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Ancylostoma duodenale [keywords]
- Overt small-intestine bleeding caused by Ancylostoma duodenale. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gastrointest Endosc 2014 Apr 16.
- Geohelminth contamination of public areas and epidemiological risk factors in Curitiba, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2014 Mar; 23(1):69-73.
This study aimed to investigate the frequency of geohelminthic contamination of public parks and squares in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil, between August and December 2010. A total of 345 samples were collected from 69 sandboxes in different areas and were tested using the Faust, Lutz and Baermann parasitological techniques. Potential risk factors associated with soil contamination were also analyzed. A total of 36% of the samples (124/345) were positive for helminths and 65.2% of the areas (45/69) were classified as contaminated in one or more samples. The most commonly identified parasite eggs were Ancylostoma sp. (14.5%; 50/345); followed by Toxocara sp. (9.6%; 33/345) and the Strongyloidea superfamily (excluding hookworms) (2.3%; 8/345). The analysis on the epidemiological risk factors indicated that the presence of dogs and feces in the sandboxes increased the chances of contamination of the site. Use of fences had a protective positive impact that reduced soil contamination. Health education programs should be applied within the community to minimize the risk of human contact with dogs' feces. Use of fencing in these areas is highly recommended to prevent or reduce the users' contact with animal excrement.
- Fenbendazole treatment for Mammomonogamus species infection of a domestic cat on St Kitts, West Indies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Feline Med Surg 2014 Apr 7.
A 7-month-old, female, domestic shorthair, indoor/outdoor cat on the island of St Kitts was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine as part of a student training spay-neuter program. Observation of diarrhea prompted a double centrifugation fecal analysis. Ova of Mammomonogamus species, in addition to Ancylostoma species, Trichuris species and Platynosomum species, were found. Mammomonogamus ierei is a parasitic nematode found on many Caribbean islands for which treatment is not well documented. Five days of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg bodyweight) was administered, and fecal analyses gave negative results for Mammomonogamus species eggs 1 week after the last fenbendazole treatment.
- Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against induced infections of Ancylostoma spp. nematodes of cats. [Journal Article]
- Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr 28; 202(1-2):30-3.
Four studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense hookworms of cats. In each study, purpose-bred cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups of 10 or 12 cats per group. In three studies the cats were inoculated with A. tubaeforme and in one study with A. braziliense. The inoculations were undertaken on a schedule which resulted in the hookworms reaching the fourth larval stage in two of the studies, or the adult stage in four of the studies, by the day of treatment. In each study there was also an untreated control and 1 or 2 groups treated with the novel combination. In the two studies where efficacy against the fourth larval stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, the efficacy recorded was 100%. In the three studies where efficacy against the adult stage of A. tubaeforme was tested, efficacy of 100% was also confirmed. In the study where efficacy against the adult stage of A. braziliense was tested efficacy was 99.5%.
- Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats. [Journal Article]
- Vet Parasitol 2014 Apr 28; 202(1-2):18-25.
The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against a broad range of feline intestinal nematode and cestode infections.
- Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS Med 2014 Mar; 11(3):e1001620.
Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39-0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28-3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced odds of hookworm infection (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18-0.47) and infection with any STH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.83). Handwashing, both before eating (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26-0.55) and after defecating (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.58), was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides infection. Soap use or availability was significantly associated with lower infection with any STH (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.98), as was handwashing after defecation (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.90). Observational evidence constituted the majority of included literature, which limits any attempt to make causal inferences. Due to underlying heterogeneity across observational studies, the meta-analysis results reflect an average of many potentially distinct effects, not an average of one specific exposure-outcome relationship.WASH access and practices are generally associated with reduced odds of STH infection. Pooled estimates from all meta-analyses, except for two, indicated at least a 33% reduction in odds of infection associated with individual WASH practices or access. Although most WASH interventions for STH have focused on sanitation, access to water and hygiene also appear to significantly reduce odds of infection. Overall quality of evidence was low due to the preponderance of observational studies, though recent randomized controlled trials have further underscored the benefit of handwashing interventions. Limited use of the Joint Monitoring Program's standardized water and sanitation definitions in the literature restricted efforts to generalize across studies. While further research is warranted to determine the magnitude of benefit from WASH interventions for STH control, these results call for multi-sectoral, integrated intervention packages that are tailored to social-ecological contexts.
- Evaluation of the use of C-terminal part of the Schistosoma mansoni 200kDa tegumental protein in schistosomiasis diagnosis and vaccine formulation. [Journal Article]
- Exp Parasitol 2014 Apr.:24-32.
Schistosoma mansoni tegument is involved in essential functions for parasite survival and represents a target for screening candidates for vaccine and diagnosis. Our group using reverse vaccinology selected six candidates, previously demonstrated by proteomics studies to be expressed in the parasite tegument, among them was Sm200. In this work we have cloned and expressed a recombinant form of Sm200 C-terminal (1069-1520) region. The efficacy of rSm200 (1069-1520) in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and in the formulation of a vaccine against S. mansoni was assessed respectively in an ELISA based diagnostic assay and immunization protocols in mice. Significant differences between non-infected and acutely infected or chronically infected animals were observed and no cross-recognition was observed with sera from Ascaris suum or Ancylostoma ceylanicum infected mice. rSm200-ELISA test could also discriminate infected individuals from healthy donors not living in endemic area for schistosomiasis but failed to discriminate between individuals from a low endemic area for schistosomiasis known to have positive or negative stools after examination. Recombinant Sm200 also failed to induce protection against schistosomiasis, demonstrating that the C-terminal part of Sm200 is unable to induce protective immune response in mice. Therefore rSm200 (1069-1520)-ELISA represents an important tool to be used in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.
