(Amphetamine) articles in PubMed
- Stress-Induced Locomotor Sensitization to Amphetamine in Adult, but not in Adolescent Rats, Is Associated with Increased Expression of ΔFosB in the Nucleus Accumbens. [Journal Article]
- Front Behav Neurosci 2016; 10:173FB
- While clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that adolescence is a risk period for the development of addiction, the underlying neural mechanisms are largely unknown. Stress during adolescence h...
While clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that adolescence is a risk period for the development of addiction, the underlying neural mechanisms are largely unknown. Stress during adolescence has a huge influence on drug addiction. However, little is known about the mechanisms related to the interaction among stress, adolescence and addiction. Studies point to ΔFosB as a possible target for this phenomenon. In the present study, adolescent and adult rats (postnatal day 28 and 60, respectively) were restrained for 2 h once a day for 7 days. Three days after their last exposure to stress, the animals were challenged with saline or amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine-induced locomotion was recorded. Immediately after the behavioral tests, rats were decapitated and the nucleus accumbens was dissected to measure ΔFosB protein levels. We found that repeated restraint stress increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in both the adult and adolescent rats. Furthermore, in adult rats, stress-induced locomotor sensitization was associated with increased expression of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens. Our data suggest that ΔFosB may be involved in some of the neuronal plasticity changes associated with stress induced-cross sensitization with amphetamine in adult rats.
- Psychostimulant drugs for cocaine dependence. [Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Sep 27; 9:CD007380CD
- CONCLUSIONS: This review found mixed results. Psychostimulants improved cocaine abstinence compared to placebo in some analyses but did not improve treatment retention. Since treatment dropout was high, we cannot rule out the possibility that these results were influenced by attrition bias. Existing evidence does not clearly demonstrate the efficacy of any pharmacological treatment for cocaine dependence, but substitution treatment with psychostimulants appears promising and deserves further investigation.
- Dextroamphetamine and Pramipexole Combination for Treatment-Resistant Unipolar Depression. [Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Ann 2016; 46(8):429-431PA
- Exposure to Amphetamines Leads to Development of Amphetamine Type Stimulants Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC). [Review]
- Cardiovasc Toxicol 2016 Sep 24CT
- With rapidly rising prevalence of exposure to Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS), novel insights into cardiotoxic effects of this substance are being presented in the literature and remarkably ATS Ass...
With rapidly rising prevalence of exposure to Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS), novel insights into cardiotoxic effects of this substance are being presented in the literature and remarkably ATS Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC) is emerging as a novel cardiovascular condition with its distinctive pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features and prognosis. A comprehensive systematic review was performed to explore and analyze the current evidence on the association between ATS exposure and development of cardiomyopathy, biological mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of ATSAC, risk factors, clinical features and course of patients with ATSAC. Several animal studies, case reports, case series and case-control studies support the association between ATS exposure and ATSAC. Oxidative stress, accelerated apoptosis, increased p53 activity, cardiomyocyte necrosis, perfusion defects, fatty acid toxicity, altered gene expression, abnormal cardiac protein synthesis and function in addition to defects in intracellular calcium hemostasis present themselves as likely mechanisms of cardiotoxicity in ATSAC. Majority of patients with ATSAC were found to be male, young and presented late with severe dilated cardiomyopathy. Female ATS users predominantly develop Takotsubo type of ATSAC and in particular its atypical basal variant. Overall, cessation of ATS exposure seems to be associated with some degree of reversibility and recovery in ATSAC sufferers.
- Relative Bioavailabilities of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate and d-Amphetamine in Healthy Adults in an Open-Label, Randomized, Crossover Study After Mixing Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate with Food or Drink. [Journal Article]
- Ther Drug Monit 2016 Sep 20TD
- CONCLUSIONS: Relative bioavailability of d-amphetamine (the active moiety) did not differ across administrations, supporting the emptying of an LDX capsule into orange juice or yogurt and consuming it as an alternative to intact capsules.
