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Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis ABPA [keywords]
- A Case of Endobronchial Aspergilloma Associated with Foreign Body in Immunocompetent Patient without Underlying Lung Disease. [Journal Article]
- Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2013 May; 74(5):231-4.
Aspergillus causes a variety of clinical syndromes in the lung including tracheobronchial aspergillosis, invasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and aspergilloma. Aspergilloma usually results from ingrowths of colonized Aspergillus in damaged bronchial tree, pulmonary cyst or cavities of patients with underlying lung diseases. There are a few reports on endobronchial aspergilloma without underlying pulmonary lesion. We have experienced a case of endobronchial aspergilloma associated with foreign body developed in an immunocompetent patient without underlying lung diseases. A 59-year-old man is being hospitalized with recurring hemoptysis for 5 months. X-ray and computed tomography scans of chest showed a nodular opacity in superior segment of left lower lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed an irregular, mass-like, brownish material which totally obstructed the sub-segmental bronchus and a foreign body in superior segmental bronchus of the lower left lobe. Histopathologic examinations of biopsy specimen revealed fungal hyphae, characteristic of Aspergillus species.
- Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Clinico-Serological correlation with Radiologic Profile. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Asthma 2013 Jun 10.
Objective:To study the different types of radiological presentations of ABPA in a tertiary clinic in Northern India and analyze them with respect to serological profile and clinical characteristics.
Methods:We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical, serological and radiological characteristics of ABPA patients registered at a unit of tertiary pulmonary care center in North India. The patients were classified based on radiological presentation into ABPA-S, ABPA-CB and ABPA-CB-ORF and the differences in these groups were studied.
Results:There were 112 patients with ABPA between age 6 and 75 years. About 8.9% (n=10) of patients had a history of smoking and 38.4% (n=43) had a history of prior anti-tuberculosis treatment. The median duration of symptoms was longest in the ABPA-CB-ORF group (15 yrs) followed by ABPA-CB (7 yrs) and ABPA-S (5 yrs). Mean serum total IgE level in the ABPA-CB-ORF group was 14,330 IU/mL followed by the APBA-CB (3,700 IU/mL) and ABPA-S (1,020 IU/mL) groups (p< 0.0001). The ABPA-CB-ORF group had the highest median specific anti-A. fumigatus IgE followed by ABPA-CB and ABPA-S groups (42.24 kU/L, 20.65 kU/L and 3.44 kU/L respectively) (p< 0.0001). ABPA-CB-ORF group had highest percentage of positive serum precipitins against Aspergillus spp. (92%) followed by ABPA-CB (79.6%) and ABPA-S (68%) (p< 0.05).
Conclusions:The patients with more pronounced lung damage in form of ABPA-CB and ABPA-CB-ORF had higher serological parameters suggestive of increased systemic inflammation. Hence, ABPA may be categorized as mild (ABPA-S), moderate (ABPA-CB) and severe (ABPA-CB-ORF) categories which oscillate between remission and exacerbation phases.
- Novel immunologic classification of aspergillosis in adult cystic fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013 May 29.
BACKGROUND:Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) demonstrate a wide range of hypersensitivity responses to Aspergillus, beyond allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, which require classification.
OBJECTIVE:This study integrated 2 new methods of Aspergillus detection-sputum galactomannan (GM) and real-time PCR-alongside established serologic markers, to reclassify aspergillosis in CF.
METHODS:A total of 146 adult patients with CF had serologic tests (ImmunoCap total IgE, specific Aspergillus fumigatus IgE, and specific A fumigatus IgG), sputum real-time Aspergillus PCR, and sputum GM. Patients were classified by using latent class analysis.
RESULTS:Both RT-PCR and GM were more sensitive than culture in detecting Aspergillus in sputum (culture 37%, RT-PCR 74%, and GM 46%). Intraassay and interassay reproducibility of PCR and GM was excellent. Latent class analysis of triazole-naive patients identified a nondiseased group and 3 disease classes: class 1 (n = 49, 37.7%) represented patients with or without positive RT-PCR but no immunologic response to A fumigatus and negative GM (nondiseased); class 2 (n = 23, 17.7%) represented patients with positive RT-PCR, elevated total and specific A fumigatus IgE/IgG, and positive GM (serologic allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis); class 3 (n = 19, 14.6%) represented patients with or without positive RT-PCR, elevated A fumigatus IgE (not IgG), and negative GM (Aspergillus sensitized); and class 4 (n = 39, 30%) represented patients with positive RT-PCR, elevated A fumigatus IgG (not IgE), and positive GM (Aspergillus bronchitis).
CONCLUSIONS:Three distinct classes of aspergillosis in CF were identified by latent class analysis by using serologic, RT-PCR, and GM data. This novel classification will facilitate improved phenotyping, pathogenesis studies, and management evaluations.
- Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as chronic cough in an elderly woman without previously documented asthma. [Journal Article]
- Perm J 2013; 17(2):e103-8.
A nonsmoking woman in her mid-70s presents to the allergist for consultation of a chronic cough of almost 3-years' duration without a specific diagnosis as to etiology in spite of numerous diagnostic tests and therapeutic trials. This is a case report from a specialist point of view that includes a comprehensive review of her clinical course pre- and postconsultation along with a brief but pertinent review of the literature as it relates to this particular unusual and protracted case, which was ultimately successfully diagnosed and treated.
