Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Paraventricular hypothalamic regulation of trigeminovascular mechanisms involved in headaches. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2013 May 15; 33(20):8827-40.
While functional imaging and deep brain stimulation studies point to a pivotal role of the hypothalamus in the pathophysiology of migraine and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, the circuitry and the mechanisms underlying the modulation of medullary trigeminovascular (Sp5C) neurons have not been fully identified. We investigated the existence of a direct anatomo-functional relationship between hypothalamic excitability disturbances and modifications of the activities of Sp5C neurons in the rat. Anterograde and retrograde neuronal anatomical tracing, intrahypothalamic microinjections, extracellular single-unit recordings of Sp5C neurons, and behavioral trials were used in this study. We found that neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) send descending projections to the superior salivatory nucleus, a region that gives rise to parasympathetic outflow to cephalic and ocular/nasal structures. PVN cells project also to laminae I and outer II of the Sp5C. Microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol into PVN inhibit both basal and meningeal-evoked activities of Sp5C neurons. Such inhibitions were reduced in acutely restrained stressed rats. GABAA antagonist gabazine infusions into the PVN facilitate meningeal-evoked responses of Sp5C neurons. PVN injections of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP38) enhance Sp5C basal activities, whereas the antagonist PACAP6-38 depresses all types of Sp5C activities. 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist naratriptan infusion confined to the PVN depresses both basal and meningeal-evoked Sp5C activities. Our findings suggest that paraventricular hypothalamic neurons directly control both spontaneous and evoked activities of Sp5C neurons and could act either as modulators or triggers of migraine and/or trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias by integrating nociceptive, autonomic, and stress processing mechanisms.
- The pathophysiological and pharmacological basis of current drug treatment of migraine headache. [Journal Article]
- Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2013 May; 6(3):271-88.
Migraine is a common neurological syndrome that affects approximately 10-20% of the population. The pathophysiology of migraine is unclear. 5-hydroxytriptamine is a key mediator in the pathogenesis of migraine and thus 5-HT1-receptor agonists are the principal drugs for acute migraine therapy. There are three classes of drugs for migraine: over-the-counter analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for acute mild migraine, specific prescription drugs (triptans and ergot alkaloids) for acute severe migraine and pharmacological agents for prophylaxis of migraine. Sumatriptan, naratriptan and others, referred to as 'triptans', are the mainstay for acute treatment of migraine. Ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine) are used in patients with frequent, moderate migraine, but are less effective than triptans. There are several agents for prevention of migraine occurrence in patients with frequent or severe disabling migraine attacks. New drugs with improved efficacy and reduced side effects are needed for effective treatment and prevention of migraine.
- Triptans in prevention of menstrual migraine: a systematic review with meta-analysis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- J Headache Pain 2013 Dec; 14(1):7.
Randomized clinical trials (RCT) assessing the efficacy and tolerability of triptans compared with placebo as short-term prophylaxis of menstrual migraine (MM) were systematically reviewed in this study. Triptans, which interfere with the pathogenesis of migraine and are effective in relieving associated neurovegetative symptoms, have been extensively proposed for prevention of menstrual migraine attacks. We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials on triptans for MM until 1 Oct, 2012. A total of six RCTs were identified. Two authors independently assessed trial's quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants free from MM per perimenstrual period (PMP), requiring rescue medication, suffering from headache-associated symptoms and experiencing adverse events in treatment and control groups were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat (NNT) with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 633 participants received frovatriptan 2.5 mg QD, 584 received frovatriptan 2.5 mg BID, 392 received naratriptan 1 mg BID, 70 received naratriptan 2.5 mg BID, 80 received zolmitriptan 2.5 mg BID, 83 received zolmitriptan 2.5 mg TID and 1104 received placebo. Overall, triptans is an effective, short-term, prophylactic treatment of choice for MM. Considering MM frequency, severity and adverse events, frovatriptan 2.5 mg BID and zolmitriptan 2.5 mg TID tend to be the preferred regimens.
- Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression. [Journal Article]
- Anal Chim Acta 2013 Apr 3.:45-52.
The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic - azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples×sensors×pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model.
- [Publish your case report]. [Journal Article]
- Praxis (Bern 1994) 2013 Feb 27; 102(5):253-59; quiz 60-1.
- A translational in vivo model of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: therapeutic characterization. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Brain 2012 Dec; 135(Pt 12):3664-75.
Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias are highly disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by severe unilateral head pain and associated ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. There is limited understanding of their pathophysiology and how and where treatments act to reduce symptoms; this is significantly hindered by a lack of animal models. We have developed the first animal model to explore trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, using stimulation within the brainstem, at the level of the superior salivatory nucleus, to activate the trigeminal autonomic reflex arc. Using electrophysiological recording of neurons of the trigeminocervical complex and laser Doppler blood flow changes around the ipsilateral lacrimal duct, superior salivatory nucleus stimulation exhibited both neuronal trigeminovascular and cranial autonomic manifestations. These responses were specifically inhibited by the autonomic ganglion blocker hexamethonium bromide. These data demonstrate that brainstem activation may be the driver of both sensory and autonomic symptoms in these disorders, and part of this activation may be via the parasympathetic outflow to the cranial vasculature. Additionally, both sensory and autonomic manifestations were significantly inhibited by highly effective treatments for trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, such as oxygen, indomethacin and triptans, and some part of their therapeutic action appears to be specifically on the parasympathetic outflow to the cranial vasculature. Treatments more used to migraine, such as naproxen and a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor inhibitor, olcegepant, were less effective in this model. This is the first model to represent the phenotype of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and their response to therapies, and indicates the parasympathetic pathway may be uniquely involved in their pathophysiology and targeted to relieve symptoms.
- Attacking the flank: targeting new pathways in SBMA. [Comment, News]
- Nat Med 2012 Oct; 18(10):1461-3.
- Naratriptan mitigates CGRP1-associated motor neuron degeneration caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat tract. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Med 2012 Oct; 18(10):1531-8.
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of the CAG triplet repeat within the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Here, we demonstrated that pathogenic AR upregulates the gene encoding calcitonin gene-related peptide α (CGRP1). In neuronal cells, overexpression of CGRP1 induced cellular damage via the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, whereas pharmacological suppression of CGRP1 or JNK attenuated the neurotoxic effects of pathogenic AR. The depletion of CGRP1 inactivated JNK and suppressed neurodegeneration in a mouse model of SBMA. Naratriptan, a serotonin 1B/1D (5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D, or 5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonist, decreased CGRP1 expression via the induction of dual-specificity protein phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), attenuated JNK activity and mitigated pathogenic AR-mediated neuronal damage in cellular and mouse SBMA models. These observations suggest that pharmacological activation of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor may be used therapeutically to treat SBMA and other polyglutamine-related neurodegenerative diseases.
- Challenges in the simultaneous quantitation of sumatriptan and naproxen in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study. [Journal Article]
- J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2012 Aug 1.:122-31.
An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sumatriptan and naproxen in human plasma using naratriptan and indomethacin as the internal standards (ISs). The plasma samples were prepared by solid phase extraction on Phenomenex Strata-X cartridges using 100 μL human plasma sample. Chromatography was carried out on Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) analytical column under isocratic conditions using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-4.0mM ammonium acetate (70:10:20, v/v/v). The precursor→product ion transition for both the analytes and ISs was monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring and positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a wide dynamic concentration range of 0.050-100 ng/mL for sumatriptan and 0.050-100 μg/mL for naproxen. Matrix effect was assessed by post-column analyte infusion and the extraction recovery was >95.0% across four quality control levels for both the analytes. Stability was evaluated under different conditions including bench top, processed sample, freeze and thaw and long term. The method was applied to support a bioequivalence study of 85 mg sumatriptan+500 mg naproxen sodium fixed dose formulation in 28 healthy Indian subjects. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 123 incurred samples.
- Differential effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor blockade by olcegepant on mechanical allodynia induced by ligation of the infraorbital nerve vs the sciatic nerve in the rat. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pain 2012 Sep; 153(9):1939-48.
Previous studies showed that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1B/1D) receptor stimulation by triptans alleviates neuropathic pain caused by chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION) but not the sciatic nerve (CCI-SN) in rats. To assess whether such differential effects in the cephalic vs extracephalic territories is a property shared by other antimigraine drugs, we used the same models to investigate the effects of olcegepant, which has an antimigraine action mediated through calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor blockade. Adult male rats underwent unilateral CCI to the ION or the SN, and subsequent allodynia and/or hyperalgesia were assessed in ipsilateral vibrissal territory or hindpaw, respectively, using von Frey filaments and validated nociceptive tests. c-Fos expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry and interleukin 6 and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) mRNAs by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Like naratriptan (0.1 to 0.3mg/kg, subcutaneously), olcegepant (0.3 to 0.9mg/kg, intravenously) markedly reduced mechanical allodynia in CCI-ION rats. In contrast, in CCI-SN rats, mechanical allodynia was completely unaffected and hyperalgesia was only marginally reduced by these drugs. A supra-additive antiallodynic effect was observed in CCI-ION rats treated with olcegepant (0.3mg/kg intravenously) plus naratriptan (0.1mg/kg subcutaneously), whereas this drug combination remained inactive in CCI-SN rats. Olcegepant (0.6mg/kg, intravenously) significantly reduced the number of c-Fos immunolabeled cells in spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve and upregulation of ATF3 transcript (a marker of neuron injury) but not that of interleukin-6 in trigeminal ganglion of CCI-ION rats. These findings suggest that CGRP receptor blockade might be of potential interest to alleviate trigeminal neuropathic pain.