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American ginseng [keywords]
- Ginseng saponin metabolite 20(S)-protopanaxadiol inhibits tumor growth by targeting multiple cancer signaling pathways. [Journal Article]
- Oncol Rep 2013 Jul; 30(1):292-8.
Plant-derived active constituents and their semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs have served as major sources of anticancer drugs. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a metabolite of ginseng saponin of both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). We previously demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3, a glucoside precursor of PPD, exhibits anti-proliferative effects on HCT116 cells and reduces tumor size in a xenograft model. Our subsequent study indicated that PPD has more potent antitumor activity than that of Rg3 in vitro although the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD remains to be defined. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PPD was shown to inhibit growth and induce cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells. The in vivo studies indicate that PPD inhibits xenograft tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing HCT116 cells. The xenograft tumor size was significantly reduced when the animals were treated with PPD (30 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. When the expression of previously identified Rg3 targets, A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8 (AKAP8L) and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein α (PITPNA), was analyzed, PPD was shown to inhibit the expression of PITPNA while upregulating AKAP8L expression in HCT116 cells. Pathway-specific reporter assays indicated that PPD effectively suppressed the NF-κB, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that the anticancer activity of PPD in colon cancer cells may be mediated through targeting NF-κB, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, although the detailed mechanisms underlying the anticancer mode of PPD action need to be fully elucidated.
- Cell-based screening of traditional chinese medicines for proliferation enhancers of mouse embryonic stem cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biotechnol Prog 2013 Apr 18.
A high-throughput cell-based method was developed for screening traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) for potential stem cell growth promoters. Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were cultured in growth media supplemented with various TCHM extracts. The dosage-dependent effects of TCHM extracts on cell growth, including proliferation and cytotoxicity, were assessed via EGFP fluorescence measurement. Seven TCHMs were investigated, and among them Panax notoginseng (PN), Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae, Rhizoma chuanxiong, and Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) showed potential to improve mES cell proliferation. Eleven mixtures of these four TCHMs were then studied, and the results showed that the mixture of PN and GLS had the strongest growth promoting effect, increasing the specific growth rate of mES cells by 29.5% at a low dosage of 0.01% (wt/vol) PN/GLS (P < 0.01) and 34.2% at 0.1% (wt/vol) PN/GLS (P < 0.05) compared to the control. The growth promoting effect of PN/GLS was further confirmed with ES cells cultured in spinner flasks. A 29.3-fold increase in the total cell number was achieved in the medium supplemented with 0.01% PN/GLS after 5 days, while the control culture only gave a 16.8-fold increase. This cell-based screening method thus can provide an efficient and high-throughput way to explore potential stem cell growth promoters from TCHMs. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013.
- The relationship between genetic and chemotypic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phytochemistry 2013 Apr 13.
Ginseng is one of the world's most important herbals used as an adaptogen and a cure for an impressively large range of ailments. Differences in the medicinal properties of ginseng roots have been attributed to variation in ginsenoside composition. In this study, the association between genetic and chemotypic profiles of wild and cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots grown in Maryland was investigated. Ginseng roots were classified into chemotypes based on their relative composition of Re and Rg1. Genetic profiles of these roots were determined from the analysis of 38 polymorphic RAPD markers and used for a cluster analysis of genetic similarities. The close correspondence between chemotype and genetic cluster provides the first DNA-based evidence for the genetic basis of ginsenoside composition. Results of this research are significant for plant breeding and conservation, phytochemical research, and clinical and pharmacological studies. Also, the correlation between RAPD markers and chemotype indicates the potential to use RAPD markers as a reliable and practical method for identification and certification of ginseng roots.
