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American trypanosomiasis [keywords]
- Evaluation of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte response time kinetics in patients with chronic Chagas disease after in vitro stimulation with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2013 May 10.:0.
Introduction CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes have been implicated in the regulation of host inflammatory response against Trypanosoma cruzi, and may be involved in the clinical course of the disease. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic Chagas disease were cultured in the presence of T. cruzi recombinant antigens and assayed for lymphocytes at distinct time points. Results It was possible to differentiate clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease at days 3 and 5 according to presence of CD4+CD25+ T cells in cell cultures. Conclusions Longer periods of cell culture proved to be potentially valuable for prospective evaluations of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes in patients with chronic Chagas disease.
- Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2013 May 10.:0.
Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years), all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.
- Protection of vascular endothelium by aspirin in a murine model of chronic Chagas' disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasitol Res 2013 May 17.
Chronic Chagas' disease affects 10-30 % of patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, and it mainly manifests as cardiomyopathy. Important pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiac lesions include activation of the endothelium and induced microvascular alterations. These processes involve the production of endothelial adhesion molecules and thromboxane A2, which are involved in inflammatory cell recruitment and platelet aggregation, respectively. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as aspirin decrease thromboxane production and alter the course of Chagas' disease, both in the acute and chronic phases. We studied the effects of the administration of low and high doses of aspirin during the early phase of T. cruzi infection, following microvascular damage in the context of a chronic murine model of Chagas' disease. The effects of both schedules were assessed at 24 and 90 days postinfection by evaluating parasitemia, mortality, and cardiac histopathological changes as well as the expression of ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin in cardiac tissue. Thromboxane A2, soluble ICAM, and E-selectin blood levels were also measured. While aspirin did not affect parasitemia or mortality in the infected mice, it decreased both cardiac inflammatory infiltrates and thromboxane levels. Additionally, at 90 days postinfection, aspirin normalized sICAM and sE-selectin levels. Considering the improved endothelial function induced by aspirin, we propose the possibility of including this drug in clinical therapy to treat chronic Chagas' disease.
- Biogenic trypanocidal sesquiterpenes: lead compounds to design future trypanocidal drugs - a mini review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Daru 2013 May 15; 21(1):35.
Human trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease among poor people in Africa and Latin America. Therapy against African and American trypanosomiasis is based on a few drugs that often cause severe side-effects. Therefore, it is essential to develop drug discovery especially from natural origins. Sesquiterpenes, a diverse group of natural terpenoids, are found in essential oils of many plants and show a broad range of bioactivities. They act through multiple mechanisms in the chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis. Some of these active compounds contain hydroperoxides, Aldehydes, alcohols, alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactone and even halogenated moieties. Among the compounds reported, sesquiterpene lactones showed a potent anti-trypanosoma effect comparable with commercial trypanocidal drugs. Trypanocidal activity of sesquiterpene lactones mostly depends on the reaction between gamma-lactone moieties and nucleophile groups of trypanithione, which is essential for Trypanosoma defense against the oxidative stresses. Elatol is a sesquiterpenoid from marine algae, with a different structure and considerable trypanocidal activity which could be an interesting candidate for further antiprotozoal investigations. To develop novel drugs with higher efficacy and lower toxicity from natural products, this review summarizes the more recent information on trypanocidal activities of various sesquiterpenes.
- Is pregnancy associated with severe dengue? A review of data from the rio de janeiro surveillance information system. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 May; 7(5):e2217.
