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Amylase increased [keywords]
- The adipocytokine resistin stimulates production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in pancreatic acinar cells via NF-κB activation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Endocrinol Invest 2013 Jun 10.
Background:Resistin, an adipocytokine secreted by fat tissues, has been associated with the inflammatory response, though its role in inflammation during acute pancreatitis (AP) remains unclear.
Objective:The proinflammatory response following acinar cell injury impacts pancreatitis severity, necessitating better understanding of functional consequences associated with pancreatic acinar cell resistin exposure and resultant effects on proinflammatory signaling.
Methods:Amylase-secreting rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were subjected to 1, 10, or 100 ng/ml recombinant rat resistin treatments. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by amylase secretion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Nuclear NF-κB p65 subunit protein level was measured by western blotting.
Results:Significantly increased amylase secretion and LDH release was observed in the 100 ng/ml resistin treatment (P < 0.01). Both TNF-α and IL-6 protein expression levels increased in a concentration-dependent manner when treated with resistin. Pretreatment of resistin-treated AR42J cells with the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, which decreases the NF-κB p65 subunit protein expression levels in the nuclei, produced significantly lower mRNA expression levels for both TNF-α and IL-6 compared with those produced by resistin-treated cells (P < 0.01)
Conclusions:Resistin exhibits some cytotoxic activity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells and stimulates proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-6 production via NF-κB activation. Thus, overproduction of obesity-related circulating resistin and associated low-grade inflammation may result in mild injury to pancreatic acini, increasing AP severity and risk.
- [Clinical study of variation and significance of the high insulin levels in critically ill children]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2013 Mar; 51(3):199-204.
To analyze the variation of serum insulin levels in critically ill children and investigate the underlying mechanism and clinical significance to provide the basis for treatment.Totally 332 critically ill children admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from Nov., 2011 to April, 2012 were studied. The high insulin group (n = 332) was defined as insulin levels within 24 h > 11.1 mU/L and was divided into 2 groups: mildly elevated group (n = 194): 11.10 - 33.30 mU/L, increased three times group (n = 138): > 33.3 mU/L. Insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose were measured within 24 hours after admission, on day 3 and 7. Other results of inflammatory markers, lactate, cardiac enzymes, amylase, pancreatic ultrasound, hepatic and renal function as well as indicators related to severity and prognosis were recorded after admission.The peak of insulin level was seen on day 1, then presented a downward trend and reached the normal level on day 7. The peaks of blood glucose and C-peptide level were seen on day 1 then declined, the levels on day 7 were still slightly higher than normal level. The insulin level on admission (41.47 ± 30.85) mU/L were positively correlated with lactic acid (2.29 ± 1.81) mmol/L and procalcitonin level (5.08 ± 6.70) ng/ml (r = 0.370, P = 0.000; r = 0.168, P = 0.002) (P < 0.01). The insulin level on admission in children with 1 organ failure (41.24 ± 22.60) mU/L or 2 or multiple organ failure (48.98 ± 22.17) mU/L was higher than that in children with non-organ failure (34.11 ± 29.84) mU/L (U = 1621.001, P = 0.000;U = 1300.000, P = 0.000) (P < 0.01). The insulin level on admission in death group (52.99 ± 32.34) mU/L was higher than that in survival group (32.85 ± 24.10) mU/L (U = 1585.000, P = 0.000) (P < 0.01). Ten cases in death group were complicated with pancreatic damage and the average insulin level on admission was (65.29 ± 50.53) mU/L.The high insulin level was correlated with the degree of inflammatory response, ischemia and hypoxia. The high insulin level in critically ill children was relevant to the pancreatic damage, the severity of the disease, organ dysfunction, and evaluation of prognosis.
- Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Sci Technol Int 2013 Jun 10.
There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27 after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages.
- Luminal melatonin stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion via activation of serotonin-dependent nerves. [Journal Article]
- Pharmacol Rep 2013; 65(2):494-504.
Background:Serotonin (5-HT) is released from enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. 5-HT, via the activation of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors on vagal fibers, mediates pancreatic secretion through the mechanism independent from cholecystokinin. Melatonin (5-HT derivative) or L-tryptophan (melatonin or 5-HT precursor) given systemically or intraduodenally to the rats stimulate amylase secretion, but the mechanism is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of 5-HT in the pancreatostimulatory effect of melatonin or L-tryptophan, administered intraduodenally.