- Anti-amnesic effect of pseudoginsenoside-F11 in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2013 Mar 27.:57-67.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) deposits, elevated oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the neurons. Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), a component of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng), has been demonstrated to antagonize the learning and memory deficits induced by scopolamine, morphine and methamphetamine in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PF11 on AD-like cognitive impairment both in mice induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 (410pmol) and in Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. It was found that oral treatment with PF11 significantly mitigated learning and memory impairment in mice given Aβ1-42-treated mice for 15days at doses of 1.6 and 8mg/kg and APP/PS1 for 4weeks at a dose of 8mg/kg as measured by the Morris water maze and step-through tests. In APP/PS1 mice, PF11 8mg/kg significantly inhibited the expressions of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ1-40 in the cortex and hippocampus, restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cortex. It also noticeably improved the histopathological changes in the cortex and hippocampus and downregulated the expressions of JNK 2, p53 and cleaved caspase 3 in the hippocampus. These findings suggested that the inhibitory effect on amyloidogenesis and oxidative stress and some beneficial effects on neuronal functions might contribute to the recognition improvement effect of PF11 in APP/PS1 mice. Cumulatively, the present study indicated that PF11 may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.
- Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis of Botanical Dietary Supplements Using Salt-out Acetonitrile Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction Cleanup Column, and Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anal Chem 2013 Apr 15.
Dietary supplements form an increasing part of the American diet, yet broadly applicable multiresidue pesticide methods have not been evaluated for many of these supplements. A method for the analysis of 310 pesticides, isomers, and pesticide metabolites in dried botanical dietary supplements has been developed and validated. Sample preparation involved acetonitrile:water added to the botanical along with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride for extraction, followed by cleanup with solid-phase extraction using a tandem cartridge consisting of graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary-secondary amine sorbent (PSA). Pesticides were measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were evaluated through fortifications of 24 botanicals at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg. Mean pesticide recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all botanicals were 97%, 91%, 90%, and 90% and 15%, 10%, 8%, and 6% at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg, respectively. The method was applied to 21 incurred botanicals. Quinoxyfen was measured in hops (100-620 μg/kg). Tetraconazole (48 μg/kg), tetramethrin (15 μg/kg), methamidophos (50 μg/kg), and chlorpyrifos (93 μg/kg) were measured in licorice, mallow, tea, and tribulus, respectively. Quintozene, its metabolites and contaminants (pentachloroaniline, pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, and pentachlorothioanisole and hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene, respectively), with hexachlorocyclohexanes and DDT were identified in ginseng sources along with azoxystrobin, diazinon, and dimethomorph between 0.7 and 2800 μg/kg. Validation with these botanicals demonstrated the extent of this method's applicability for screening 310 pesticides in a wide array of botanical dietary supplements.
- Cell-based screening of traditional chinese medicines for proliferation enhancers of mouse embryonic stem cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biotechnol Prog 2013 Mar 19.
A high-throughput cell-based method was developed for screening traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) for potential stem cell growth promoters. Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were cultured in growth media supplemented with various TCHM extracts. The dosage-dependent effects of TCHM extracts on cell growth, including proliferation and cytotoxicity, were assessed via EGFP fluorescence measurement. Seven TCHMs were investigated, and among them Panax notoginseng (PN), Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae (RAM), Rhizoma chuanxiong (RC) and Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) showed potential to improve mES cell proliferation. Eleven mixtures of these 4 TCHMs were then studied, and the results showed that the mixture of PN and GLS had the strongest growth promoting effect, increasing the specific growth rate of mES cells by 29.5% at a low dosage of 0.01% (w/v) PN/GLS (p < 0.01) and 34.2% at 0.1% (w/v) PN/GLS (p < 0.05) compared to the control. The growth promoting effect of PN/GLS was further confirmed with ES cells cultured in spinner flasks. A 29.3-fold increase in the total cell number was achieved in the medium supplemented with 0.01% PN/GLS after 5 days, while the control culture only gave a 16.8-fold increase. This cell-based screening method thus can provide an efficient and high-throughput way to explore potential stem cell growth promoters from TCHMs. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013.
- Beneficial effects of american ginseng on epididymal sperm analyses in cyclophosphamide treated rats. [Journal Article]
- Cell J 2012; 14(2):116-21.