Dengue is a reportable disease in Brazil; however, pregnancy has been included in the application form of the Brazilian notification information system only after 2006. To estimate the severity of maternal dengue infection, the available data that were compiled from January 2007 to December 2008 by the official surveillance information system of the city of Rio de Janeiro were reviewed.During the study period, 151,604 cases of suspected dengue infection were reported. Five hundred sixty-one women in their reproductive age (15-49 years) presented with dengue infection; 99 (18.1%) pregnant and 447 (81.9%) non-pregnant women were analyzed. Dengue cases were categorized using the 1997 WHO classification system, and DHF/DSS were considered severe disease. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare maternal age, according to gestational period, and severity of disease. A chi-square test was utilized to evaluate the differences in the proportion of dengue severity between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Univariate analysis was performed to compare outcome variables (severe dengue and non-severe dengue) and explanatory variables (pregnancy, gestational age and trimester) using the Wald test. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess the independence of statistically significant variables in the univariate analysis. A p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. A higher percentage of severe dengue infection among pregnant women was found, p = 0.0001. Final analysis demonstrated that pregnant women are 3.4 times more prone to developing severe dengue (OR: 3.38; CI: 2.10-5.42). Mortality among pregnant women was superior to non-pregnant women.Pregnant women have an increased risk of developing severe dengue infection and dying of dengue.
- Insights into the Activity and Specificity of Trypanosoma cruzi trans-Sialidase from Molecular Dynamics Simulations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochemistry 2013 May 14.
Trypanosoma cruzitrans-sialidase (TcTS), which catalyzes the transfer or hydrolysis of terminal sialic acid residues, is crucial to the development and proliferation of the T. cruzi parasite and thus has emerged as a potential drug target for the treatment of Chagas disease. We here probe the origin of the observed preference for the transfer reaction over hydrolysis where the substrate for TcTS is the natural sialyl donor (represented in this work by sialyllactose). Thus, acceptor lactose preferentially attacks the sialyl-enyzme intermediate rather than water. We compare this with the weaker preference for such transfer shown by a synthetic donor substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl α-d-acetylneuraminide. For this reason, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations of TcTS following its sialylation by the substrate to examine the behavior of the asialyl leaving group by the protein. These simulations indicate that, where lactose is released, this leaving group samples well-defined interactions in the acceptor site, some of which are mediated by localized water molecules; also, the extent of the opening of the acceptor site to solvent is reduced as compared with those of unliganded forms of TcTS. However, where there is release of 4-methylumbelliferone, this leaving group explores a range of transient poses; surrounding active site water is also more disordered. The acceptor site explores more open conformations, similar to the case in which the 4-methylumbelliferone is absent. Thus, the predicted solvent accessibility of sialylated TcTS is increased when 4-methylumbelliferyl α-d-acetylneuraminide is the substrate compared to sialyllactose; this in turn is likely to contribute to a greater propensity for hydrolysis of the covalent intermediate. These computational simulations, which suggest that protein flexibility has a role in the transferase/sialidase activity of TcTS, have the potential to aid in the design of anti-Chagas inhibitors effective against this neglected tropical disease.
- Microsatellite loci-based distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes from Chilean chronic Chagas disease patients and Triatoma infestans is concordant with a specific host-parasite association hypothesis. [Journal Article]
- Acta Parasitol 2013 Jun; 58(2):139-48.
The objective of this study was to investigate if there is specific host-parasite association in Chilean populations of Trypanosoma cruzi. For this purpose, two groups of parasites were analyzed, one from chronic chagasic patients, and the other from Triatoma infestans triatomines in three regions of the country. The first group consisted of four types of samples: parasites from peripheral blood of non-cardiopathic T. cruzi infected patients (NB); parasites from their corresponding xenodiagnosis (NX); parasites from peripheral blood of T. cruzi infected cardiopathic patients (CB) and parasites from their xenodiagnostics (CX). The T. infestans sample in turn was from three regions: III, V and M (Metropolitan). The genetic differentiation by the Fisher exact method, the lineage distribution of the samples, the molecular phylogeny and the frequency of multiclonality were analysed. The results show that not only are the groups of T. cruzi clones from Chagas disease patients and vectors genetically differentiated, but also all the sub-groups (NB, NX, CB and CX) from the III, V and M regions. The analysis of lineage distribution was concordant with the above results, because significant differences among the percentages of TcI, TcIII and hybrids (TcV or TcVI) were observed. The phylogenetic reconstruction with these Chilean T. cruzi samples was coherent with the above results because the four chagasic samples clustered together in a node with high bootstrap support, whereas the three triatomine samples (III, V and M) were located apart from that node. The topology of the tree including published T. cruzi clones and isolates was concordant with the known topology, which confirmed that the results presented here are correct and are not biased by experimental error. Taken together the results presented here are concordant with a specific host-parasite association between some Chilean T. cruzi populations.
