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Amenorrhea, primary [keywords]
- Large leiomyoma in a woman with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Radiol Case Rep 2013 Mar; 7(3):39-46.
Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized as aplasia or hypoplasia of uterus and vagina in women with normal development of secondary sex characteristics. It affects 1 in 4000-5000 female births. Women with this syndrome present with primary amenorrhoea. MRKH syndrome may be associated with renal, skeletal, cardiac and auditory anomalies. Women with MRKH syndrome may develop leiomyoma from a rudimentary uterus, though very rare. Initial investigation in women having MRKH syndrome with leiomyoma is ultrasonography (USG). However, CT and MRI are more accurate to evaluate the pelvic anatomy and pathologies.
- [Imperforate hymen can cause abdominal pain and primary amenorrhoea.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ugeskr Laeger 2013 May 20; 175(21):1500-1501.
Imperforate hymen (HI) is a rare condition caused by the hymen covering the entire opening of the vagina. This prevents the menstruation blood from being drained and the blood fills up the vagina and later the uterus and Fallopian tubes. The produced strain on these organs causes cyclic pain in the lower abdomen. We present two cases where two adolescent girls were diagnosed with HI. It is important to remember HI as a differential diagnosis in young girls with amenorrhoea and lower abdominal pain. In both cases a hymenectomy was performed and the patients recovered afterwards.
- Ductopenia and fetal liver-like architecture as unique and evocative sign of Turner syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013 Apr; 17(8):1132-8.
Turner syndrome is the most common genetic disorder in females. In most subjects, with a normal physical appearance at birth, the diagnosis is suspected long after birth because of short stature, delayed puberty, primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. Abnormalities of liver function tests are reported in literature, with a prevalence ranging from 20% to 80%. In most subjects liver diseases are self-limiting, associated with obesity, hormonal therapy and autoimmune diseases. An association between Turner syndrome and cryptogenic liver disease has been reported. Abnormalities of liver function tests could be the unique sign of Turner syndrome in subjects with normal phenotypes. The histological picture of "fetal liver-like architecture" and "ductopenia" is of fundamental importance for the diagnosis of chromosomopathy.Review the causes of hypertransaminasemia by focusing on more rare as metabolic and genetic diseases.We evaluated a 10 year old girl with a normal phenotype affected by chronic hypertransaminasemia and cholestasis, in whom a needle liver biopsy was performed after the most common causes of hypertransaminasemia were excluded.Liver histological evaluation revealed a smoldering colangiopathy with mild ductopenia and a fetal liver-like architecture. Turner syndrome, suspected on the basis of this histological picture, was confirmed by a pelvic ultrasound and a chromosome analysis.The histological features of "fetal liver-like architecture" and "ductopenia" represent an evocative sign that could indicate the diagnostic suspicion of Turner syndrome in a subject lacking in signs or symptoms of this disease. It is important to perform a pelvic ultrasound and an endocrinological evaluation in all females with chronic asymptomatic hypertransaminasemia even though they have normal phenotypes.
- PROP-1 gene mutations in a 63-year-old woman presenting with osteoporosis and hyperlipidaemia. [Journal Article]
- Hormones (Athens) 2013 Jan; 12(1):128-34.
PROP-1 gene mutations have been reported as a cause of combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Physical and hormonal phenotypes of affected individuals are variable. We report a 63-year-old female who presented with osteoporosis. She was short, did not enter puberty spontaneously and had primary amenorrhea. Biochemical evaluation revealed secondary hypothyroidism and mixed hyperlipidaemia, while dynamic testing of pituitary function was diagnostic of hypopituitarism. Bone density in the lumbar spine disclosed osteoporosis. DNA analysis showed that the patient was homozygote for the R73H mutation of the PROP-1 gene. The unfavourable long-term course of an untreated patient with PROP-1 gene mutation emphasizes the need for early aetiologic classification and proper management and follow-up of patients with short stature and/or disturbances of pubertal development.
- Chromosomal abnormalities in amenorrhea: a retrospective study and review of 637 patients in South India. [Journal Article]
- Arch Iran Med 2013 May; 16(5):267-70.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chromosomal abnormalities and to identify the most prevalent or frequent type of chromosomal abnormalities in cases of amenorrhea from the southern region of India.A total of 637 cases with amenorrhea were analyzed using G- banding, C-banding, Silver staining, and fluorescence in situ hybridization was done wherever necessary.Out of the 637 cases involved in our study, 132 abnormalities were detected. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in cases with primary and secondary amenorrhea was around 20.7 %. In addition to the numerical anomalies, various structural aberrations of the X chromosome like deletions, isochromosomes, duplications, ring chromosome, and also male karyotype were detected. Review of the literature and overall incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with amenorrhea suggests the need for cytogenetic analysis to be performed in all the cases referred for amenorrhea with or without short stature. Precise identification of chromosomal abnormalities helps in confirming the provisional diagnosis; it helps the secondary amenorrhea patients in assisted reproduction and to understand the clinical heterogeneity involved and in efficient genetic counseling.
- Molecular Diagnosis of 5α-Reductase Deficiency in 4 Elite Young Female Athletes Through Hormonal Screening for Hyperandrogenism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Apr 30.
Context:Although a rare occurrence, previously undiagnosed disorders of sex development (DSD) with hyperandrogenism are sometimes detected by hormonal screening during the international sports competitions. Identifying the cause of XY,DSD raises medical and ethical concerns, especially with regard to issues of the eligibility to compete.
