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Ancylostoma duodenale [keywords]
- Assessing the speed of kill of hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum, by Advantage Multi(®) for Dogs using endoscopic methods. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Parasitol 2014 May 23.
Endoscopic capsules and endoscopy were used to assess the speed of kill and the clearance of hookworms in dogs experimentally infected with Ancylostoma caninum. A total of four adult dogs were inoculated in two separate cohorts comprised of two 4-year-old females and two 7-year-old males. Dogs were treated topically with Advantage Multi(®) for Dogs 13 days (Cohort 1) or 16 days (Cohort 2) after infection. Endoscopic imaging of the small intestine was carried out both pre- and post-treatment. Examination of the first cohort revealed that the worms had been cleared and the hookworm-induced lacerations were markedly diminished within 48h of treatment. In the second cohort, endoscopic capsules were given the day of, the day after, and two days after treatment; within 24h of product administration, the worms had been removed with a concurrent reduction in observed lesions. Topical application of Advantage Multi(®) for Dogs rapidly removed worms from the small intestine of the dogs in this study as early as 24h post-treatment, with a marked reduction in the number of mucosal lesions seen.
- Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Parasitol 2014 Jun 2.
Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.
- Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- FASEB J 2014 Jun 2.
The voltage-gated potassium (Kv) 1.3 channel is widely regarded as a therapeutic target for immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases. ShK-186, a selective inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels, ameliorates autoimmune diseases in rodent models, and human phase 1 trials of this agent in healthy volunteers have been completed. In this study, we identified and characterized a large family of Stichodactyla helianthus toxin (ShK)-related peptides in parasitic worms. Based on phylogenetic analysis, 2 worm peptides were selected for study: AcK1, a 51-residue peptide expressed in the anterior secretory glands of the dog-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and the human-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and BmK1, the C-terminal domain of a metalloprotease from the filarial worm Brugia malayi. These peptides in solution adopt helical structures closely resembling that of ShK. At doses in the nanomolar-micromolar range, they block native Kv1.3 in human T cells and cloned Kv1.3 stably expressed in L929 mouse fibroblasts. They preferentially suppress the proliferation of rat CCR7(-) effector memory T cells without affecting naive and central memory subsets and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response caused by skin-homing effector memory T cells in rats. Further, they suppress IFNγ production by human T lymphocytes. ShK-related peptides in parasitic worms may contribute to the potential beneficial effects of probiotic parasitic worm therapy in human autoimmune diseases.-Chhabra, S., Chang, S. C., Nguyen, H. M., Huq, R., Tanner, M. R., Londono, L. M., Estrada, R., Dhawan, V., Chauhan, S., Upadhyay, S. K., Gindin, M., Hotez, P. J., Valenzuela, J. G., Mohanty, B., Swarbrick, J. D., Wulff, H., Iadonato, S. P., Gutman, G. A., Beeton, C., Pennington, M. W., Norton, R. S., Chandy, K. G. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases.
- Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infection Detected by Endoscopy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Jun 2.
We report a case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection detected by endoscopy. It was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The patient is a 58-year-old Malaysian woman who lives in a rural area, where uncontrolled populations of stray and semidomesticated dogs live in close proximity with humans.
- The Zoonotic Risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Isolated from Stray Dogs and Cats in Guangzhou, South China. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:208759.
Canine and feline hookworm infection is endemic in many countries with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there is limited data available on the zoonotic transmission of canine and feline hookworms in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum isolated from stray dogs and cats in Guangzhou, south China. Primer pairs CAF/CAR were designed to amplify complete ITS sequences of obtained A. ceylanicum. The results were compared with fourteen ITS reference sequences of human-derived A. ceylanicum registered in GenBank, and phylogenetic trees were established by using NJ and ML methods. The sequence similarity of three dog-derived and five cat-derived A. ceylanicum with fourteen human-derived A. ceylanicum were 96.8%~100% and 97.8%~100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs and cats in the same group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from dog and cat reservoirs to communities in this region should be determined.
- High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012. [Journal Article]
- Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Jun; 20(6)
Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis.
- An unusual cause of chronic diarrhoea. [Journal Article]
- Trop Biomed 2014 Mar; 31(1):187-9.
We report a patient presenting with chronic diarrhoea of unidentified etiology. Laboratory results showed microcytic anemia, peripheral eosinophilia with negative results of stool sample smears and stool concentration technique. Ancylostoma duodenale was found in the caecum and terminal ileum during colonoscopy. The patient was treated with a 3-day course of 400 mg albendazole and iron supplement. The diarrhoea disappeared shortly after treatment. Physicians particularly in tropical areas should be aware of hookworms as causative agents of chronic diarrhoea and it may be found in the large intestine.
- First survey of endoparasites in pet ferrets in Italy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr 2.
Endoparasites are infrequently reported in ferrets. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in pet ferrets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 50 ferrets housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the samples were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect(®)Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 15 out of 50 ferrets (30%). Eggs of ancylostomids were found in 28.0% (14/50) of the animals and oocysts of Sarcocystis were detected in one ferret (2.0%). None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of sarcosporidiosis in a pet ferret in Italy.
- [Prevalence of geohelminth infections in children living in Kinshasa.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Pediatr 2014 Apr 22.
Data on geohelminth infections in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo are sparse. The objective of this study was to document and compare the profile and prevalence in children living in Kinshasa.A prospective cohort study was conducted from May to October 2009 in children in the Biyela health area in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Stool samples were collected from representative members of these two populations and analyzed for geohelminths (GH) using the Kato-Katz technique.In this series, 438 school-age children were included. There were 235 children recruited in schools and 203 in households (77.8%). Overall prevalence of geohelminths was 66.9%. The specific prevalence was 69.4% in children recruited in schools and 64.0% in children recruited in households. The frequency of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Ancylostoma species were, respectively, 56.2%, 38.7%, and 1.7% in schools and 39.9%, 51.7%, and 1.0% in households. A. lumbricoides was significantly more prevalent in schools (56.2% vs 39.9%; OR=2.0; 95%CI: 1.3-3.0), T. trichiura was significantly less prevalent in schools (38.7% vs 51.7%; OR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of Ancylostoma between schools and households.GH is a health problem among Biyela children. Preventive measures and education of the population need to be emphasized in attempts to reduce the prevalence of geohelminths in these children.
- Overt small-intestine bleeding caused by Ancylostoma duodenale. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gastrointest Endosc 2014 Apr 16.