- High phylogeographic structure in sylvatic vectors of Chagas disease of the genus Mepraia (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Infect Genet Evol 2013 May 9.
The hematophagous Hemiptera of the subfamily Triatominae are a very diverse group with a variety of morphs, behaviors and distributions. They have great epidemiological importance because many of its members are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. Mepraia is a genus of Triatominae endemic to Chile responsible for transmitting T. cruzi in the sylvatic cycle. Mepraia includes three species, M. gajardoi (18° 30' to 26° 30' S) M. spinolai (26° 30' to 34° 20' S) and the recently described M. parapatrica in intermediate zones (24° 36' to 26° 51' S). Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, we inferred historical processes that led to the current structure of populations. Phylogeographic analyses identified three lineages, congruent with current taxonomy, and populations were highly structured. The times to the most recent common ancestor suggest that M. spinolai is the oldest lineage. We discuss the taxonomic and biogeographic implications of our results.
- A comparative proteomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 wild-type cells versus a phoB mutant showed that the PhoB/PhoR system is required for full growth and rpoS expression under inorganic phosphate abundance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 8.
PhoB/PhoR is a two-component system originally described as involved in inorganic phosphate (Pi) transport and metabolism under Pi limitation. In order to disclose other roles of this system, a proteomic analysis of V. cholerae 569BSR and its phoB/phoR mutant under high Pi levels was performed. Most of the proteins downregulated by the mutant have roles in energy production and conversion and in amino acids transport and metabolism. In contrast, the phoB/phoR mutant upregulated genes mainly involved in adaptation to atypical conditions, indicating that the absence of a functional PhoB/PhoR caused increased expression of a number of genes from distinct stress response pathways. This might be a strategy to overcome the lack of RpoS, whose expression in the stationary phase cells of V. cholerae seems to be controlled by PhoB/PhoR. Moreover, compared to the wild-type strain the phoB/phoR mutant presented a reduced cell density at stationary phase of culture in Pi abundance, lower resistance to acid shock, but higher tolerance to thermal and osmotic stresses. Together our findings show, for the first time, the requirement of PhoB/PhoR for full growth under high Pi level and for the accumulation of RpoS, indicating that PhoB/PhoR is a fundamental system for the biology of V. cholerae. BIOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE:Certain V. cholerae strains are pathogenic to humans, causing cholera, an acute dehydrating diarrhoeal disease endemic in Southern Asia, parts of Africa and Latin America, where it has been responsible for significant mortality and economical damage. Its ability to grow within distinct niches is dependent on gene expression regulation. PhoB/PhoR is a two-component system originally described as involved in inorganic phosphate (Pi) transport and metabolism under Pi limitation. However, Pho regulon genes also play roles in virulence, motility and biolofilm formation, among others. In this paper we report that the absence of a functional PhoB/PhoR caused increased expression of a number of genes from distinct stress response pathways, in Pi abundance. Moreover, we showed, for the first time, that the interrelationship between PhoB-RpoS-(p)ppGpp-poly(P) in V. cholerae, is somewhat diverse from the model of inter-regulation between those systems, described in E. coli. The V. cholerae dependence on PhoB/PhoR for the RpoS mediated stress response and cellular growth under Pi abundance, suggests that this system's roles are broader than previously thought.
- Acute myocarditis: Chagas disease? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Clin Esp 2013 May 9.