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Ancylostoma duodenale [keywords]
- Molecular cloning and characterization of a nematode polyprotein antigen/allergen from the human and animal hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Biochem Parasitol 2014 Dec 4; 198(1):37-44.
Nematodes are unable to synthesize fatty acids de novo and must acquire them from the environment or host. It is hypothesized that two unique classes of fatty acid and retinol binding proteins that nematodes produce (fatty acid and retinol binding (FAR) and nematode polyprotein antigen/allergen (NPA)) are used to meet this need. A partial cDNA has been cloned corresponding to four subunits of a putative Ancylostoma ceylanicum NPA (AceNPA). The translated amino acid sequence of AceNPA shares sequence identity with similar proteins from Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ascaris suum, and Ostertagia ostertagi. Immunoblot experiments using a polyclonal anti-AceNPA IgG revealed proteins corresponding to the expected sizes of single, as well as two or three un-cleaved NPA subunits in adult excretory/secretory proteins and soluble adult worm extracts. Immunohistochemistry experiments localize AceNPA to the cuticle, pseudocoelomic space and testes suggesting a role in hookworm biology that is distinct from what has previously been defined for other hookworm lipid binding proteins. A single recombinant subunit of AceNPA (rAceNPAb) demonstrated binding in vitro to fluorescent fatty acids DAUDA, cis-parinaric acid, as well as retinol, at equilibrium dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Further, in vitro data reveal that rAceNPAb binds fatty acids with chain lengths of C12-C22, with the greatest affinities for arachidonic, linoleic (C18), and eicosapentaenoic (C20) acids.
- First identification of the F200Y SNP in the β-tubulin gene linked to benzimidazole resistance in Ancylostoma caninum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Parasitol 2014 Oct 24; 206(3-4):313-316.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in codons 167, 198 and 200 have been associated with benzimidazole resistance in some nematodes, although no polymorphisms in this gene have been described in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to date. This study aimed to screen for SNPs in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codons 198 and 200 associated with benzimidazole resistance in A. caninum worms recovered from naturally infected dogs from two Brazilian states (Minas Gerais and Piauí). To perform this analysis, a molecular technique based on the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR) was standardized. A total of 110 individual worms recovered from 9 dogs in Piauí and 124 individual worms recovered from 10 dogs in Minas Gerais were analyzed using this methodology. The presence of a SNP at position 200 was observed at a low frequency (0.8%), which was only detected in the worm population from Minas Gerais State. A total of 75 randomly selected samples were sequenced to validate this technique, and the presence of the SNP was confirmed. Furthermore, SNP at position 198 were evaluated by sequencing, and none were detected in this region. This is the first report of the presence of a SNP in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene associated with benzimidazole resistance in an A. caninum population.
- Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Parasitol 2014 Nov 18.
Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with a single dose of CVP. Post-treatment effectiveness against all nematodes (% reduction GM) was achieved with reductions of 98.57% and 97.57% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs and CVP dogs, respectively, as compared to the pre-treatment baseline faecal egg counts. Trifexis(®) was shown to be safe and effective against natural infestations of fleas as well as mixed and single intestinal nematode infections in client owned dogs in Europe when administered as a single oral administration at the recommended dose.
- The crowding effect in Ancylostoma ceylanicum: density-dependent effects on an experimental model of infection. [Journal Article]
- Parasitol Res 2014 Dec; 113(12):4611-21.
This study compared the course of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection in hamsters infected with different inocula and the consequences for the host and helminth populations. The average of adult worms recovered, according to the number of third stage larva used, were 28.0, 24.8, 24.6, and 24.8 % to inocula size of 25 L3, 75 L3, 125 L3, and 250 L3, respectively. The size of the inoculum did not affect the establishment, survival, or fecundity of adult helminths. Reductions in the red blood cell and hemoglobin levels in the infected group were inversely proportional to the number of white blood cells. Moreover, differential cell counting revealed a positive correlation between the worm load and leucocyte numbers. The humoral response against excretion-secretion antigens was more robust and sensitive compared with the response against crude extract, with no direct linear correlation with the number of worms. The effect of the population density was more evident in females.
- Stray animal and human defecation as sources of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in playgrounds of Peninsular Malaysia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Helminthol 2014 Oct 2.:1-8.
Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation.
- Evaluation of biochemical, hematological and parasitological parameters of protein-deficient hamsters infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Sep; 8(9):e3184.
Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model.Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as "malnourished") and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool.In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken together, the results found in this work confirm the hypothesis that the nutritional condition of the host greatly influences the course of the infection.
- Gastrointestinal parasites in rural dogs and cats in Selangor and Pahang states in Peninsular Malaysia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Acta Parasitol 2014 Oct; 59(4):737-44.