- Coexistence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic aspergillus sinusitis in a patient without clinical asthma. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
All patients with prolonged cough with a history of atopy, even if not clinically asthmatic, should be evaluated for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); also, we suspect that we may miss the early diagnosis of ABPA if bronchial asthma is considered as a major criteria for the diagnosis of ABPA.
- The utility of galactomannan antigen in the bronchial washing and serum for diagnosing pulmonary aspergillosis. [Journal Article]
- Respir Med 2013 Jul; 107(7):1094-100.
The diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis is difficult because the sensitivity of the conventional methods for the detection of Aspergillus such as culture and cytology, is poor. To improve the sensitivity for Aspergillus detection, the detection of galactomannan antigen has been investigated. The serum galactomannan (GM) antigen has been recognized to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. However, the utility of the galactomannan antigen for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis other than invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been unclear.The GM antigen using serum and bronchial washing (BW) using bronchofiberscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis other than IPA were measured.In 45 enrolled patients, 7 patients had pulmonary aspergillosis, 5 of these patients had chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis and 2 patients had allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.89 for the BW GM antigen detection test, and 0.41 for the serum GM antigen detection test, suggesting that the BW GM antigen detection test exhibits a better diagnostic performance than the serum GM antigen detection test. The BW GM antigen detection test had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 76.3% at a cut-off level of ≥0.5, which was the optimal cut-off level obtained by the ROC curve.The BW GM antigen detection test is thought to be a promising test for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis other than IPA.
- Itraconazole as 'bridge therapy' to anti-IgE in a patient with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Sensitisation to fungi has been reported to play an important role in a particular phenotype of severe asthma, the so-called severe asthma with fungal sensitisation, characterised by high levels of total IgE, which may be an obstacle to anti-IgE therapy. We describe here the case of a polysensitised woman with refractory asthma, sensitised to Aspergillus fumigatus with high total IgE values (1793 kUA/l), but without the diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Additional therapy with itraconazole leads to the decrease of total IgE to the limits recommended for proper omalizumab dosing (30-1500 kUA/l). Itraconazole, used as bridge therapy, provided us the opportunity to start anti-IgE treatment in a patient with high levels of total IgE, beyond the upper limits recommended for proper prescription of omalizumab.
- Diagnostic performance of various tests and criteria employed in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a latent class analysis. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e61105.
The efficiency of various investigations and diagnostic criteria used in diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remain unknown, primarily because of the lack of a gold standard. Latent class analysis (LCA) can provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity in absence of gold standard. Herein, we report the performance of various investigations and criteria employed in diagnosis of ABPA.Consecutive subjects with asthma underwent all the following investigations Aspergillus skin test, IgE levels (total and A.fumigatus specific), Aspergillus precipitins, eosinophil count, chest radiograph, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest. We used LCA to estimate the performance of various diagnostic tests and criteria in identification of ABPA.There were 372 asthmatics with a mean age of 35.9 years. The prevalence of Aspergillus sensitization was 53.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of various tests were Aspergillus skin test positivity (94.7%, 79.7%); IgE levels>1000 IU/mL (97.1%, 37.7%); A.fumigatus specific IgE levels>0.35 kUA/L (100%, 69.3%); Aspergillus precipitins (42.7%, 97.1%); eosinophil count>1000 cells/µL (29.5%, 93.1%); chest radiographic opacities (36.1%, 92.5%); bronchiectasis (91.9%, 80.9%); and, high-attenuation mucus (39.7%, 100%). The most accurate criteria was the Patterson criteria using six components followed by the Agarwal criteria. However, there was substantial decline in accuracy of the Patterson criteria if components of the criteria were either increased or decreased from six.A.fumigatus specific IgE levels and high-attenuation mucus were found to be the most sensitive and specific test respectively in diagnosis of ABPA. The Patterson criteria remain the best diagnostic criteria however they have good veridicality only if six criteria are used.
- Vanishing lung mass in a patient with asthma. [Journal Article]
- J Thorac Dis 2013 Apr; 5(2):E45-9.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common but frequently misdiagnosed clinical condition. It is usually diagnosed in patients with a long standing history of asthma. Patients with ABPA can have diverse radiological manifestations. Very rarely, lung masses have been reported. We hereby report a case of ABPA in whom a large symptomatic lung mass was the presenting manifestation leading to consideration of lung cancer as a differential diagnosis. The establishment of ABPA as the underlying diagnosis led to conservative medical treatment which was followed by complete resolution of the mass like opacity. The present case highlights that ABPA should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever encountering a patient with lung mass and history of asthma.
- [Lung mycosis in non neuropenic patients]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- J Mycol Med 2012 Sep; 22(3):217-20.
Lung mycosis is rare. Diagnosis and treatment must be done the earliest possible.It is about a retrospective study on clinical records including patients hospitalized for lung infection.From 2008 to 2011, 16 patients (13 men and three women, average age 42 years) developed a pulmonary infection. Twelve of our patients had respiratory or extrarespiratory histories. None of our patients had a neutropenia. The diagnoses were lung aspergilloma in four cases, invasive lung aspergillosis in three cases, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in three cases, mucormycosis in three cases, trichosporonosis in a case, actinomycosis in one case and penicilliosis in one case. An antifungal treatment consisting in amphotericin B or itraconazole was given to four patients and six patients, respectively. Surgery was chosen for six patients. The evolution was good for 12 patients, one presented renal failure, and three patients died.