Objective:The aim of this study was to determine whether the detection of high plasma T in young elite female athletes during hormonal screening would reveal an unsuspected XY DSD.
Setting:The study was performed in the Nice and Montpellier University Hospitals (France), which collaborate as reference centers for DSD in elite athletes on behalf of sports governing bodies.
Patients:Four cases of elite young athletes with female phenotypes but high plasma T detected during hormonal screening were investigated for undiagnosed XY DSD.Main Outcome Measures:Evaluation of clinical, biological, radiological (magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and genetic characteristics was conducted.
Results:The 4 athletes presented as tall, slim, muscular women with a male bone morphotype, no breast development, clitoromegaly, partial or complete labial fusion, and inguinal/intralabial testes. All reported primary amenorrhea. The hormonal analysis evidenced plasma T within the male range, the karyotype was 46, XY, and molecular analysis of the 5α-reductase type 2 (srd5A2) gene identified a homozygotic mutation in 2 cases, a heterozygotic compound in 1 case, and a deletion in 1 case.
Conclusion:5α-Reductase deficiency should be investigated in elite young female athletes with primary amenorrhea and high male T levels detected during antidoping programs to identify undiagnosed XY DSD.
- A novel mutation (c. 341A>G) in the SRY gene in a 46,XY female patient with gonadal dysgenesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gene 2013 Apr 24.
SRY (sex-determining region Y) gene, MIM 480000, NM_005634) is crucial for sex differentiation which encodes the protein responsible for initiating testis differentiation. SRY mutations are associated with the presence of XY gonadal dysgenesis symptoms. We studied a 46,XY female patient with primary amenorrhoea and negative family history. The clinical, endocrine, histopathologic and cytogenetic data are consistent with gonadal dysgenesis. Using a molecular analysis, a novel (c.341A>G, p. N65D) missense mutation within the HMGbox of SRY gene was detected. Escherichia coli expression of SRY study showed reduced expression of the mutated protein and gel retardation assay method revealed lowered DNA-binding ability in N65D variant of SRY. The novel mutation detected in the SRY gene may be an aetiopathogenic factor in clinically defined 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD). Because of an increased risk of gonadoblastoma, proper early diagnosis and treatment prevent development of malignancies.
- Changes in the PCOS phenotype with age. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Steroids 2013 Apr 25.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women. The diagnosis of PCOS is mainly based on the following three components: (1) hyperandrogenism, (2) oligo-amenorrhea, and (3) the observation of polycystic ovaries on a sonogram. The comorbidities may include insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Importantly, the diagnostic criteria and complications related to PCOS are age-dependent. Androgen production in women may decrease because of ovarian aging or decreased production by the adrenal glands over time. The prevalence of hirsutism and acne decreases with age. Ovarian volume and follicle number also decrease with age, with the age-related decrease in follicle number seemingly greater than that of ovarian volume. Aging may also be associated with increased risk of insulin resistance and metabolic disturbances. Therefore, these age-related changes may affect the observed incidence and complications of PCOS. In adolescent patients, the criteria described above pose particular diagnostic problems because the characteristics of normal puberty often overlap with the signs and symptoms of PCOS. Hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation are the primary disturbances in younger women with PCOS; whereas, obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disturbances are predominant in older women with PCOS. The deterioration of insulin resistance during the reproductive life of women with PCOS appears to be mainly attributable to the increase in obesity. Therefore, if body weight could be controlled properly, younger hyperandrogenic PCOS women might reduce their risk of insulin resistance and metabolic disturbances later in life.
- Neuroimaging Features in Congenital Trichomegaly: The Oliver-McFarlane Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimaging 2013 Apr 26.
A 23-year-old woman presented to our hospital with 9 months history of progressive ataxia, visual loss since childhood due to retinitis pigmentosa and primary amenorrhea. On examination, there were also sparse scalp hair, very long and curled upwards eyelashes and short stature. Oliver-McFarlane syndrome was suspected. Brain MRI disclosed cerebellar atrophy and hyperintense signal in corticospinal tracts on FLAIR and T2-weighted images. Therefore, brain imaging must be thoroughly investigated in patients with suspected Oliver-McFarlane syndrome, in order to determinate whether cerebellar atrophy and hyperintense signal in corticospinal tracts are part of this neurological condition.
- The influence of estrogen therapies on bone mineral density in premenopausal women with anorexia nervosa and amenorrhea. [Journal Article]
- Vitam Horm 2013.:243-57.
Low bone mineral density is one of the primary risks of chronic amenorrhea, and the effects of potentially long-term menstrual disruption on bone mass are serious concerns for individuals with a past or current anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. As such, estrogen therapies are frequently used to address amenorrhea associated with AN. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the effectiveness of estrogen therapies on bone mineral density in women with amenorrhea. Data regarding the effectiveness of oral contraceptives were of low quality and mixed, with the majority of studies finding no benefit of these treatments on bone mineral density. Hormone replacement therapy findings were also mixed, though promising results were found in a study comparing transdermal administration of physiologic estrogen, delivered in developmentally sensitive incremental doses to placebo controls. Though this study suggests a possible role for estrogen therapies in addressing bone density loss in women with AN, in general, more studies are needed. Clinical drawbacks of using these therapies in the treatment of AN, including the loss of menses resumption as a clinical marker for weight and nutritional rehabilitation, must be considered in the decision to use estrogen therapies, particularly given the uncertain effectiveness of most of these treatments.