To estimate the current prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs and cats, a total of 105 fresh faecal samples were collected from rural areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Each faecal sample was examined for the presence of GI parasites by microscopic examination after formalin-ether concentration technique and for protozoa, trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were employed. The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infection was 88.6% (95% CI = 82.5-94.7) in which 88.3% of dogs and 89.3% of cats were infected with at least one parasites species, respectively. There were 14 different GI parasites species (nematodes, cestodes and protozoa) detected, including Ancylostoma spp. (62.9%), Toxocara spp. (32.4%), Trichuris vulpis (21.0%), Spirometra spp. (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (5.7%), Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Ascaris spp. (2.9%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.0%) and others. General prevalence of GI parasites showed a significant difference between helminth (84.4%) and protozoa (34.3%) infections. Monoparasitism (38.1%) was less frequent than polyparasitism (46.7%). As several of these GI parasites are recognized as zoonotic agents, the results of this investigation revealed that local populations may be exposed to a broad spectrum of zoonotic agents by means of environmental contamination with dogs and cats faeces and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. Prevention and control measures have to be taken in order to reduce the prevalence rates especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities where animals live in close proximity to people, poor levels of hygiene and overcrowding together with a lack in veterinary attention and zoonotic awareness.
- [A man in his thirties with icterus and itching]. [Case Reports, English Abstract]
- Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2014 Sep 16; 134(17):1665-8.
We present a patient from South-East Asia who has been living in Norway for five years. He was referred to our department with jaundice caused by opisthorchiasis/clonorchiasis. This reason for jaundice is highly unusual in Europe. Worldwide, however about 35,000,000 people are infected.A male in his thirties, originally from South-East Asia, experienced diffuse itching for five weeks and painless jaundice for two weeks. Blood samples showed increasing cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound, MRCP and computed tomography showed no sign of bile duct obstruction or liver tumour. Serological tests and liver biopsy revealed no infectious or autoimmune liver disease. ERCP showed normal bile ducts, but large quantities of typical hookworms in the duodenum. Stool samples showed at least one egg typical of Opisthorchis/Clonorchis and a large quantity of hookworm eggs. We interpreted these findings as parasite-induced obstruction of some of the small bile ducts. The patient recovered completely after treatment with Praziquantel.Jaundice due to bile duct obstruction by opisthorchiasis/clonorchiasis is a well-known problem in South-East Asia. It may become more common in Europe as well as a result of increasing migration. Treatment with Praziquantel is simple and effective.
- Beta carbonic anhydrases: novel targets for pesticides and anti-parasitic agents in agriculture and livestock husbandry. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Parasit Vectors 2014.:403.
The genomes of many insect and parasite species contain beta carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) protein coding sequences. The lack of β-CA proteins in mammals makes them interesting target proteins for inhibition in treatment of some infectious diseases and pests. Many insects and parasites represent important pests for agriculture and cause enormous economic damage worldwide. Meanwhile, pollution of the environment by old pesticides, emergence of strains resistant to them, and their off-target effects are major challenges for agriculture and society.In this study, we analyzed a multiple sequence alignment of 31 β-CAs from insects, some parasites, and selected plant species relevant to agriculture and livestock husbandry. Using bioinformatics tools a phylogenetic tree was generated and the subcellular localizations and antigenic sites of each protein were predicted. Structural models for β-CAs of Ancylostoma caninum, Ascaris suum, Trichinella spiralis, and Entamoeba histolytica, were built using Pisum sativum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-CAs as templates.Six β-CAs of insects and parasites and six β-CAs of plants are predicted to be mitochondrial and chloroplastic, respectively, and thus may be involved in important metabolic functions. All 31 sequences showed the presence of the highly conserved β-CA active site sequence motifs, CXDXR and HXXC (C: cysteine, D: aspartic acid, R: arginine, H: histidine, X: any residue). We discovered that these two motifs are more antigenic than others. Homology models suggested that these motifs are mostly buried and thus not well accessible for recognition by antibodies.The predicted mitochondrial localization of several β-CAs and hidden antigenic epitopes within the protein molecule, suggest that they may not be considered major targets for vaccines. Instead, they are promising candidate enzymes for small-molecule inhibitors which can easily penetrate the cell membrane. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that β-CAs are potential targets for development of small molecule pesticides or anti-parasitic agents with minimal side effects on vertebrates.
- [Cutaneous larva migrans after a trip to the Caribean]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Chilena Infectol 2014 Jun; 31(3):346-8.
Cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitic disease caused by Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum larvae, which is transmitted by contact with sand infested with these parasites. Dogs and cats are the definitive hosts. This parasitic disease is endemic in the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and Asia. We present the case of a 27-year-old woman, who developed skin lesions compatible with cutaneous larva migrans on her right foot after returning from beach vacations in the Mexican Caribbean. After clinical diagnosis, oral ivermectin was administered, with good clinical response.