niacin ER 1000 mg tablets with two lovastatin 20mg tablets (NSP+MEV). Plasma was assayed for niacin, nicotinuric acid (NUA), lovastatin, lovastatin acid and HMGCoA reductase inhibition. Urine was assayed for niacin and its metabolites, NUA, N-methylnicotinamide and N-methyl-2pyridone-5-carboxamide. Least square mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals for C(max) and AUC((0-t)) were determined for NSP+MEV versus MEV or NSP, ADV versus MEV or NSP, and ADV versus NSP+MEV. Co-administration of niacin and lovastatin did not significantly influence C(max) and AUC((0-t)) of lovastatin, niacin, NUA and total urinary recovery of niacin and metabolites. A 22 to 25% decrease in lovastatin acid C(max) was observed while lovastatin acid AUC((0-t)) was not affected. The HMGCoA reductase inhibition C(max) and AUC((0-t)) were not affected indicating that the difference in lovastatin acid C(max) was not clinically relevant.
- Evaluation of efficacy and safety of fixed dose lovastatin and niacin(ER) combination in asian Indian dyslipidemic patients: a multicentric study. [Controlled Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Vasc Health Risk Manag 2006; 2(1):87-93.
Asian Indian dyslipidemia is characterized by: borderline high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B; high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apoA1; and high lipoprotein(a) (lp[a]). We performed a controlled multicentric trial in India to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed dose combination of lovastatin and niacin extended release (niacin(ER)) formulation in patients with moderate to severe dyslipidemia. Consecutive subjects that satisfied the selection criteria, agreed to an informed consent, and with no baseline presence of liver/renal disease or heart failure were enrolled in the study. After a 4-week run-in period there were 142 patients with LDL levels > or = 130 mg/dL. Eleven patients were excluded because of uncontrolled hyperglycemia and 131 patients were recruited. After baseline evaluation of clinical and biochemical parameters all subjects were administered lovastatin (20 mg) and niacin(ER) (500 mg) combination once daily. Dose escalation was done on basis of lipid parameters at 8 weeks and in 11 patients increased to lovastatin (20 mg) and niacin(ER) (1000 mg). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed and data was analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirteen patients (10%) were lost to follow-up and 4 (3%) withdrew because of dermatological adverse effects: flushing, pruritus, and rash. The mean values of various lipid parameters (mg/dL) at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, and 24 respectively were: total cholesterol 233.9 +/- 27, 206.3 +/- 27, 189.8 +/- 31, and 174.9 +/- 27 mg/dL; LDL cholesterol 153.4 +/- 22, 127.3 +/- 21, 109.2 +/- 27, and 95.1 +/- 23 mg/dL; triglycerides 171.1 +/- 72, 159.5 +/- 75, 149.2 +/- 45, and 135.2 +/- 40 mg/dL; HDL cholesterol 45.6 +/- 7, 48.9 +/- 7, 51.6 +/- 9, and 53.9 +/- 10 mg/dL; lp(a) 48.5 +/- 26, 40.1 +/- 21, 35.4 +/- 21, and 26.9 +/- 19 mg/dL; and apoA1/apoB ratio 0.96 +/- 0.7, 1.04 +/- 0.4, 1.17 +/- 0.5, and 1.45 +/- 0.5 (p < 0.01). The percentage of decline in various lipids at 4, 12, and 24 weeks was: total cholesterol 11.8%, 18.8%, and 25.2%; LDL cholesterol 17.0%, 28.8%, and 38.0%; triglyceride 6.8%, 12.8%, and 21.0%; lp(a) 17.5%, 26.9%, and 44.5% respectively (p < 0.01). HDL cholesterol and apoA1/apoB increased by 7.2%, 13.1%, and 18.2%; and 7.9%, 21.9%, and 51.6% respectively (p < 0.01). Target LDL levels (< 100 mg/dL in subjects with manifest coronary heart disease or diabetes; < 130 mg/dL in subjects with > 2 risk factors) were achieved in 92 (80.7%) patients. No significant changes were observed in systolic or diastolic blood pressure, blood creatinine, transaminases, or creatine kinase. A fixed dose combination of lovastatin and niacin(ER) significantly improved cholesterol lipoprotein lipids as well as lp(a) and apoA1/apoB levels in Asian Indian dyslipidemic patients. Satisfactory safety and tolerability profile in this population was also demonstrated.
- Time as a variable with niacin extended-release/lovastatin vs. atorvastatin and simvastatin. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Prev Cardiol 2005; 8(4):226-33.
