- Rangelia vitalii in a free-ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and co-infections. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2016; 5(3):280-285
- An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The cl...
An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine. The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, dermis, lungs and kidney had similar protozoal forms but with mild or moderate intensity. Rangelia vitalii was confirmed by molecular assays. Hepatozoon sp., Leishmania sp., and Entamoeba spp., apparently not related to the clinical signs were also detected. The myriad parasites found in the intestines included nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliensis,, Molineus sp., Pterygodermatites sp., and Trichuris sp.), cestodes (Spirometra sp.) and (acanthocephalans. To our knowledge, R. vitalii was identified in C. brachyurus for the first time. These findings emphasize the fragility of Brazilian ecosystems, especially in disturbed areas, reinforcing the necessity of efforts to preserve these areas and wild carnivores, some of which are threatened with extinction, such as the maned wolf.
- Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2016 Sep 15
- The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditi...
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s) that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1) conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2) rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a 'flutter'); and (3) hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG 'events.' EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM) inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A. ceylanicum L4s and A. suum L3s with the microfluidic EPG platform, providing a new tool for screening anthelmintic candidates or investigating parasitic nematode feeding behavior.
- Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. [Journal Article]
- VWVet World 2016; 9(9):970-975
- CONCLUSIONS: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic parasite species further warrants a more comprehensive investigation with larger numbers of wild predators from the region to ascertain the possible contribution of coyotes to the disease cycle as these animals are more frequently spotted in and around the densely populated urban areas.
- The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum intestinal transcriptome provides a platform for selecting drug and vaccine candidates. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2016 Sep 27; 9(1):518
- CONCLUSIONS: The intestinal transcriptome of A. ceylanicum provides useful information for the identification of proteins involved in the blood-feeding process, representing a first step towards a reverse vaccinology approach to a human hookworm vaccine.
- A Case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infection Occurring in an Australian Soldier Returned from Solomon Islands. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Parasitol 2016; 54(4):533-6
- A 26-year-old male member of the Australian Defense Force presented with a history of central abdominal pain of 4 weeks duration and peripheral eosinophilia consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. Ac...
A 26-year-old male member of the Australian Defense Force presented with a history of central abdominal pain of 4 weeks duration and peripheral eosinophilia consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. Acute hookworm disease was diagnosed as the cause. Adult worms recovered from feces after therapy with albendazole were morphologically consistent with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. As the patient had been deployed with the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands for 6 months prior to this presentation, it is very likely that the A. ceylanicum was acquired in Solomon Islands. Until now, it has been assumed that any Ancylostoma spp. recovered from humans in Solomon Islands is A. duodenale. However, this case demonstrates that human hookworm infection acquired in the Solomon Islands could be caused by A. ceylanicum.
- Molecular Modeling and Structural Analysis of Arylesterase of Ancylostoma Duodenale. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharma Bio Sci 2016 Jul-Sep; 7(3):B611-B616
- Parasitic worm infection of humans is one of the most commonly prevalent helminth infection that has imposed great impact on society and public health in the developing world. The two species of hook...
Parasitic worm infection of humans is one of the most commonly prevalent helminth infection that has imposed great impact on society and public health in the developing world. The two species of hookworm, namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus may be primarily responsible for causing parasitic infections in human beings. The highly prevalent areas for Ancylostoma duodenale infections are mainly India, Middle East, Australia, northern Africa and other parts of the world. The serum arylesterases/paraoxonases are family of enzymes that is involved in the hydrolysis of a number of organophosphorus insecticides to the nontoxic products. The participation of the enzymes in the breakdown of a variety of organophosphate substrates that is generally made up of paraoxon and numerous aromatic carboxylic acid esters (e.g., phenyl acetate), and hence combats the toxic effect of organophosphates. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale giving special importance to structure generation, validation of the generated models, distribution of secondary structural elements and positive charge distribution over the structure. By the implementation of comparative modeling approach we propose the first molecular model structure of arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale.
- Changes in biochemical analytes in female dogs with subclinical Ancylostoma spp. infection. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2016 Sep 13; 12:203
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide an overview of the biochemical effects produced by patent Ancylostoma spp. in naturally infected dogs without any evident clinical signs of disease, which could be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in an endemic area for this parasite.
- Neotropical Zoonotic Parasites in Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus) from Upper Paraná Atlantic Forests in Misiones, Argentina. [Journal Article]
- VBVector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2016; 16(10):664-72
- Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest o...
Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine. From May to August 2011, a detection dog located 34 scats that were genetically confirmed as bush dog and georeferenced to northern Misiones. Of these 34 scats, 27 had sufficient quantity that allowed processing for zoonotic parasites using morphological (sedimentation and flotation) and antigen (coproantigen technique) analyses. Within these 27 scats, we determined that the parasitic prevalence was 63.0% (n = 17) with 8 (47.1%) having mixed infections with 2-4 parasitic genera. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between sampling areas, sex, and parasite taxa were found. We were able to summarize the predominant nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, and Lagochilascaris spp.), cestodes (Taenia spp. and Spirometra spp.), and apicomplexa (Cystoisospora caninum) found in these bush dogs. With the copro-ELISA technique, 14.8% (n = 4) of the samples were positive for Echinococcus spp. This study represents the first comprehensive study about parasitic fauna with zoonotic potential in the free-ranging bush dog. This information combined with the innovative set of techniques used to collect the samples constitute a valuable contribution that can be used in control programs, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and wildlife conservation, both regionally and across the bush dog's broad distribution.
- Phenolic Metabolites of Dalea ornata Affect Both Survival and Motility of the Human Pathogenic Hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nat Prod 2016 Sep 23; 79(9):2296-303
- Hookworms are ubiquitous human parasites, infecting nearly one billion people worldwide, and are the leading cause of anemia and malnutrition in resource-limited countries. Current drug treatments re...
Hookworms are ubiquitous human parasites, infecting nearly one billion people worldwide, and are the leading cause of anemia and malnutrition in resource-limited countries. Current drug treatments rely on the benzimidazole derivatives albendazole and mebendazole, but there is emerging resistance to these drugs. As part of a larger screening effort, using a hamster-based ex vivo assay, anthelmintic activity toward Ancylostoma ceylanicum was observed in the crude extract of aerial parts of Dalea ornata. These studies have led to the isolation and characterization of phenolic metabolites 1-10. The structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using electronic circular dichroism data. The new compound, (2S)-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-6,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (1), was weakly active at 7.3 μM, with 17% reduction in survival of the hookworms after 5 days. The rotenoids deguelin (9) and tephrosin (10), predictably perhaps, were the most active, with complete worm mortality observed by day 4 (or earlier) at 6.3 and 6.0 μM, respectively. The effects of 1-10 on hookworm motility and on toxicity to hamster splenocytes were also explored as important measures of treatment potential.
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- Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo) (Carnivora: Felidae) in southern Brazil. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2016 Jul-Sep; 25(3):374-7
- Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of par...
Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.