- Racial and Ethnic Differences in Substance Use Diagnoses, Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders, and Treatment Initiation among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in an Integrated Health Plan. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychoactive Drugs 2016 Oct 21; :1-7
- Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatm...
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment. Significant racial/ethnic differences were found among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women with respect to SUD diagnosis type and diagnosis of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Among the HIV-negative women, rates of SUD treatment initiation were lower for black women than for white or Latina women. Multivariable logistic regression models showed that alcohol, cannabis, and opiate diagnoses were predictive of SUD treatment initiation for both cohorts, while amphetamine diagnoses, comorbid depressive disorder, and being white or Latina were predictive of SUD treatment initiation for HIV-negative, but not HIV-positive, women. Findings suggest that clinicians need to be aware of differences in substances of abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and to consider the demographic and social factors that may contribute to differences in SUD treatment initiation among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.
- Captagon: use and trade in the Middle East. [Journal Article]
- HPHum Psychopharmacol 2016 Oct 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Further investigations are needed on the role that psychoactive drugs play in terrorist attacks and civil war zones. Unless a comprehensive methodological strategy, inclusive of unconventional methods of research, is implemented, it will not be feasible to face such a threat to humanity.
- Police called in to special hospital. [Journal Article]
- NSNurs Stand 1995 Jan 18; 9(17):8
- A nurse has been suspended from a special hospital pending an inquiry into how a patient obtained whisky and amphetamines. Police have been called in to investigate the incident, uncovered during a s...
A nurse has been suspended from a special hospital pending an inquiry into how a patient obtained whisky and amphetamines. Police have been called in to investigate the incident, uncovered during a search at the State Hospital at Carstairs, Lanarkshire in December. A member of the hospital's teaching staff has since resigned.
- Evidence of memory generalization in contextual locomotor sensitization induced by amphetamine. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2016 Oct 15; 317:522-527
- Addiction is a multifactorial disease that comprises physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. Addict subjects have intense plasticity in cortical and limbic circuits during intoxication, abst...
Addiction is a multifactorial disease that comprises physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. Addict subjects have intense plasticity in cortical and limbic circuits during intoxication, abstinence or even in drug seeking behavior. Locomotor sensitization is a classic animal model of drug addiction that mimics the changes that occur in the transition from drug use to drug addiction. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of contextual associative processes in this task. However, whether the mechanisms of sensitization are maintained and precise over the time remain an open question. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the importance of context in the maintenance and precision of locomotor sensitization across time. For this, male c57bl/6 mice were submitted to different contexts during the acquisition phase of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization. We found that after 3days of withdrawal, the expression of locomotor sensitization was context dependent, as characterized by an increased locomotion in the acquisition context (A), but not in the novel context (B). Surprisingly, when the expression of locomotor sensitization was tested after 28days of withdrawal, mice that acquired sensitization in the context A exhibited increased locomotion in both contexts (A and B), suggesting that memories associated with amphetamine drugs generalize following long periods of abstinence. The same generalization did not occur in mice sensitized in a well-known context (home cage). These results demonstrate, for the first time, the influence of memory generalization in amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization. The evidence that memory generalization also occurs in sensitization provides new advances in the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying memory role in addiction process. Elucidating the mechanisms of amphetamine sensitization may shed some light on understanding the transition from drug use to addiction.
- Timing of amphetamine exposure in relation to puberty onset determines its effects on anhedonia, exploratory behavior, and dopamine D1 receptor expression in young adulthood. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2016 Oct 1; 339:72-84
- Non-medical use of amphetamine (AMPH) among adolescents is prevalent, which is problematic given the potential consequences of developmental drug exposure on brain function and behavior. Previously w...
Non-medical use of amphetamine (AMPH) among adolescents is prevalent, which is problematic given the potential consequences of developmental drug exposure on brain function and behavior. Previously we found in adult male rats that AMPH exposure starting before puberty induces a persistent decrease in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here we investigated if this dysfunction was associated with changes in D1R expression in the mPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We also determined if starting drug exposure well before or near the onset of puberty would influence AMPH-induced changes in D1R expression and behavior. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once every other day (10 injections total) with saline or 3mg/kg AMPH (i.p.) from either postnatal day (P) 27 to 45 (pre-puberty groups; Pre-P) or P37 to 55 (peri-puberty groups; Peri-P). After 1, 7 and 21days of withdrawal, sucrose preference tests were performed to assess anhedonia. Exploratory behavior was studied in an open-field arena and on an elevated plus maze (EPM). Rats were then sacrificed for Western blot analysis of D1R expression. We found that AMPH withdrawal induced decreases in sucrose preference that persisted in rats with Peri-P onset treatment. Pre-P onset AMPH exposure led to increased open-arm exploration in the EPM test, as well as a decreased D1R level in the mPFC but not NAc. Our results demonstrated that AMPH exposure starting at different developmental stages resulted in distinct neurobehavioral abnormalities, suggesting an important role of exposure timing in drug-induced plasticity.
- Transition from ethanol-induced sensitization to tolerance across early and late infancy in the rat. [Journal Article]
- PBPharmacol Biochem Behav 2016 Sep 30; 150-151:68-75
- Drugs of abuse, as cocaine or amphetamine, induce locomotor sensitization during infancy and adulthood of the rat. This effect during the preweanling period is observed only after a short interval of...
