- Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of [(11)C]granisetron and [(18)F]fluoropalonosetron as PET Probes for 5-HT3 Receptor Imaging. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- ACS Chem Neurosci 2016 Aug 29.
Serotonin-gated ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors are the major pharmacological targets for antiemetic compounds. Furthermore, they have become a focus for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and there is some evidence that pharmacological modulation of 5-HT3 receptors might alleviate symptoms of other neurological disorders. Highly selective, high-affinity antagonists, such as granisetron (Kytril®) and palonosetron (Aloxi®), belong to a family of drugs (the 'setrons') that are well established for clinical use. To enable us to better understand the actions of these drugs in vivo, we report the synthesis of 8-fluoropalonosetron (15) that has a binding affinity (Ki = 0.26 ± 0.05 nM) similar to the parent drug (Ki = 0.21 ± 0.03 nM). We radiolabeled 15 by nucleophilic (18)F-fluorination of an unsymmetrical diaryliodonium palonosetron precursor and achieved the radiosynthesis of 1-(methyl-(11)C)-N-granisetron ([(11)C]2) through N-alkylation with [(11)C]CH3I, respectively. Both compounds [(18)F]15 (chemical and radiochemical purity >95%, specific activity 41 GBq/μmol) and [(11)C]2 (chemical and radiochemical purity ≥99%, specific activity 170 GBq/μmol) were evaluated for their utility as PET probes. Using mouse and rat brain slices, in vitro autoradiography with both [(18)F]15 and [(11)C]2 revealed a heterogeneous and displaceable binding in cortical and hippocampal regions that are known to express 5-HT3 receptors at significant levels. Subsequent PET experiments suggested that [(18)F]15 and [(11)C]2 are of limited utility for the PET imaging of brain 5-HT3 receptors in vivo.
- 2016 updated MASCC/ESMO consensus recommendations: Prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Support Care Cancer 2016 Aug 26.
To update the 2009 recommendations for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced emesis in children.We updated the original systematic literature search. Randomized studies were included in the evidence to support this guideline if they were primary studies fully published in full text in English or French; included only children less than 18 years old or, for mixed studies of adults and children, reported the pediatric results separately or the median or mean age was no more than 13 years; evaluated acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis; provided sufficient information to permit determination of the emetogenicity of the antineoplastic therapy administered or the study investigators stated the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy administered; included an implicit or explicit definition of complete acute CINV response; described the antiemetic regimen in full; and reported the complete acute CINV response rate as a proportion.Twenty-five randomized studies, including eight published since 2009, met the criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. Prophylaxis with a 5-HT3 antagonist (granisetron or ondansetron or palonosetron or tropisetron) ± dexamethasone ± aprepitant is recommended for children receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. For children receiving chemotherapy of low emetogenicity, a 5-HT3 antagonist is recommended.The findings of several randomized trials were used to update recommendations for the prevention of acute CINV. However, significant research gaps remain and must be addressed before CINV control in children can be optimized.
- Comparison of Ramosetron and Palonosetron for Preventing Nausea and Vomiting after Spinal Surgery: Association With ABCB1 Polymorphisms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2016 Aug 25.
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) polymorphisms may influence 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist efficacy by altering their efflux transportation. We evaluated the influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms on the efficacy of ramosetron compared with palonosetron in managing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients who received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after spinal surgery.Patients were randomly allocated to receive 2 boluses (20 min before the end of surgery and 24 h after surgery) of either ramosetron 0.3 mg (n=150) or palonosetron 0.075 mg (n=146). The incidence and severity of PONV, fentanyl consumption, and pain intensity were serially assessed for postoperative 48 hours. ABCB1 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A polymorphisms were assessed.The incidences of nausea were similar between the 2 groups in patients with the 3435TT (50% vs. 56%, ramosetron and palonosetron group, respectively, P>0.999) or 2677TT (50% vs. 56%, ramosetron and palonosetron group, respectively, P>0.999). Mild PONV were more frequent in the ramosetron group than in the palonosetron group among patients with 3435TT (91% vs. 33%, P=0.034) and 2677TT (92% vs. 20%, P=0.002) genotypes. The intensity of nausea experienced by ramosetron-group TT genotype patients (1 [1 to 2], 3435TT; 1 [1 to 2.5], 2677TT) was lower than that experienced by ramosetron-group non-TT genotype patients (3 [1 to 6], 3435 non-TT, P=0.030; 3 [1 to 6], 2677 non-TT, P=0.038) and palonosetron-group TT genotype patients (6 [2 to 7], 3435TT, P=0.010; 6 [4 to 7], 2677TT, P=0.002).Compared with palonosetron, ramosetron may be superior for reducing PONV severity, especially in patients with ABCB1 3435TT or 2677TT genotype.