This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of American ginseng administered by gastric intubation on sperm vital quality in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide (CP).In this experimental study, 28 Adult male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups, seven rats in each. The animals allocated to control, CP treated, Ginseng treated and CP-Ginseng treated groups. Rats were treated with CP (6.1 mg/kg/day, i.p) for 6 weeks. American ginseng was used at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day during treatment. Sperm analysis (motion, count, morphology and viability) were evaluated at the end of the experiments. Sperm motion was assessed by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA). The data were analyzed using GB stat software. Probability values of p<0.05 and p<0.01 were considered significant.The epididymal sperm counts in the groups that received CP showed significant decreases compared to the control group. Also dead and abnormal sperms significantly increased following CP treatment compared with control. The motility of caudal sperm was reduced significantly with CP treatment. Therefore, according to the results of this study, co-administration of CP and American ginseng can improve these parameters.American ginseng can prevent the cytotoxic effects of CP on sperm quality factors.
- Biotransformation and metabolic profile of American ginseng saponins with human intestinal microflora by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Chromatogr A 2013 Apr 19.:83-92.
American ginseng is a widely used natural product. Ginseng products are usually taken orally, and human intestinal microflora may metabolize ginsenosides. Existing publications report the metabolite fates of ginsenosides. However, investigations on the comprehensive metabolic profile of American ginseng extract are absent because of the chemical complexity and limitation of analytical methods. In this work, we studied the biotransformation and metabolic profile of American ginseng extract by human intestinal microflora. Human fecal microflora was prepared from a healthy Chinese man and then anaerobically incubated with American ginseng sample at 37 °C for 24 h. A rapid and simple liquid-liquid extraction method was used for sample pretreatment. A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) method was used to characterize ginsenosides and related metabolites in the reaction samples. The LC-Q-TOF-MS provides superior data quality and advanced analytical capabilities for profiling, identifying, and characterizing complex metabolites in matrix-based biological samples. A total of 25 metabolites were detected, 13 of which were undoubtedly assigned by comparison with reference compounds, and 12 others were tentatively identified. The three most abundant metabolites are 20S-ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside F2 and compound K. The main metabolic pathways of ginseng saponins are deglycosylation reactions by intestinal microflora through stepwise cleavage of sugar moieties. Subsequent dehydration reactions also occur. Protopanaxadiol- and oleanane-type triterpenoids are easy to metabolize. The intestinal microbiota may play an important role in mediating the metabolism bioactivity of American ginseng.
- The production of ginsenosides in hairy root cultures of American Ginseng, Panax quinquefolium L. and their antimicrobial activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 2013 Feb; 49(1):24-29.
Panax quinquefolium, American ginseng, is valued for its triterpene saponins, known as ginsenosides. These constituents possess a number of pharmacological properties and hairy root cultures can synthesize similar saponins to those of field-cultivated roots. The antibacterial activity of extracts from three hairy root clones of P. quinquefolium L. was tested against a range of standard bacterial and yeast strains. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate inhibition of microbial growth at various extract concentrations. Commercial antibiotics were used as positive reference standards to determine the sensitivity of the strains. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was also tested using the disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the extracts, obtained by agar diffusion, ranged from 0.8 to 1.4 mg/ml. The results showed that extracts from hairy root cultures inhibited the growth of bacteria and yeast strains and suggest that they may be useful in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
- Ecology and conservation of ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in a changing world. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013 Feb 11.
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an uncommon to rare understory plant of the eastern deciduous forest. Harvesting to supply the Asian traditional medicine market made ginseng North America's most harvested wild plant for two centuries, eventually prompting a listing on CITES Appendix II. The prominence of this representative understory plant has led to its use as a phytometer to better understand how environmental changes are affecting many lesser-known species that constitute the diverse temperate flora of eastern North America. We review recent scientific findings concerning this remarkable phytometer species, identifying factors through its history of direct and indirect interactions with humans that have led to the current condition of the species. Harvest, deer browse, and climate change effects have been studied in detail, and all represent unique interacting threats to ginseng's long-term persistence. Finally, we synthesize our current understanding by portraying ginseng's existence in thousands of small populations, precariously poised to either escape or be drawn further toward extinction by the actions of our own species.