Drugs of abuse, as cocaine or amphetamine, induce locomotor sensitization during infancy and adulthood of the rat. This effect during the preweanling period is observed only after a short interval of time between training and testing. We recently reported short-term locomotor sensitization induced by ethanol in pups chronically exposed to the drug during the second postnatal week of life. The present series of experiments was designed to explore the persistence of the sensitization effect across the preweanling period. Pups were chronically exposed to ethanol in five consecutive days during the second or the third postnatal weeks, and their locomotor activity was evaluated in an open field 3, 8 or 15days later. Our results showed that, contrarily to what has been observed with other drugs during infancy, sensitization to ethanol persisted at least 8days in rats exposed to the drug during the second postnatal week. Surprisingly, in older pups, the same procedure induced tolerance instead sensitization. This ontogenetic model offers a potentially interesting tool for studying within the same species, how tolerance and sensitization are interrelated, and how these effects affect ethanol-mediated reinforcement and ethanol intake during ontogeny.
- Deficit in emotional learning in neurotrimin knockout mice. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2016 Sep 28; 317:311-318
- Neurotrimin (Ntm) belongs to the IgLON family of cell adhesion molecules with Lsamp, Obcam and kilon that regulate the outgrowth of neurites mostly by forming heterodimers. IgLONs have been associate...
Neurotrimin (Ntm) belongs to the IgLON family of cell adhesion molecules with Lsamp, Obcam and kilon that regulate the outgrowth of neurites mostly by forming heterodimers. IgLONs have been associated with psychiatric disorders, intelligence, body weight, heart disease and tumours. This study provides an initial behavioural and pharmacological characterization of the phenotype of Ntm-deficient mice. We expected to see at least some overlap with the phenotype of Lsamp-deficient mice as Ntm and Lsamp are the main interaction partners in the IgLON family and are colocalized in some brain regions. However, Ntm-deficient mice displayed none of the deviations in behaviour that we have previously shown in Lsamp-deficient mice, but differently from Lsamp-deficient mice, had a deficit in emotional learning in the active avoidance task. The only overlap was decreased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effect of amphetamine in both knockout models. Thus, despite being interaction partners, on the behavioural level Lsamp seems to play a much more central role than Ntm and the roles of these two proteins seem to be complementary rather than overlapping.
- The role of neuropeptide CART in the lateral hypothalamic-ventral tegmental area (LH-VTA) circuit in motivation. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2016 Sep 27; 317:340-349
- Rats with electrode implanted in the lateral hypothalamus (LH)-medial forebrain bundle (MFB) area actively engage in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). However, the neuronal substrate that transla...
Rats with electrode implanted in the lateral hypothalamus (LH)-medial forebrain bundle (MFB) area actively engage in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). However, the neuronal substrate that translates the electrical pulses into the neural signals, and integrates the information with mesolimbic reward system, has remained elusive. We test the hypothesis that the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons in the LH-MFB area may support this function. The ICSS activity via an electrode in LH-MFB area was facilitated by CART (55-102) peptide stereotaxically injected in the lateral ventricle or posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA), but attenuated by CART antibody. While the ICSS experience seems to activate CART cells in the LH, the pVTA showed significant increment in the CART fiber terminals on the dopamine cells, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactivity, and CART and synaptophysin colabeled elements. Neuronal tracing experiments revealed that CART cells of the LH-MFB region project to the pVTA. The rats with stereotaxically implanted cannulae in pVTA avidly self-infused CART (55-102) suggesting a role for the peptide in motivation, however, CART (1-39) was ineffective. CART self-infusing activity was inhibited by dopamine D1 receptors antagonist, given directly in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). The rats trained to self-administer CART (55-102) showed enhanced TH immunoreactivity in the cells of pVTA and fibers in AcbSh. We suggest that CART neurons of the LH-MFB area may play a role in conveying reward information to the mesolimbic dopamine neurons, which in turn may arouse the goal directed behavior.
- Central inhibitory effects on feeding induced by the adipo-myokine irisin. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Sep 8; 791:389-394
- Irisin, the soluble secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)-cleaved product, is a recently identified adipo-myokine that has been indicated as a possible link between physic...
Irisin, the soluble secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)-cleaved product, is a recently identified adipo-myokine that has been indicated as a possible link between physical exercise and energetic homeostasis. The co-localization of irisin with neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic sections of paraventricular nucleus, which receives NPY/AgRP projections from the arcuate nucleus, suggests a possible role of irisin in the central regulation of energy balance. In this context, in the present work we studied the effects of intra-hypothalamic irisin (1μl, 50-200nmol/l) administration on feeding and orexigenic [agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A] and anorexigenic [cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] peptides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of irisin on hypothalamic dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) concentrations and plasma NE levels. Compared to vehicle, irisin injected rats showed decreased food intake, possibly mediated by stimulated CART and POMC and inhibited DA, NE and orexin-A, in the hypothalamus. We also found increased plasma NE levels, supporting a role for sympathetic nervous system stimulation in mediating increased oxygen consumption by irisin.
New Search Next
- The impact of pre-injury controlled substance use on clinical outcomes after trauma. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trauma Acute Care Surg 2016; 81(5):913-920
- CONCLUSIONS: Pre-injury use of amphetamine, barbiturate, benzodiazepine, cocaine, opiate, and PCP has a significant and variable impact on clinical outcomes after trauma. Comparing the relative effect of each drug class can help clinicians risk-stratify all trauma patients, including those who test positive for multiple substances.