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Aerobic pneumonia, mixed flora [keywords]
- Anaerobic infections in children. [Journal Article, Review]
- Adv Exp Med Biol 2011.:117-52.
Anaerobic bacteria commonly cause infection in children. Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin. Because of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. They colonize the newborn after delivery and have been recovered from several types of neonatal infections. These include cellulitis of the site of fetal monitoring, neonatal aspiration pneumonia, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, omphalitis, and infant botulism. The failure to direct adequate therapy against these organisms may lead to clinical failures. Their isolation requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation, and cultivation of specimens. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, by their polymicrobial nature, and by the growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is often the only form of therapy required, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to a surgical approach. Because anaerobic bacteria generally are recovered mixed with aerobic organisms, the choice of appropriate antimicrobial agents should provide for adequate coverage of both types of pathogen.
- [Diagnosis and therapy of aspiration pneumonia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2006 Mar 24; 131(12):624-8.
Aspiration pneumonia is an important and frequent complication following aspiration of infectious material from the oropharynx or stomach. Therefore the microbiological flora generally comprises a mixed spectrum of microbes including aerobic, microaerobic and anaerobic mircoorganisms. There are a number of risk factors for aspiration such as compromised consciousness or esophageal diseases. Aspiration pneumonia presents as a subacute or chronic disease. An endoscopic inspection of the bronchial system and a bacteriological evaluation should be performed in all patients. The principal therapeutic strategy for aspiration pneumonia is an antibiotic therapy. In uncomplicated cases a treatment for 7-10 days should be sufficient, but in case of complications like necrotizing pneumonia or lung abscess a prolonged administration (14-21 days, up to weeks or months) will be necessary. Recommended antibiotic regimens include clindamycin +/- cephalosporin, ampicillin/sulbactam and moxifloxacin.
- Control of bacterial pneumonia during mechanical ventilation. [Journal Article, Review]
- Croat Med J 2005 Apr; 46(2):183-96.
Pneumonia complicates the course of 50% of patients on mechanical ventilation, requiring three or more days of mechanical ventilation and potentially increasing the relative risk of mortality by 20-40%. The predominant potentially pathogenic micro-organisms are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (sensitive to methicillin in the previously healthy host), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (aerobic gram-negative bacilli), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the host with underlying disease. Approximately 85% of pneumonias are endogenous, caused by bacteria present in the patient's oropharyngeal flora. Bacteria present on admission cause primary endogenous pneumonia (55%), whereas bacteria acquired in the unit lead to supercarriage or secondary carriage and subsequently secondary endogenous pneumonia (30%). The remaining 15% are exogenous, ie the bacteria causing pneumonia are not carried by the patient. The diagnosis is usually based on clinical, radiological, and microbiological criteria, using the non-invasive method of tracheal aspirate, which yields >/=10(5) micro-organisms. Seven randomized trials have evaluated three non-antibiotic prophylactic maneuvers: hygiene (1 trial), subglottic drainage (4 trials), and semirecumbent position (2 trials). The impact on pneumonia was mixed, whereas mortality was unchanged. Selective digestive decontamination, using parenteral and enteral antimicrobials to control the three types of pneumonia, has been evaluated in 54 trials and showed an absolute mortality reduction of 8%. The therapy of pneumonia relies on six basic principles: (a) surveillance and diagnostic cultures to identify micro-organisms; (b) immediate and adequate antibiotic treatment to sterilize the lower airways, (c) the source of potential pathogens requires elimination for recovery of the original infection and prevention of relapses and/or superinfections; (d) aerosolized antimicrobials; (e) removal or replacement of the endotracheal tube; and (f) surveillance samples are indispensable to monitor efficacy of treatment. The aim of our review was to evaluate up to date facts regarding control of bacterial pneumonias during mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit settings.
- Anaerobic pulmonary infections in children. [Journal Article, Review]
- Pediatr Emerg Care 2004 Sep; 20(9):636-40.
Pulmonary infections due to anaerobic bacteria usually occur in children prone to aspiration. The source of the anaerobic bacteria is the oropharyngeal bacterial flora, where these organisms outnumber aerobic and facultative organisms in a 10:1 ratio. The most common lower respiratory tract infections where anaerobic bacteria are recovered mixed with aerobic organisms are aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess, and empyema. The predominant isolated anaerobic bacteria are Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, pigmented Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. and Bacteroides fragilis group. Management of these infections includes the administration of antimicrobials effective against the anaerobic as well as the aerobic pathogens.
- Role of anaerobic bacteria in infections following tracheostomy, intubation, or the use of ventilatory tubes in children. [Journal Article]
- Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2004 Oct; 113(10):830-4.
Colonization of the tracheobronchial tree with microorganisms almost always follows tracheal intubation, tracheostomy, or the use of ventilatory tubes. Infection of the tracheostomy wound site frequently occurs after prolonged use of the tracheostomy. The long-term-ventilated child is at high risk for developing tracheobronchitis or nosocomial pneumonia, generally involving aerobic gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria. Several studies have illustrated the role of anaerobic bacteria in lower respiratory tract and tracheostomy wound site infection in intubated children. The predominant anaerobic bacteria were Peptostreptococcus spp and pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. Most of these infections are due to polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic bacterial flora. Appropriate management of mixed pulmonary aerobic and anaerobic infections requires the administration of antimicrobials that are effective against both the aerobic and anaerobic components of the infection.
- [Incidence of anaerobic bacteria in respiratory tract infections]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2003; 71(1-2):68-73.
