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- Extreme Multidrug Resistant HIV-1 Protease with 20 Mutations Is Resistant to Novel Protease Inhibitors with P1'-Pyrrolidinone or P2-Tris-tetrahydrofuran. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Chem 2013 May 1.
Extreme drug resistant mutant of HIV-1 protease (PR) bearing 20 mutations (PR20) has been studied with the clinical inhibitor amprenavir (1) and two potent antiviral investigational inhibitors GRL-02031 (2) and GRL-0519 (3). Clinical inhibitors are >1000-fold less active on PR20 than on wild-type enzyme, which is consistent with dissociation constants (KL) from isothermal titration calorimetry of 40 nM for 3, 178 nM for amprenavir, and 960 nM for 2. High resolution crystal structures of PR20-inhibitor complexes revealed altered interactions compared with the corresponding wild-type PR complexes in agreement with relative inhibition. Amprenavir lacks interactions due to PR20 mutations in the S2/S2' subsites relative to PR. Inhibitors 2 and 3 lose interactions with Arg8' in PR20 relative to the wild-type enzyme because Arg8' shifts to interact with mutated L10F side chain. Overall, inhibitor 3 compares favorably with darunavir in affinity for PR20 and shows promise for further development.
- Pregnane X Receptor Mediates Dyslipidemia Induced by the HIV Protease Inhibitor Amprenavir in Mice. [Journal Article]
- Mol Pharmacol 2013 Jun; 83(6):1190-9.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) have been used successfully in extending the life span of people infected with HIV. The use of PIs has also been associated with dyslipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Several PIs have been implicated in activating the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR), which acts as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism in the liver and intestine. Recent studies indicate that PXR may also play an important role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we identified amprenavir, a widely used HIV PI, as a potent PXR-selective agonist. Computational docking studies combined with site-direct mutagenesis identified several key residues within the ligand-binding pocket of PXR that constitute points of interaction with amprenavir. Amprenavir efficiently activated PXR and induced PXR target gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Short-term exposure to amprenavir significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in wild-type mice, but not in PXR-deficient mice. Amprenavir-mediated PXR activation stimulated the expression of several key intestinal genes involved in lipid homeostasis. These findings provide critical mechanistic insight for understanding the impact of PIs on cardiovascular disease and demonstrate a potential role of PXR in mediating the adverse effects of HIV PIs in humans.
- Discordant associations between SLCO1B1 521T→C and plasma levels of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in AIDS clinical trials group study A5146. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Ther Drug Monit 2013 Apr; 35(2):209-16.
Among HIV-positive patients prescribed ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, SLCO1B1 521T→C (rs4149056) is associated with increased plasma lopinavir exposure. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are also substrates for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and ABCB1, which are induced by NR1I2. We characterized relationships between ABCB1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, NR1I2, and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and trough PI concentrations among AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5146 participants.At study entry, subjects with virologic failure on PI-containing regimens initiated new ritonavir-boosted PI regimens. We studied associations between week 2 PI plasma trough concentrations and 143 polymorphisms in these genes, including 4 targeted polymorphisms.Among 275 subjects with both drug concentrations and genetic data, allelic frequencies of SLCO1B1 521T→C were 15%, 1%, and 8% in whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. Further analyses were limited to 268 white, black, or Hispanic subjects who initiated ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (n = 98), fosamprenavir (n = 69), or saquinavir (n = 99). Of targeted polymorphisms, SLCO1B1 521T→C tended to be associated with higher lopinavir concentrations, with a 1.38-fold increase in the mean per C allele (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.96; n = 98; P = 0.07). With fosamprenavir, SLCO1B1 521T→C was associated with lower amprenavir concentrations, with a 35% decrease in the mean per C allele (geometric mean ratio 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.94; n = 69; adjusted P = 0.02). There was no significant association with saquinavir concentrations, and none of the remaining 139 exploratory polymorphisms were statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons.With ritonavir-boosted PIs, a SLCO1B1 polymorphism that predicts higher lopinavir trough concentrations seems to predict lower amprenavir trough concentrations. The mechanism underlying this discordant association is uncertain.
- GRL-0519, a Novel Oxatricyclic Ligand-Containing Nonpeptidic HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor (PI), Potently Suppresses Replication of a Wide Spectrum of Multi-PI-Resistant HIV-1 Variants In Vitro. [Journal Article]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013 May; 57(5):2036-46.