Methods:Wistar rats were surgically equipped with silicone catheters; inserted into pancreato-biliary duct and into the duodenum. Melatonin, L-tryptophan or 5-HT were given to the rats as a bolus. Combination of 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptor antagonists: ketanserin (100 μg/kg) and MDL72222 (250 μg/kg) was given intraperitoneally to the animals, 15 min. prior to the administration of the examined substances. The role of the vagal nerve, sensory fibers and CCK in the control of pancreatic exocrine function were determined. Blood samples were taken for the determination of 5-HT.
Results:Melatonin, 5-HT or L-tryptophan increased pancreatic amylase secretion. The stimulatory effect of the above substances was decreased by pretreatment of the rats with ketanserin and MDL72222. Bilateral vagotomy completely abolished the increase of amylase output caused by 5-HT, while capsaicin deactivation of sensory nerves or blockade of CCK1 receptor only partially reversed the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on the pancreas. Intraduodenal L-tryptophan, but not melatonin, increased plasma 5-HT concentrations in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
Conclusion:Stimulation of pancreatic exocrine function caused by intraluminal administration of melatonin, or L-tryptophan is modified, at least in part, by serotoninergic mechanisms and vagal nerves.
- Effect of GABA, a Bacterial Metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens Surface Properties and Cytotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- Int J Mol Sci 2013; 14(6):12186-204.
Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37) to GABA (10-5 M) increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial) cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains.
- Osmotic second virial cross-coefficient measurements for binary combination of lysozyme, ovalbumin and α-amylase in salt solutions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biotechnol Prog 2013 Jun 5.
Interactions measurement is a valuable tool to predict equilibrium phase separation of a desired protein in the presence of unwanted macromolecules. In this study, cross-interactions were measured as the osmotic second virial cross-coefficients (B23 ) for the three binary protein systems involving lysozyme, ovalbumin and α-amylase in salt solutions (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate). They were correlated with solubility for the binary protein mixtures. The cross-interaction behavior at different salt concentrations was interpreted by either electrostatic or hydrophobic interaction forces. At low salt concentrations, the protein surface charge dominates cross-interaction behavior as a function of pH. With added ovalbumin the lysozyme solubility decreased linearly at low salt concentration in sodium chloride and increased at high salt concentration in ammonium sulfate. The B23 value was found to be proportional to the slope of the lysozyme solubility against ovalbumin concentration and the correlation was explained by preferential interaction theory. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013.
- Infection control for prevention of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. [Journal Article]
- Hepatogastroenterology 2013 Jun 3; 60(124):876-82.
Background/Aims:Effectiveness of infection control for prevention of pancreatic fistula (PF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is not clear. We analyzed the impact of infection on the development of PF and examined the effect of enhanced infection control to prevent PF. Methodology: Amylase level (D-amylase) and bacterial culture (D-culture) of drainage fluid were evaluated on POD 1, 3, 5 and 7, in 90 consecutive patients with soft pancreas who underwent PD. The study period was divided into two periods. The relationship between D-amylase and D-culture was examined, and the clinicopathological factors predicting PF were analyzed in the first period. Then, anti-infection measures were introduced in the second period, and the effect of enhanced infection control was examined.
Results:Twenty-nine out of 58 patients (50.0%) developed PF in the first period. D-amylase were higher in patients with D-culture infection than in those without it (p<0.05). D-amylase above 10,000IU/L on POD1 and D-culture infection on POD3 were independent predictive factors for PF by multivariate analysis (p<0.01). After introduction of enhanced infection control in the second period, four out of 32 patients (12.5%) developed PF. The rates of PF and D-culture infection were significantly reduced (p<0.05).
Conclusions:Infection of drainage fluid is related to an increased level of amylase, resulting in PF. Enhanced infection control can effectively prevent PF after PD in soft pancreas.
- Effect of interferon-γ on NF-κB and cytokine IL-18 and IL-27 in acute pancreatitis. [Journal Article]
- Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2013 May; 13(2):114-8.