Anaerobic bacteria are predominant components of normal oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, genital and skin flora. They are involved in infections such as pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema. Laboratory diagnosis of anaerobic infections is based on recovering the etiological agents from clinical materials. Appropriatte specimens include: pus, purulent fluid, biopsy specimen of lung, transtracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Lower respiratory infections are usually either polymicrobial or mixed anaerobic-aerobic infections. Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Bacteroides are the most common anaerobes. Anaerobic bacteria are susceptible to metronidazole, tinidazole (exception of Gram-positive rods), amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem and clindamycin. Treatment includes an antibiotics regimen with an agent active against anaerobic and aerobic bacteria (therapy with 2 or 3 antimicrobial drugs).
- Anaerobic infections in children. [Journal Article, Review]
- Adv Pediatr 2000.:395-437.
Anaerobic bacteria commonly cause infection in children. Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membrane bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin. Because of their fastidious nature, they are difficult to isolate from infectious sites and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Anaerobic bacteria colonize the newborn after delivery and have been recovered from several types of neonatal infections. These include cellulitis of the site of fetal monitoring, neonatal aspiration pneumonia, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, omphalitis, and infant botulism. The lack of directing adequate therapy against these organisms may lead to clinical failures. Their isolation requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation, and cultivation of specimens. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, by their polymicrobial nature, and by the growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is often the only form of therapy required, whereas in other cases it is an important adjunct to a surgical approach. Because anaerobic bacteria generally are recovered mixed with aerobic organisms, the choice of appropriate antimicrobial agents should provide for adequate coverage of both types of pathogens.
- Severe pneumonia. When and why to hospitalize. [Journal Article, Review]
- Postgrad Med 1999 Apr; 105(4):117-24.
Relatively simple objective criteria are now available to predict which patients are at risk for bad outcomes from community-acquired pneumonia. In general, these include older patients and those with certain coexisting illnesses (especially neoplastic disease) or findings of altered mental status, hypotension, severe tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, acidemia, azotemia, hypoxemia, hyperglycemia, anemia, or hyponatremia. The major causes of severe pneumonia are S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and L pneumophila. Less common causes include mixed aerobic and anaerobic mouth flora, as well as M pneumoniae, C pneumoniae, gram-negative bacilli, and S aureus. Specific diagnosis is hampered by a lack of reliable diagnostic tests, but Gram's stain of expectorated sputum and cultures of sputum and blood may occasionally be helpful. Many empirical treatment regimens have been recommended, including those of the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America, which are reviewed here. It is hoped that better diagnostic tools will permit future targeting of microbes with narrow-spectrum therapy to diminish the risk of selection of resistant strains with empirical regimens.
- Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children. [Journal Article]
- J Accid Emerg Med 1998 May; 15(3):162-7.
To review the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from infections after trauma in children over a 20 year period.Only specimens that were studied for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were included in the analysis. They were collected from seven separate centres in which the microbiology laboratories only accepted specimens that were properly collected without contamination and were submitted in appropriate transport media. Anaerobes and aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using standard techniques. Clinical records were reviewed to identify post-trauma patients.From 1974 to 1994, 175 specimens obtained from 166 children with trauma showed bacterial growth. The trauma included blunt trauma (71), lacerations (48), bites (42), and open fractures (5). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 38 specimens (22%), aerobic bacteria only in 51 (29%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 86 (49%); 363 anaerobic (2.1/specimen) and 158 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.9/specimen) were recovered. The predominant anaerobic bacteria included Peptostreptococcus spp (115 isolates), Prevotella spp (68), Fusobacterium spp (52), B fragilis group (42), and Clostridium spp (21). The predominant aerobic bacteria included Staph aureus (51), E coli (13), Ps aeruginosa (12), Str pyogenes (11) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9). Principal infections were: abscesses (52), bacteraemia (3), pulmonary infections (30, including aspiration pneumonia, tracheostomy associated pneumonia, empyema, and ventilator associated pneumonia), wounds (36, including cellulitis, post-traumatic wounds, decubitus ulcers, myositis, gastrostomy and tracheostomy site wounds, and fasciitis), bites (42, including 23 animal and 19 human), peritonitis (4), osteomyelitis (5), and sinusitis (3). Staph aureus and Str pyogenes were isolated at all sites. However, organisms of the oropharyngeal flora predominated in infections that originated from head and neck wounds and abscesses, and bites, and those from the gastrointestinal tract predominated in infections that originated from peritonitis, abdominal abscesses, and decubitus ulcers.Many infections that follow trauma in children involve multiple organisms.
- Pneumonia in mechanically ventilated children. [Journal Article]
- Scand J Infect Dis 1995; 27(6):619-22.
The quantitative aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of bronchial aspirates, obtained using protective brush catheters, from 10 children with ventilator-associated pneumonia, is presented. Aerobic or faculative organisms only were isolated in 1 child, anaerobic bacteria only in 3, and aerobic mixed with anaerobic bacteria in 6. There were 10 aerobic or faculative and 17 anaerobic isolates. The predominant aerobes were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 isolates) and Klebsiella sp. (2). The predominant anaerobes were pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas species (5), Peptostreptococcus sp. (4), Fusobacterium sp. and B. fragilis group (2). A total of 10 beta-lactamase-producing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 8 patients. All patients except 1 responded to antimicrobial therapy directed against the recovered isolates. These data highlight the polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic flora isolated from pulmonary specimens of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.