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Ancylostoma duodenale [keywords]
- Evaluation of the use of C-terminal part of the Schistosoma mansoni 200kDa tegumental protein in schistosomiasis diagnosis and vaccine formulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Parasitol 2014 Feb 18.
Schistosoma mansoni tegument is involved in essential functions for parasite survival and represents a target for screening candidates for vaccine and diagnosis. Our group using reverse vaccinology selected six candidates, previously demonstrated by proteomics studies to be expressed in the parasite tegument, among them was Sm200. In this work we have cloned and expressed a recombinant form of Sm200 C-terminal (1069-1520) region. The efficacy of rSm200 (1069-1520) in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and in the formulation of a vaccine against S. mansoni was assessed respectively in an ELISA based diagnostic assay and immunization protocols in mice. Significant differences between non-infected and acutely infected or chronically infected animals were observed and no cross-recognition was observed with sera from Ascaris suum or Ancylostoma ceylanicum infected mice. rSm200-ELISA test could also discriminate infected individuals from healthy donors not living in endemic area for schistosomiasis but failed to discriminate between individuals from a low endemic area for schistosomiasis known to have positive or negative stools after examination. Recombinant Sm200 also failed to induce protection against schistosomiasis, demonstrating that the C-terminal part of Sm200 is unable to induce protective immune response in mice. Therefore rSm200 (1069-1520)-ELISA represents an important tool to be used in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.
- Evaluation of a rapid device for serological in-clinic diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis. [Journal Article]
- Parasit Vectors 2014; 7(1):72.
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a potentially fatal canine nematode. Due to the high variability of clinical signs and the often chronic and subtle course of the infections, the diagnosis is particularly challenging. A rapid in-clinic assay (Angio Detect™ Test, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA) for the serological detection of circulating antigen and intended for routine in-clinic diagnosis has been evaluated.Sensitivity was calculated with sera from 39 naturally infected dogs confirmed by Baermann-Wetzel analysis, while sera of 38 experimentally infected dogs were used for follow-up analyses, of which 10 were treated with imidacloprid/moxidectin. Cross-reactivity was tested with a total of 123 samples from dogs with proven parasitic infections with Toxocara canis (n = 21), Ancylostoma caninum (n = 4), Crenosoma vulpis (n = 18), Oslerus osleri (n = 3), Eucoleus aerophilus, (n = 6), Dirofilaria immitis (n = 28), Dirofilaria repens (n = 20), Acantocheilonema reconditum (n = 10) or Dipetalonema dracunculoides (n = 10) or multiple infections (n = 3). All sera were tested with the Angio Detect™ Test and with an ELISA for detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum.The sensitivity of the Angio Detect™ Test was 84.6% (95% C.I. 69.5 - 94.1%), while specificity was 100% (95% C.I. 97.6 - 100%). The sensitivity of the ELISA (94.9%, 95% C.I. 82.7 - 99.3%) was comparable with previous evaluations. In experimentally infected dogs, earliest positive results with the Angio Detect™ Test were observed 9 weeks post inoculation and 5 weeks later all sera were Angio Detect™ Test positive. After anthelmintic treatment, seropositive dogs turned negative again within 3 to 7 weeks after treatment. The evaluation of the colour intensity of the test strips confirmed the delay of approximately 3-4 weeks for antigen detection by the Angio Detect™ Test compared to the ELISA and its correlation with the time after infection.This study provided evidence of a good sensitivity and a very high specificity of the rapid device Angio Detect™ Test for detection of circulating A. vasorum antigen in dogs with suspected canine angiostrongylosis, representing a very simple and useful tool to be broadly applied in veterinary practices. The rapid detection of infected dogs is a key point for initiating an indispensable and urgent therapy.
- First report of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in wild canids. [Journal Article]
- Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2013 Dec.:173-7.
The parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum is common in dogs, cats and humans throughout Asia, inhabiting the small intestine and possibly leading to iron-deficient anaemia in those infected. It has previously been discovered in domestic dogs in Australia and this is the first report of A. ceylanicum in wild canids. Wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids) killed in council control operations (n = 26) and wild dog scats (n = 89) were collected from the Wet Tropics region around Cairns, Far North Queensland. All of the carcasses (100%) were infected with Ancylostoma caninum and three (11.5%) had dual infections with A. ceylanicum. Scats, positively sequenced for hookworm, contained A. ceylanicum, A. caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense, with A. ceylanicum the dominant species in Mount Windsor National Park, with a prevalence of 100%, but decreasing to 68% and 30.8% in scats collected from northern and southern rural suburbs of Cairns, respectively. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from this wild dog reservoir to communities in the Wet Tropics should be determined.
- Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among Kigali Institute of Education students in Kigali, Rwanda. [Journal Article]
- Trop Biomed 2013 Dec; 30(4):718-26.
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are a significant public health problem in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) and Rwanda is not spared. While eradication programs towards preschool-aged and school-aged children are undertaken, important gaps regarding IPIs among students attending tertiary learning institutions remain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IPIs and associated risk factors among Kigali Institute of Education (KIE) students who attended its medical clinic for stool examination. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the 2010 academic year, from February to July. Fresh stool samples were collected from 109 students chosen randomly and were examined for the presence of eggs, cysts and parasites using direct saline smear under light microscopy. A questionnaire was also used to assess water consumption habits, eating and living places. More than half (50.5%) of the stools examined were infected with an intestinal parasite. Among the infected students, prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica was 54.5%, Trichomonas intestinalis and Ascaris lumbricoides were 20.0%, Giardia duodenalis was 3.6% and Ancylostoma duodenale was 1.8%. The prevalence of IPIs was strongly associated with drinking any kind of water (p<0.001) and eating outside of the KIE cafeteria (p<0.001) and significantly related to living outside of the KIE campus (p=0.026). The study showed that IPIs of public health relevance are prevalent among students attending tertiary schools. The importance of living and eating in hygienic environments as well as drinking safe water is crucial and all efforts need to be sustained.
- Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasite 2014.:4.
A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.
- Molecular Detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Necator americanus in Humans in Northeastern and Southern Thailand. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Dec; 51(6):747-9.
The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were obtained from fecal agar plate cultures of 10 patients in northeastren Thailand and 20 in southern Thailand. Partial ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 regions of the ribosomal DNA genes were amplified using PCR. The amplicons were sequenced, aligned, and compared with other hookworm sequences in GenBank database. The results showed that, in Thailand, N. americanus is more prevalent than Ancylostoma spp. and is found in both study areas. Sporadic cases of A. ceylanicum and A. duodenale infection were seen in northeastern Thailand.
- Current Status of Human Hookworm Infections, Ascariasis, Trichuriasis, Schistosomiasis Mekongi and Other Trematodiases in Lao People's Democratic Republic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Feb 10.
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and schistosomiasis and other trematodiases often have a high prevalence in developing countries. Here, we present updated information on the prevalence of these parasites in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2012, arising from the annual national helminthiasis survey. Fecal specimens were collected from 8,610 inhabitants of 12 provinces and one municipality (Bokeo, Houaphan, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces from northern Lao PDR; Bolikhamxay and Xieng Khouang Provinces and Vientiane Municipality from the central part of the country; and Attapeu, Champasak, Saravan, and Sekong Provinces from southern Lao PDR). The overall prevalence of three major STHs, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were 11.6%, 8.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.1%, and of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 14.0%. Clearly, the nationwide parasite control project is still necessary to reduce morbidity caused by helminthic diseases.
- Prevalence and risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Nepal. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2014 Jan 31.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and intensity and examine the risk factors of soil transmitted helminth (STH; i.e., roundworm [Ascaris lumbricoides], hookworms [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and whipworm [Trichuris trichiura]) infections in Nepal.Five hundred and ninety-four adults (256 men and 338 women) were selected via convenience sampling from five communities in Nepal. The Kato-Katz method was used to assess the prevalence and intensity of STH infection in this population.Prevalence of STH infection ranged from 3.3 to 51.5% (3.3% in Birendranagar in Chitwan, 3.5% in Kuleshor in Kathmandu, 11.7% in Kanyam in Ilam, 17.0% in Birendranagar in Chitwan and 51.4% in Khokana in Lalitpur District). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that not using soap for hand-washing was significantly associated with the prevalence and infection intensity of roundworm, hookworms and whipworm. Similarly, not wearing sandals or shoes outside was significantly associated with the prevalence and infection intensity of roundworm and hookworms, but not with infection intensity of whipworm. Literacy, being underweight or overweight, anemia and occupation were not associated with prevalence and intensity of roundworm and hookworms infection, but there was an association between occupation and the prevalence of whipworm infection.STH infection was associated with individual hygiene behavior, but not with nutritional status or socio-demographic characteristics. Health policy focusing on changing individual hygiene behaviors might be useful in addressing STH infection in Nepal.
- [A case of lung paragonimiasis superinfection with hookworm presenting difficulty in discrimination]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2013 Nov; 87(6):756-60.
A 40-year-old woman, who was born in Thailand and moved to Japan 20 years previously, was admitted to our university hospital because of eosinophilia and abnormal chest radiography findings over a 6-month period. The chest CT showed multiple cavitary nodules in the subpleural area and a tubular structure that extended from each cavity to the pleura. Immunological examination revealed an elevation of antibody titers against Ancylostoma duodenale, Paragonimiasis miyazakii and Paragonimiasis westermanii based on an ELISA assay. In addition, hookworm eggs were found in the stool. We firstly administered pyrantel pamoates, following which the eggs become undetectable. Nevertheless, eosinophilia and abnormal chest CT findings persisted. We diagnosed the patient as having a superinfection with paragonimiasis and hookworm, then administered praziquantel. Subsequently, the number of eosinophils returned to a normal level and the abnormal shadow in the chest CT images diminished without scarring. The final diagnosis was a superinfection of paragonimiasis and hookworm.
- Helminths and human ancestral immune ecology: What is the evidence for high helminth loads among foragers? [Journal Article]
- Am J Hum Biol 2014 Mar 4; 26(2):124-9.
Recent theories of human immune ecology have invoked high helminth loads as an important selection factor among early humans. However, few studies have assessed this assumption among extant human foragers.We review the current evidence for high helminth loads in documented forager populations and present new data from members of a Kawymeno Waorani forager group in Amazonian Ecuador (n = 16) compared with neighboring Kichwa subsistence farmers (n = 63).Stool samples indicated a near absence of helminths among the Kawymeno foraging group (6.25% with Ascaris lumbricoides and 0% with Ancylostoma duodenale or Trichuris trichiura). In contrast neighboring, isolated Kichwa subsistence farmers in a similar ecosystem had abundant helminth infestations (76.1% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 11.1% with Ancylostoma duodenale, and 1.5% with Trichuris trichiura). The presence of helminths among the Waorani and Kichwa was triangulated across multiple data sources, including presence in stool samples, medical exams, and 3 years of participant observation.These findings, coupled with the modern forager literature, raise questions as to whether helminths were prevalent enough in Paleolithic humans to be a unique evolutionary selective force in human physiology. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:124-129, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.