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Amebic liver disease [keywords]
- A mass in the liver. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- BMJ 2013.:f2036.
- False-negative serologies in amebic liver abscess: report of two cases. [Journal Article]
- J Travel Med 2013 Mar-Apr; 20(2):131-3.
Amebiasis, the parasitic disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, may result in extra-intestinal diseases among which liver abscess is the most common manifestation. We report two cases of amebic liver abscess illustrating the inequal sensitivity of serologic tests detecting anti-amebic antibodies.
- Testosterone increases susceptibility to amebic liver abscess in mice and mediates inhibition of IFNγ secretion in natural killer T cells. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(2):e55694.
Amebic liver abscess (ALA), a parasitic disease due to infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, occurs age and gender dependent with strong preferences for adult males. Using a mouse model for ALA with a similar male bias for the disease, we have investigated the role of female and male sexual hormones and provide evidence for a strong contribution of testosterone. Removal of testosterone by orchiectomy significantly reduced sizes of abscesses in male mice, while substitution of testosterone increased development of ALA in female mice. Activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are known to be important for the control of ALA, is influenced by testosterone. Specifically activated NKT cells isolated from female mice produce more IFNγ compared to NKT cells derived from male mice. This high level production of IFNγ in female derived NKT cells was inhibited by testosterone substitution, while the IFNγ production in male derived NKT cells was increased by orchiectomy. Gender dependent differences were not a result of differences in the total number of NKT cells, but a result of a higher activation potential for the CD4(-) NKT cell subpopulation in female mice. Taken together, we conclude that the hormone status of the host, in particular the testosterone level, determines susceptibility to ALA at least in a mouse model of the disease.
- Experimental amoebic liver abscess in hamsters caused by trophozoites of a Brazilian strain of Entamoeba dispar. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Exp Parasitol 2013 May; 134(1):39-47.
It has been claimed that amoebic molecules such as amoebapore, galactose/N-acetyl galactosamine inhibitable lectin, and cysteine proteases are responsible for host tissue destruction and are present in both pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar. Some reports have provided evidence that after infection with E. dispar, pathological changes may occur in some humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate E. dispar pathogenicity by comparing it to the pathogenicity of E. histolytica through liver abscesses induced in hamsters. Syrian golden hamsters were challenged by intrahepatic inoculation with the 03C E. dispar strain or with two strains of E. histolytica (HM1:IMSS and EGG) to compare their virulence grades. As control groups, we used bacterial flora and Pavlova's modified medium. Lesions were verified at 1, 3 and 6 days after inoculation. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed to characterize each strain using EdP1/EdP2 and EhP1/EhP2 primers. The EGG and HM1:IMSS E. histolytica strains and 03C E. dispar were able to cause liver lesions. The EGG strain caused extensive hepatic abscesses, and trophozoites were found in the lesions throughout the three periods of study. The HM1:IMSS strain caused smaller abscesses when compared to EGG lesions; however, trophozoites were observed at 1 and 3 days after inoculation. The 03C E. dispar strain caused intermediate abscesses when compared to the others; trophozoites were observed in all periods analyzed. The EGG strain caused progressive evolution of the injury, which differed from the HM1:IMSS and 03C strains. These results strongly suggest that the 03C E. dispar strain is pathogenic in the experimental hamster model. Additional studies are necessary to identify potential factors that regulate the manifestation of virulence of this strain and others.
- [Amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by high serum procalcitonin in acute myeloid leukemia]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2012 Nov; 86(6):773-7.
We present a case of amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with high serum procalcitonin (PCT). A 61-year-old Japanese man seen at our hospital for severe diarrhea and high fever was found to have multiple ulcers in the transverse and sigmoid colon and rectum by colonoscopy and biopsies were conducted. Immature leukocytes with mild anemia and thrombocytopenia were seen in peripheral blood, necessitating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy that yielded a diagnosis of AML (FAB M4Eo). Serum C-reactive protein and PCT were extremely elevated. Blood cultures for bacteria and fungi were negative. Multiple low-density areas in the liver were found in abdominal computed tomography. Histological colon biopsy findings revealed amebic colitis, strongly suggesting amebic liver abscess. Metronidazole treatment was initiated for amebiasis and subsequent standard chemotherapy for AML was followed after fever was lowered. Hematological and cytogenetic CR was maintained with good clinical condition. Few case reports have been published in Japan to date on amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by AML and no reports have been made on PCT elevation caused by amebiasis. In conclusion, differential diagnosis of amebiasis is necessary in addition to that of bacterial or fungal infection in serum PCT elevation.