- Recent Advances in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting. [Journal Article, Review]
- Oncology (Williston Park) 2016 Aug; 30(8)
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains an important adverse effect of cancer therapy. The goal of CINV prophylaxis is to reduce the morbidity associated with nausea and vomiting, as well as to preserve quality of life, while maintaining the desired chemotherapy regimen. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved new therapies for prevention of CINV, including the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist rolapitant and the fixed-dose combination of the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist palonosetron with the novel NK1 receptor antagonist netupitant. Alternative agents, like the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine, have also expanded the options available for preventing delayed and refractory CINV. Consensus guidelines for prevention of CINV from several organizations are generally consistent with one another and are updated based on expert review of available clinical trial data. This article will address changes in CINV guidelines over the past 5 years and provide updates on recently approved agents and agents that are expected to be approved, based on published phase III trials. It will also explore other factors affecting optimal CINV control, including the role of patient-related risk factors and the role of physician adherence to antiemetic guidelines in reducing the residual risk of CINV.
- [Comparative Study of the Antiemetic Palonosetron for Lung Cancer Patients Treated with a Divided Dose of Cisplatin]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2016 Aug; 43(8):967-72.
Palonosetron(Palo)is a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist(5-HT3RA)effective in suppressing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in both acute and delayed phases.Most studies have reported Palo as an effective antiemetic for cisplatin(CDDP)chemotherapy(≥50mg/m2)administered on an intermittent basis.To assess the antiemetic efficacy of Palo, we performed a retrospective study in 16 patients with lung cancer who received Palo with split-dose CDDP, ifosfamide, and irinotecan(CPT-11)triple combination(CIC)therapy at Sapporo Minami-Sanjo Hospital between October 2010 and January 2012.T he CIC regimen consisted of CPT-11(50-60mg/m2)administered on days 1, 8, and 15, in addition to CDDP(15-20mg/m2)and ifosfamide(1,500mg/kg)for 4 consecutive days.On day 1, ramosetron was replaced with Palo in patients who had insufficient antiemetic control in accordance with guidelines on the management of highly emetogenic chemotherapy(HEC).There was a lower incidence of grade 1 or higher nausea(62.5%)in patients in the Palo-combination group than in those in the non-Palo-combination group(87.5%).No incidence of grade 3 or higher nausea was reported in either group.On the fifth day of chemotherapy, the incidence of nausea was significantly lower in the Palo-combination group(43.8%)than in the non-Palo-combination group(81.3%)(p<0.05).In addition, there was a significant decrease in the number of days of incidence and a significant increase in the number of days since the last episode was observed in the Palo-combination group.These results suggest that Palo, in particular, decreases the incidence of nausea and extends the number of days since its occurrence; moreover, it is effective in accelerating recovery.In conclusion, this study suggests that Palo exhibits excellent antiemetic efficacy in patients administered split doses of CDDP.
- Drug in adhesive patch of palonosetron: Effect of pressure sensitive adhesive on drug skin permeation and in vitro-in vivo correlation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Pharm 2016 Aug 10; 511(2):1088-1097.
Palonosetron (PAL) is recommended for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The aim of this study was to develop a long-acting PAL transdermal patch to improve patient compliance. We were particularly concerned about the effect of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) on PAL skin permeability. Formulation factors including PSAs, backing films and drug loadings were investigated in the in vitro skin permeation study using rabbit skin. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer study and thermal analysis were conducted to investigate the drug-PSA interaction and thermodynamic activity of PSAs, respectively. The results indicated that high drug skin permeation amount was obtained in PSA DURO-TAK(®)87-2516, which had low interaction potential with PAL and high thermodynamic activity. The optimized patch was composed of PAL of 8 %, DURO-TAK(®)87-2516 as PSA, CoTran™ 9700 as backing film and Scotchpak™ 9744 as release liner. The in vitro skin permeation amount of the optimized patch was 734.0±55.8μg/cm(2) during 3-day administration. The absolute bioavailability of the optimized patch was 43 % in rabbit and a good in vitro-in vivo correlation coefficient was obtained (R(2)=0.989). These results indicated the feasibility of PAL transdermal patch in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
- Prolonged drug-induced myoclonus: is it related to palonosetron? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Anesth 2016 Aug 10.
We report a case of drug-induced myoclonus possibly related to palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist which was administered as a prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting in a 28-year-old female. The recurrent episodes of myoclonus jerk involving the head, neck and shoulder persisted for a period of 4 days. The patient also exhibited an episode of severe bradycardia leading to hypotension 7 h after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting these adverse events potentially associated with the use of palonosetron.
- Ca(2+) signaling and emesis: Recent progress and new perspectives. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Auton Neurosci 2016 Jul 26.