We report that GRL-0519, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI) containing tris-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (tris-THF) and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0005 to 0.0007 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], 44.6 μM). GRL-0519 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by up to a 5 μM concentration of ritonavir, lopinavir, or atazanavir (EC50, 0.0028 to 0.0033 μM). GRL-0519 was also potent against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy, highly darunavir (DRV)-resistant variants, and HIV-2ROD. The development of resistance against GRL-0519 was substantially delayed compared to other PIs, including amprenavir (APV) and DRV. The effects of nonspecific binding of human serum proteins on GRL-0519's antiviral activity were insignificant. Our analysis of the crystal structures of GRL-0519 (3OK9) and DRV (2IEN) with protease suggested that the tris-THF moiety, compared to the bis-THF moiety present in DRV, has greater water-mediated polar interactions with key active-site residues of protease and that the tris-THF moiety and paramethoxy group effectively fill the S2 and S2' binding pockets, respectively, of the protease. The present data demonstrate that GRL-0519 has highly favorable features as a potential therapeutic agent for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-PI-resistant variants and that the tris-THF moiety is critical for strong binding of GRL-0519 to the HIV protease substrate binding site and appears to be responsible for its favorable antiretroviral characteristics.
- Structural and thermodynamic basis of amprenavir/darunavir and atazanavir resistance in HIV-1 protease with mutations at residue 50. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- J Virol 2013 Apr; 87(8):4176-84.
Drug resistance occurs through a series of subtle changes that maintain substrate recognition but no longer permit inhibitor binding. In HIV-1 protease, mutations at I50 are associated with such subtle changes that confer differential resistance to specific inhibitors. Residue I50 is located at the protease flap tips, closing the active site upon ligand binding. Under selective drug pressure, I50V/L substitutions emerge in patients, compromising drug susceptibility and leading to treatment failure. The I50V substitution is often associated with amprenavir (APV) and darunavir (DRV) resistance, while the I50L substitution is observed in patients failing atazanavir (ATV) therapy. To explain how APV, DRV, and ATV susceptibility are influenced by mutations at residue 50 in HIV-1 protease, structural and binding thermodynamics studies were carried out on I50V/L-substituted protease variants in the compensatory mutation A71V background. Reduced affinity to both I50V/A71V and I50L/A71V double mutants is largely due to decreased binding entropy, which is compensated for by enhanced enthalpy for ATV binding to I50V variants and APV binding to I50L variants, leading to hypersusceptibility in these two cases. Analysis of the crystal structures showed that the substitutions at residue 50 affect how APV, DRV, and ATV bind the protease with altered van der Waals interactions and that the selection of I50V versus I50L is greatly influenced by the chemical moieties at the P1 position for APV/DRV and the P2 position for ATV. Thus, the varied inhibitor susceptibilities of I50V/L protease variants are largely a direct consequence of the interdependent changes in protease inhibitor interactions.
- Steady-State Pharmacokinetics, Cord Blood Concentrations, and Safety of Ritonavir-Boosted Fosamprenavir in Pregnancy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013 Jan 10.
ABSTRACT:Steady-state pharmacokinetics in pregnant women prescribed ritonavir boosted fosamprenavir (FPV/RTV) to prevent HIV transmission were assessed in the second trimester, third trimester, and postpartum. Compared to postpartum, geometric mean amprenavir (APV, FPVs active metabolite) area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were 35% lower in the second trimester and 25% lower in the third trimester. Maternal APV concentrations were 9 - 15-fold above the mean APV protein-adjusted 50% inhibitory concentration for wild-type HIV. Median ratio of cord blood/maternal APV levels was 0.27 and all infants were HIV negative.FPV/RTV during pregnancy was well tolerated and led to virologic suppression.
- Aspartic Peptidases of Human Pathogenic Trypanosomatids: Perspectives and Trends for Chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Med Chem 2012 Dec 28.