The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on cytokine expression in rat acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was introduced to rats which were divided into Control, AP and IFN-γ group. Rats in the AP and IFN-γ group were sacrificed as 6, 12 and 24 h after IFN-γ treatment. The serum amylase (AMA), endotoxin and cytokines were detected. The pathological examination and immunofluorescence staining of pancreas for TNF-α, NF-κB and IL-18 were performed. The serum AMA increased significantly at 6 h and reduced at 48 h after AP. The increase in IFN-γ was higher than that in AMA. IL-18 increased in the AP and IFN group, and IFN increased markedly at 48 h after AP. IL-27 reduced at 24 h after AP compared with AP group. In the AP group, the immunostaining of cytokines increased. In the IFN group, the edema in the pancreas was more severe, and NF-κB and IL-18 expression was higher than that in the other two groups. IFN-γ can increase serum IL-18 and reduce IL-27 in AP. IFN-γ can increase serum IL-18 and reduce serum IL-27 in AP. The increase in NF-κB and IL-18 may exert influence on pro-inflammatory cytokines to deteriorate inflammation in the pancreas. Thus, to control the IFN-γ might has promise to attenuate pancreatitis.
- Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces albumin induced lung damage in acute pancreatitis. [Journal Article]
- Pancreatology 2013 May-Jun; 13(3):225-9.
Colloid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis (AP) is a matter of controversy due to the possible deleterious effect on lung function. A previous study demonstrates that albumin administration increases lung damage in burns and this effect can be reversed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibition. This study evaluates the effects of S-methylisothiourea (SMT), a specific iNOS inhibitor, on lungs and pancreas of rats with AP receiving intravenous albumin.AP was induced in Wistar rats by intraductal 5% taurocholate injection. To evaluate the effect of albumin on lung damage, animals received IV saline or human albumin immediately after AP (Groups: Saline and Albumin). To evaluate the effect of iNOS inhibition on lung damage, SMT was given immediately after AP (Group Saline+SMT, and Group Albumin+SMT). At 12 h after AP induction, serum amylase activity, lung vascular permeability and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated. Lung and pancreas histological analysis were performed.Serum amylase activity, pancreatic edema, lung vascular permeability, MPO activity, and inflammatory infiltration were significantly increased after AP. Albumin administration increased lung vascular permeability, inflammatory infiltration, and pancreatic edema compared to saline administration (p < 0.05). Albumin administration with SMT reduced lung vascular permeability, MPO activity, and inflammatory infiltration compared to albumin administration alone (p < 0.05).Lung and pancreatic damage induced by albumin administration for restoration of plasma volume in AP are reduced by iNOS inhibition. Awareness of this fact may be useful in high-risk patients who need to receive albumin for volume replacement.
- Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Ficus deltoidea fruit extracts and fractions. [Journal Article]
- BMC Complement Altern Med 2013.:118.
Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods.Two fruit varieties of F. deltoidea (var. angustifolia (SF) and var. kunstleri (BF)) were extracted separately using double-distilled water. The resulting aqueous extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate to obtain the ethyl acetate and water fractions. The crude aqueous extracts and the corresponding fractions were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, sugar and protein contents. Protein profiling of the extracts and fractions were also carried out by means of SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF MS. Antidiabetic activities were assessed based on the ability of the samples to inhibit yeast and mammalian α-glucosidase as well as α-amylase. Antioxidant capacities were examined by measuring the ability of the samples to reduce ferric ions and to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals.The crude extracts and fractions of SF and BF inhibited both yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The water fraction of BF showed the highest percentage of α-glucosidase inhibition while having the highest amount of protein (73.33 ± 4.99 μg/mg fraction). All the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities, with SF crude extract showing the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic content (121.62 ± 4.86 mg/g extract). Fractionation of the crude extracts resulted in loss of antioxidant activities. There was no positive correlation between phenolic and flavonoid content with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. However, phenolic content correlated well with antioxidant activities of the crude extracts but not with the fractions.The antioxidant activities of the fruits of F. deltoidea might be asserted by the phenolic content but other polar plant components were possibly involved in the antidiabetic properties. The study of these compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.