- Is This a Drug?" Answers From Medical Students in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Eastern India. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2016; 10(8):FC10-3JC
- CONCLUSIONS: Some major lacunae were noted in the knowledge of the participating students despite book teaching on the definition of a drug. Drugs used for prophylaxis and those used in physiological conditions or topically, were often missed. These gaps need to be filled by more emphasis on definition of a drug and its clinical applicability based on example and case based studies.
- Optogenetic activation of leptin- and glucose-regulated GABAergic neurons in dorsomedial hypothalamus promotes food intake via inhibitory synaptic transmission to paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus. [Journal Article]
- Mol Metab 2016; 5(8):709-15MM
- CONCLUSIONS: DMH GABAergic neurons are regulated by metabolic signals leptin and glucose and, once activated, promote food intake via inhibitory synaptic transmission to PVN.
- Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Cell Activation during Male Rat Sexual Behavior Regulates Neuroplasticity and d-Amphetamine Cross-Sensitization following Sex Abstinence. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2016 Sep 21; 36(38):9949-61JN
- Experience with sexual behavior causes cross-sensitization of amphetamine reward, an effect dependent on a period of sexual reward abstinence. We previously showed that ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens...
Experience with sexual behavior causes cross-sensitization of amphetamine reward, an effect dependent on a period of sexual reward abstinence. We previously showed that ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key mediator of this cross-sensitization, potentially via dopamine receptor activation. However, the role of mesolimbic dopamine for sexual behavior or cross-sensitization between natural and drug reward is unknown. This was tested using inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells. rAAV5/hSvn-DIO-hm4D-mCherry was injected into the VTA of TH::Cre adult male rats. Males received clozapine N-oxide (CNO) or vehicle injections before each of 5 consecutive days of mating or handling. Following an abstinence period of 7 d, males were tested for amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP). Next, males were injected with CNO or vehicle before mating or handling for analysis of mating-induced cFos, sex experience-induced ΔFosB, and reduction of VTA dopamine soma size. Results showed that CNO did not affect mating behavior. Instead, CNO prevented sexual experience-induced cross-sensitization of amphetamine CPP, ΔFosB in the NAc and medial prefrontal cortex, and decreases in VTA dopamine soma size. Expression of hm4D-mCherry was specific to VTA dopamine cells and CNO blocked excitation and mating-induced cFos expression in VTA dopamine cells. These findings provide direct evidence that VTA dopamine activation is not required for initiation or performance of sexual behavior. Instead, VTA dopamine directly contributes to increased vulnerability for drug use following loss of natural reward by causing neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic pathway during the natural reward experience.
- Central apelin-13 administration modulates hypothalamic control of feeding. [Journal Article]
- J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2016 Jul-Sep; 30(3):883-888JB
- The 77 amino prepropeptide apelin has been isolated from bovine stomach tissue and several smaller fragments, including apelin-13, showed high affinity for the orphan APJ receptor. The distribution o...
The 77 amino prepropeptide apelin has been isolated from bovine stomach tissue and several smaller fragments, including apelin-13, showed high affinity for the orphan APJ receptor. The distribution of apelinergic fibers and receptors in the hypothalamus may suggest a role of apelin-13 on energy balance regulation, albeit the studies reporting the acute effects of apelin on feeding control are inconsistent. Considering the possible involvement of apelinergic system on hypothalamic appetite controlling network, in the present study we evaluated in the rat the effects of intrahypothalamic apelin-13 injection on food intake and the involvement of orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic peptides and neurotransmitters. Eighteen rats (6 for each group of treatment) were injected into the ARC with either vehicle or apelin-13 (1-2 μg/rat). Food intake and hypothalamic peptide and neurotransmitter levels were evaluated 2 and 24 h after injection. Compared to vehicle, apelin-13 administration increased food intake both 2 and 24 h following treatment. This effect could be related to inhibited cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) synthesis and release, and increased orexin A gene expression in the hypothalamus.
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- Importance of Urinary Drug Screening in the Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2016 Sep 13JC
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate drug use is present in patients attending for daytime testing of objective sleepiness and wakefulness. These data support routine urinary drug screening in all patients undergoing MSLT or MWT studies to ensure accurate interpretation in the context of illicit and prescription drug use.