Aspartic peptidases are proteolytic enzymes present in many organisms like vertebrates, plants, fungi, protozoa and in some retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These enzymes are involved in important metabolic processes in microorganisms/virus and play major roles in infectious diseases. Although few studies have been performed in order to identify and characterize aspartic peptidase in trypanosomatids, which include the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis, Chagas, disease and sleeping sickness, some beneficial properties of aspartic peptidase inhibitors have been described on fundamental biological events of these pathogenic agents. In this context, aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) used in the current chemotherapy against HIV (e.g., amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) were able to inhibit the aspartic peptidase activity produced by different species of Leishmania. Moreover, the treatment of Leishmania promastigotes with HIV PIs induced several perturbations on the parasite homeostasis, including loss of the motility and arrest of proliferation/growth. The HIV PIs also induced an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species and the appearance of irreversible morphological alterations, triggering parasite death pathways such as programed cell death (apoptosis) and uncontrolled autophagy. The blockage of physiological parasite events as well as the induction of death pathways culminated in its incapacity to adhere, survive and escape of phagocytic cells. Collectively, these results support the data showing that parasites treated with HIV PIs have a significant reduction in the ability to cause in vivo infection. Similarly, the treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi cells with pepstatin A showed a significant inhibition on both aspartic peptidase activity and growth as well as promoted several and irreversible morphological changes. These studies indicate that aspartic peptidases can be promising targets in trypanosomatid cells and aspartic proteolytic inhibitors can be benefic chemotherapeutic agents against these human pathogenic microorganisms.
- Interaction between HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) and hepatic transporters in sandwich cultured human hepatocytes: implication for PI-based DDIs. [Journal Article]
- Biopharm Drug Dispos 2013 Apr; 34(3):155-64.
Although HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) produce profound metabolic interactions through inactivation/inhibition of CYP3A enzymes, their role as victims of transporter-based drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is less well understood. Therefore, this study investigated if the PIs, nelfinavir (NFV), ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir (LPV) or amprenavir (APV) were transported into sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH), and whether OATPs contributed to this transport. The findings showed that, except for (3) H-APV, no significant decrease in the total hepatocyte accumulation of the (3) H-PIs was detected in the presence of the corresponding unlabeled PI, indicating that the uptake of the other PIs was not mediated. Further, hepatocyte biliary efflux studies using (3) H-APV and unlabeled APV confirmed this decrease to be due to inhibition of sinusoidal influx transporter(s) and not the canalicular efflux transporters. Moreover, this sinusoidal transport of APV was not OATP-mediated. The results indicate that the hepatic uptake of NFV, RTV or LPV was primarily mediated by passive diffusion. The hepatic uptake of APV was mediated by an unidentified sinusoidal transporter(s). Therefore, NFV, RTV or LPV will not be victims of DDIs involving inhibition of hepatic influx transporters; however, the disposition of APV may be affected if its sinusoidal transport is inhibited. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Generation and characterization of a defective HIV-1 Virus as an immunogen for a therapeutic vaccine. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2012; 7(11):e48848.
The generation of new immunogens able to elicit strong specific immune responses remains a major challenge in the attempts to obtain a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against HIV/AIDS. We designed and constructed a defective recombinant virus based on the HIV-1 genome generating infective but non-replicative virions able to elicit broad and strong cellular immune responses in HIV-1 seropositive individuals.Viral particles were generated through transient transfection in producer cells (293-T) of a full length HIV-1 DNA carrying a deletion of 892 base pairs (bp) in the pol gene encompassing the sequence that codes for the reverse transcriptase (NL4-3/ΔRT clone). The viral particles generated were able to enter target cells, but due to the absence of reverse transcriptase no replication was detected. The immunogenic capacity of these particles was assessed by ELISPOT to determine γ-interferon production in a cohort of 69 chronic asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Surprisingly, defective particles produced from NL4-3/ΔRT triggered stronger cellular responses than wild-type HIV-1 viruses inactivated with Aldrithiol-2 (AT-2) and in a larger proportion of individuals (55% versus 23% seropositive individuals tested). Electron microscopy showed that NL4-3/ΔRT virions display immature morphology. Interestingly, wild-type viruses treated with Amprenavir (APV) to induce defective core maturation also induced stronger responses than the same viral particles generated in the absence of protease inhibitors.We propose that immature HIV-1 virions generated from NL4-3/ΔRT viral clones may represent new prototypes of immunogens with a safer profile and stronger capacity to induce cellular immune responses than wild-type inactivated viral particles.
- Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2012 Dec; 8(12):1565-77.