- Entamoeba histolytica: the over expression of a mutated EhRabB protein produces a decrease of in vitro and in vivo virulence. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Exp Parasitol 2013 Mar; 133(3):339-45.
Vesicular trafficking, which is implicated in secretion of cytolytic molecules as well as in phagocytosis, plays an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis. Thus, Rab GTPases, that are key regulators of vesicle trafficking, should be considered as molecules involved in the parasite virulence. EhRabB is a Rab protein located in cytoplasmic vesicles that are translocated to phagocytic mouths during ingestion of target cells, suggesting that this Rab protein is involved in phagocytosis. To prove this hypothesis, we over expressed the wild type EhrabB gene and a mutant gene encoding for a protein (RabBN118I) unable to bind guanine nucleotides and therefore constitutively inactive. The over expression of the mutated protein in E. histolytica trophozoites provoked a dominant negative effect, reflected in a significant decrease of both phagocytosis and cytopathic effect as well as in a failure to produce hepatic abscesses in hamsters. These results confirm that EhRabB is involved in phagocytosis and virulence of E. histolytica.
- The Entamoeba histolytica serum-inducible transmembrane kinase EhTMKB1-9 is involved in intestinal amebiasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2012 Dec.:243-248.
Entamoeba histolytica possesses a family of approximately 100 putative transmembrane kinases (TMKs), indicating that the parasite has an extensive means of environmental sensing. The TMKs have been divided into nine sub-groups based on the sequence composition of their intracellular kinase as well as extracellular cysteine-rich domains. EhTMKB1-9 has been recently shown to be expressed in proliferating trophozoites and induced by serum. Interference with EhTMKB1-9 by antisense RNA knockdown or expression of a truncated protein diminished proliferation, adhesion and cytotoxicity. Here we report the involvement of EhTMKB1-9 in phagocytosis and its virulence function in the formation of amebic colitis. Trophozoites induced to express higher levels of wild type EhTMKB1-9 showed increased capacity for endocytosis. In contrast, cells compromised for the EhTMKB1-9 expression through antisense inhibition showed significantly lower levels of phagocytosis and endocytosis under the experimental conditions. The role of EhTMKB1-9 as a virulence factor was studied using animal models of amebiasis. Trophozoites expressing high levels of mutant protein lacking the kinase domain showed a competitive disadvantage with regard to survival as well as invasive phenotype in the murine model of amebic colitis. The same parasites however, were not compromised in their ability to generate abscess in the gerbil model of invasive liver amebiasis. EhTMKB1-9 is the second member from the "B" group of EhTMKs which seems to be deployed by the parasite during intestinal infection. TMKs are attractive targets for drug development because of their requirement in virulence and proliferation.
- Q fever at the turn of the century. [Journal Article, Review]
- Pol J Microbiol 2012; 61(2):81-93.
Q fever is an infectious zoonotic disease characterized by sudden fever, headache, and atypical pneumonia, caused by Coxiella burneti--an obligatory intracellular parasite. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the genes sequences, the classification was changed and C. burnetii species was included to the gamma subgroup of the proteobacteria, Legionellales order and Coxiellaceae family. This analysis showed more than 99% sequence similarity of 16SrRNA gene among the strains isolated in different regions of the world. Q fever is a widespread in the world zoonosis. Its main reservoir in the rural environment are farm animals: cows, sheep, goats, and urban pets such as dogs, cats, rabbits. In acute infection these bacteria are detected in various internal organs such as lungs, liver, spleen, and in excretion in urine, faeces and milk. During childbirth, they occur in large number in the amniotic fluid and placenta. Recently, it has been found that free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani may also be a reservoir of the pathogen. The intra-amoebal location of C. burnetii cells was observed.
- A giant amebic liver abscess. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2012; 51(22):3217.
- Ultrasonographic evaluation of morphologic pattern of amoebic liver abscess. [Journal Article]
- Mymensingh Med J 2012 Oct; 21(4):583-7.
We evaluated sonographically 250 cases of amoebic liver abscess (ALA). Seventy eight percent (78%) of the ALA was located in the right lobe of the liver and 15% in the left lobe and rest of the abscesses occupied both lobes. ALA was round in 50% and oval in 40% of the cases without significant wall echoes. Eighty eight percent (88%) of these were inhomogeneous. Twenty one percent (21%) of these lesions was contiguous with the liver capsule. Post therapy sonographic evaluation showed that there was complete resolution of the abscesses within one year in 90% cases, other showed residual abnormalities in the form of hypoechoic in 7% and hyperechoic in 3% cases. We concluded that serological and clinical data in combinations with these non specific sonographic features are sufficient for the management and follow up of ALA obviating the need for expensive and invasive techniques in most of the cases.