- Evaluation of a rapid device for serological in-clinic diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis. [Journal Article]
- Parasit Vectors 2014.:72.
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a potentially fatal canine nematode. Due to the high variability of clinical signs and the often chronic and subtle course of the infections, the diagnosis is particularly challenging. A rapid in-clinic assay (Angio Detect Test, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA) for the serological detection of circulating antigen and intended for routine in-clinic diagnosis has been evaluated.Sensitivity was calculated with sera from 39 naturally infected dogs confirmed by Baermann-Wetzel analysis, while sera of 38 experimentally infected dogs were used for follow-up analyses, of which 10 were treated with imidacloprid/moxidectin. Cross-reactivity was tested with a total of 123 samples from dogs with proven parasitic infections with Toxocara canis (n = 21), Ancylostoma caninum (n = 4), Crenosoma vulpis (n = 18), Oslerus osleri (n = 3), Eucoleus aerophilus, (n = 6), Dirofilaria immitis (n = 28), Dirofilaria repens (n = 20), Acantocheilonema reconditum (n = 10) or Dipetalonema dracunculoides (n = 10) or multiple infections (n = 3). All sera were tested with the Angio Detect Test and with an ELISA for detection of circulating antigen of A. vasorum.The sensitivity of the Angio Detect Test was 84.6% (95% C.I. 69.5 - 94.1%), while specificity was 100% (95% C.I. 97.6 - 100%). The sensitivity of the ELISA (94.9%, 95% C.I. 82.7 - 99.3%) was comparable with previous evaluations. In experimentally infected dogs, earliest positive results with the Angio Detect Test were observed 9 weeks post inoculation and 5 weeks later all sera were Angio Detect Test positive. After anthelmintic treatment, seropositive dogs turned negative again within 3 to 7 weeks after treatment. The evaluation of the colour intensity of the test strips confirmed the delay of approximately 3-4 weeks for antigen detection by the Angio Detect™ Test compared to the ELISA and its correlation with the time after infection.This study provided evidence of a good sensitivity and a very high specificity of the rapid device Angio Detect Test for detection of circulating A. vasorum antigen in dogs with suspected canine angiostrongylosis, representing a very simple and useful tool to be broadly applied in veterinary practices. The rapid detection of infected dogs is a key point for initiating an indispensable and urgent therapy.
- First report of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in wild canids. [Journal Article]
- Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2013 Dec.:173-7.
The parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum is common in dogs, cats and humans throughout Asia, inhabiting the small intestine and possibly leading to iron-deficient anaemia in those infected. It has previously been discovered in domestic dogs in Australia and this is the first report of A. ceylanicum in wild canids. Wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids) killed in council control operations (n = 26) and wild dog scats (n = 89) were collected from the Wet Tropics region around Cairns, Far North Queensland. All of the carcasses (100%) were infected with Ancylostoma caninum and three (11.5%) had dual infections with A. ceylanicum. Scats, positively sequenced for hookworm, contained A. ceylanicum, A. caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense, with A. ceylanicum the dominant species in Mount Windsor National Park, with a prevalence of 100%, but decreasing to 68% and 30.8% in scats collected from northern and southern rural suburbs of Cairns, respectively. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from this wild dog reservoir to communities in the Wet Tropics should be determined.
- Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among Kigali Institute of Education students in Kigali, Rwanda. [Journal Article]
- Trop Biomed 2013 Dec; 30(4):718-26.
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are a significant public health problem in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) and Rwanda is not spared. While eradication programs towards preschool-aged and school-aged children are undertaken, important gaps regarding IPIs among students attending tertiary learning institutions remain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IPIs and associated risk factors among Kigali Institute of Education (KIE) students who attended its medical clinic for stool examination. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the 2010 academic year, from February to July. Fresh stool samples were collected from 109 students chosen randomly and were examined for the presence of eggs, cysts and parasites using direct saline smear under light microscopy. A questionnaire was also used to assess water consumption habits, eating and living places. More than half (50.5%) of the stools examined were infected with an intestinal parasite. Among the infected students, prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica was 54.5%, Trichomonas intestinalis and Ascaris lumbricoides were 20.0%, Giardia duodenalis was 3.6% and Ancylostoma duodenale was 1.8%. The prevalence of IPIs was strongly associated with drinking any kind of water (p<0.001) and eating outside of the KIE cafeteria (p<0.001) and significantly related to living outside of the KIE campus (p=0.026). The study showed that IPIs of public health relevance are prevalent among students attending tertiary schools. The importance of living and eating in hygienic environments as well as drinking safe water is crucial and all efforts need to be sustained.