Time may be an important variable when evaluating the efficacy of lipid-altering drugs. In this analysis of the Advicor Versus Other Cholesterol-Modulating Agents Trial Evaluation, niacin extended-release/lovastatin 1000/40 mg was as effective as atorvastatin 10 mg and more effective than simvastatin (both 10 mg and 20 mg) in achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goals. The titration schedule for this study included the initiation of niacin-extended release/lovastatin 500/20 mg once a day for 4 weeks, titrated to the starting dose of 1000/40 mg after 4 weeks, and then titrated to the final dose of 2000/40 mg. The titration schedule for both atorvastatin and simvastatin was 10 mg per day for 8 weeks and then titrated to 40 mg per day. Using this schedule, 50% of niacin extended-release/lovastatin and atorvastatin patients reached low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goals within approximately 7 weeks, compared with simvastatin, in which 50% reached both treatment goals in 13-14 weeks. These time differences may have potential clinical relevance in reducing coronary heart disease risk.
- Extended-release niacin/lovastatin: the first combination product for dyslipidemia. [Journal Article, Review]
- Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2004 Jul; 2(4):485-501.
Many clinical studies have demonstrated that lipid-altering drug treatments, including the use of statin and niacin monotherapy, can be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, but only in a minority of patients relative to placebo. Since statins and niacin have entirely different mechanisms of action and predominantly different effects on blood lipid levels, the combined use of both a statin and niacin may confer complementary benefits on multiple lipid parameters, produce a more global improvement in lipid blood levels and result in greater reductions in coronary heart disease risk factors than the administration of either agent alone. This may be of particular importance in patients with complex dyslipidemias, such as those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes the efficacy and safety of extended-release niacin/lovastatin (Advicor, Kos Pharmaceuticals Inc.), the first combination product approved for the management of dyslipidemia.
- Once-daily niacin extended release/lovastatin combination tablet has more favorable effects on lipoprotein particle size and subclass distribution than atorvastatin and simvastatin. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Prev Cardiol 2003; 6(4):179-88.
Standard lipoprotein measurements may not adequately reflect the increased atherogenic risk found in patients with abnormalities in lipoprotein particle size and subfraction distribution such as disproportionate amounts of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles, small high-density lipoprotein particles, or large very-low-density lipoprotein particles. Measurement or anticipation of patients most susceptible to lipoprotein subfraction abnormalities may influence therapeutic choices for the optimal management of dyslipidemia. Previously, the ADvicor Vs. Other Cholesterol-modulating Agents Trial Evaluation demonstrated that niacin extended release/lovastatin provided greater global improvement in lipid parameters such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein A-I blood levels compared with atorvastatin and simvastatin monotherapies. In this report, niacin extended release/lovastatin was also more effective than atorvastatin and simvastatin monotherapies in reducing small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles and improving low-density lipoprotein phenotype pattern at relative starting doses, and was more effective in increasing the proportion of high-density lipoprotein in the potentially cardioprotective 2b subclass at all doses.
- Three new drugs for hyperlipidemia. [Journal Article]
- Conn Med 2003 May; 67(5):279-81.
- Comparison of once-daily, niacin extended-release/lovastatin with standard doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin (the ADvicor Versus Other Cholesterol-Modulating Agents Trial Evaluation [ADVOCATE]). [Clinical Trial, Comparative Study, Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Cardiol 2003 Mar 15; 91(6):667-72.
This study compared the relative efficacy of a once-daily niacin extended-release (ER)/lovastatin fixed-dose combination with standard doses of atorvastatin or simvastatin, with a special emphasis on relative starting doses. Subjects (n = 315) with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol blood levels (defined as LDL cholesterol blood levels > or =160 mg/dl without coronary artery disease, or > or =130 mg/dl if coronary artery disease was present, and HDL cholesterol <45 mg/dl in men and <50 mg/dl in women) were randomized to atorvastatin, simvastatin, or niacin ER/lovastatin for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were the mean percent change in LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels from baseline. After 8 weeks, the starting dose niacin ER/lovastatin 1,000/40 mg and the 10-mg starting dose atorvastatin both lowered mean LDL cholesterol by 38%. After 12 weeks, niacin ER/lovastatin 1,000/40 mg lowered LDL cholesterol by 42% versus 34% with the 20-mg starting dose of simvastatin (p <0.001). Niacin ER/lovastatin increased HDL cholesterol significantly more than atorvastatin or simvastatin at all compared doses (p <0.001). Niacin ER/lovastatin also provided significant improvements in triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein B, and HDL subfractions. A total of 6% of study subjects receiving niacin ER/lovastatin withdrew because of flushing. No significant differences were seen among study groups in discontinuance due to elevated liver enzymes. No drug-induced myopathy was observed. Niacin ER/lovastatin was comparable to atorvastatin 10 mg and more effective than simvastatin 20 mg in reducing LDL cholesterol, was more effective in increasing HDL cholesterol than either atorvastatin or simvastatin, and provided greater global improvements in non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein(a).