Cisplatin-like chemotherapeutics cause vomiting via calcium (Ca(2+))-dependent release of multiple neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, substance P, etc.) from the gastrointestinal enterochromaffin cells and/or the brainstem. Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is triggered by activation of diverse emetic receptors (including tachykininergic NK1, serotonergic 5-HT3, dopaminergic D2, cholinergic M1, or histaminergic H1), whose activation in vomit-competent species can evoke emesis. Other emetogens such as cisplatin, rotavirus NSP4 protein and bacterial toxins can also induce intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. Netupitant is a highly selective neurokinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist and palonosetron is a selective second-generation serotonin 5-HT3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist with a distinct pharmacological profile. An oral fixed combination of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA; Akynzeo(®)) with >85% antiemetic efficacy is available for use in the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists possess broad-spectrum antiemetic activity since they prevent vomiting caused by a variety of emetic stimuli including the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, 5-HT3R agonists, and D2R agonists. Our findings demonstrate that application of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) agonist FPL 64176 and the intracellular Ca(2+) mobilizing agent thapsigargin (a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor) cause vomiting in the least shrew. On the other hand, blockade of LTCCs by corresponding antagonists (nifedipine or amlodipine) not only provide broad-spectrum antiemetic efficacy against diverse agents that specifically activate emetogenic receptors such as 5-HT3, NK1, D2, and M1 receptors, but can also potentiate the antiemetic efficacy of palonosetron against the non-specific emetogen, cisplatin. In this review, we will provide an overview of Ca(2+) involvement in the emetic process; discuss the relationship between Ca(2+) signaling and the prevailing therapeutics in control of vomiting; highlight the evidence for Ca(2+)-signaling blockers/inhibitors in suppressing emetic behavior in the least shrew model of emesis as well as in the clinical setting; and also draw attention to the clinical benefits of Ca(2+)-signaling blockers/inhibitors in the treatment of nausea and vomiting.
- 2016 Updated MASCC/ESMO Consensus Recommendations: Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Following High Emetic Risk Chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Support Care Cancer 2016 Jul 22.
This review summarizes the recommendations for the prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in adults receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) which includes cisplatin, mechlorethamine, streptozocin, cyclophosphamide >1500 mg/m(2), carmustine, dacarbazine, and the combination of an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) administered to women with breast cancer, as agreed at the MASCC/ESMO Antiemetic Guidelines Update meeting in Copenhagen in June 2015.A systematic review of the literature using PubMed and the Cochrane Database from 2009 to June 2015 was performed.The NK1-receptor antagonists netupitant (300 mg given in combination with palonosetron 0.5 mg as NEPA) and rolapitant have both completed phase II and III programs and were approved by FDA (both) and EMA (NEPA) in 2014-2015. Addition of one of these agents (or of (fos)aprepitant) to a combination of a serotonin (5-HT)3-receptor antagonist and dexamethasone improved the number of patients with a complete response (no emesis and no rescue medication) days 1-5 after AC HEC with 8-9 % and after non-AC HEC by 8-20 %. Olanzapine has improved control of delayed nausea as compared to aprepitant in a randomized open designed study. In the prophylaxis of delayed nausea and vomiting, metoclopramide is an option instead of aprepitant in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy and dexamethasone is an option instead of aprepitant in patients receiving AC chemotherapy.Two new NK1-receptor antagonists (netupitant and rolapitant) have been included in the updated recommendations as additional options to aprepitant or fosaprepitant. Addition of one of these NK1-receptor antagonists to a combination of a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist and dexamethasone is recommended in both non-AC HEC and AC HEC. Olanzapine is included as an option in HEC in particular if nausea is the main symptom.
- Randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of palonosetron versus granisetron in the triplet regimen for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after highly emetogenic chemotherapy: TRIPLE study. [Journal Article]
- Ann Oncol 2016 Aug; 27(8):1601-6.
There has been no phase III study of comparing the efficacy of first- and second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the triplet regimen with dexamethasone and aprepitant for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC).Patients with a malignant solid tumor who would receive HEC containing 50 mg/m(2) or more cisplatin were randomly assigned to either palonosetron (0.75 mg) arm (Arm P) or granisetron (1 mg) arm (Arm G), on day 1, both arms with dexamethasone (12 mg on day 1 and 8 mg on days 2-4) and aprepitant (125 mg on day 1 and 80 mg on days 2-3). The primary end point was complete response (CR; no vomiting/retching and no rescue medication) at the 0-120 h period and secondary end points included complete control (CC; no vomiting/retching, no rescue medication, and no more than mild nausea) and total control (TC; no vomiting/retching, no rescue medication, and no nausea).Between July 2011 and June 2012, 842 patients were enrolled. Of 827 evaluable, 272 of 414 patients (65.7%) in Arm P had a CR at the 0-120 h period when compared with 244 of 413 (59.1%) in Arm G (P = 0.0539). Both arms had the same CR rate of 91.8% at the acute (0-24 h) period, while at the delayed (24-120 h) period, Arm P had a significantly higher CR rate than Arm G (67.2% versus 59.1%; P = 0.0142). In secondary end points, Arm P had significantly higher rates than Arm G at the 0-120 h period (CC rate: 63.8% versus 55.9%, P = 0.0234; TC rate: 47.6% versus 40.7%, P = 0.0369) and delayed periods (CC rate: 65.2% versus 55.9%, P = 0.0053; TC rate: 48.6% versus 41.4%, P = 0.0369).The present study did not show the superiority of palonosetron when compared with granisetron in the triplet regimen regarding the primary end point.UMIN000004863.