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Anemia, microcytic [keywords]
- Anemia in Pregnancy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Lab Med 2013 Jun; 33(2):281-291.
Hemodynamic changes occur in pregnancy to prepare for expected blood loss at delivery. Physiologic anemia occurs in pregnancy because plasma volume increases more quickly than red cell mass. Anemia is most commonly classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic. Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 75% of all anemias in pregnancy. Oral iron supplementation is the recommended treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Parenteral iron and erythropoietin can also be used in severe or refractory cases. Outcomes and treatments for other forms of inherited and acquired anemias in pregnancy vary by disease, and include nutritional supplementation, corticosteroids, supportive transfusions, and splenectomy.
- Bed bugs reproductive life cycle in the clothes of a patient suffering from Alzheimer's disease results in iron deficiency anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasite 2013.:16.
We report the case of an 82-year-old patient, hospitalized for malaise. Her clothes were infested by numerous insects and the entomological analysis identified them as being Cimex lectularius (bed bugs). The history of the patient highlighted severe cognitive impairment. The biological assessment initially showed a profound microcytic, aregenerative, iron deficiency anemia. A vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia (positive intrinsic factor antibodies) was also highlighted, but this was not enough to explain the anemia without macrocytosis. Laboratory tests, endoscopy and a CT scan eliminated a tumor etiology responsible for occult bleeding. The patient had a mild itchy rash which was linked to the massive colonization by the bed bugs. The C. lectularius bite is most often considered benign because it is not a vector of infectious agents. Far from trivial, a massive human colonization by bed bugs may cause such a hematic depletion that severe microcytic anemia may result.
- The effects of co-infection with human parvovirus B19 and Plasmodium falciparum on type and degree of anaemia in Ghanaian children. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013 Feb; 3(2):129-39.
To determin the extent to which parvovirus B19 (B19V) and co-infection of B19V and malaria contribute to risk of anaemia in children.B19V DNA and malaria parasites were screened for 234 children at the PML Children's Hospital in Accra. The role of B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria in anaemia was evaluated by analysing full blood cell counts, malaria and B19V DNA results from these children.The prevalence of B19V, malaria and co-infection with B19V and malaria was 4.7%, 41.9% and 2.6%, respectively. Malaria posed a greater risk in the development of mild anaemia compared to severe anaemia (OR=5.28 vrs 3.15) whereas B19V posed a higher risk in the development of severe anaemia compared to mild anaemia (OR=4.07 vrs 1.00) from a non-anaemic child. Persons with co-infection with B19V and malaria had 2.23 times the risk (95% CI=0.40-12.54) of developing severe anaemia should they already have a mild anaemia. The degree of anaemia was about three times affected by co-infection (Pillai's trace=0.551, P=0.001) as was affected by malaria alone (Pillai's trace=0.185, P=0.001). B19V alone did not significantly affect the development of anaemia in a non-anaemic child. Microcytic anaemia was associated with B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria more than normocytic normochromic anaemia.B19V was associated with malaria in cases of severe anaemia. The association posed a significant risk for exacerbation of anaemia in mild anaemic children. B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria may be associated with microcytic anaemia rather than normocytic normochromic anaemia as seen in cases of B19V infection among persons with red cell abnormalities.
- Silent β-Thalassemia Mutations at -101 (C>T) and -71 (C>T) and Their Coinheritance with the Sickle Cell Mutation in Bahrain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hemoglobin 2013 Apr 15.
Silent β-thalassemia (β-thal) is a group of mutations affecting the β-globin gene that cannot be differentiated in heterozygote states from normal conditions by using conventional criteria for the diagnosis of β-thal trait. Here we report the existence of two silent β-thal mutations in the population of Bahrain, one at -101 (C>T) and the other at -71 (C>T). We screened 126 healthy individuals with high-normal Hb A2 levels and found a frequency of 23.0% for both of these mutations (8.0% for -71 and 15.0% for -101). Heterozygotes for either of these two mutations have an overlapping level of Hb A2 ranging from 3.1-3.9% (3.7 ± 0.3) with some cases displaying microcytic and hypochromic anemia, mainly attributed to coinherited defective α-thal genes. Interestingly, each of these mutations were discovered in combination with the sickle cell allele displaying distinct high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles, different from those observed in the typical sickle cell disease or the sickle cell trait conditions. These investigations are invaluable to provide appropriate counseling for partners undergoing premarital counseling and to understand the molecular basis of mild and atypical forms of sickle cell disease.
- A case of extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma in an oophorectomized-hysterectomized patient: a diagnostic dilemma. [Journal Article]
- G Chir 2013 Mar; 34(3):82-5.
Extra Ovarian Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma (EOPPC) is a rare type of adenocarcinoma of the pelvic and abdominal peritoneum. The objective examination and the histological aspect of the neoplasia virtually overlaps with that of ovarian carcinoma. The reported case is that of a 72 year-old patient who had undergone a total hysterectomy with bilateral annessiectomy surgery 20 years earlier subsequently to a diagnosis for uterine leiomyomatosis. The patient came to our attention presenting recurring abdominal pain, constipation, weight loss, severe asthenia and fever. Her blood test results showed hypochromic microcytic anemia and a remarkable increase CA125 marker levels. Instrumental diagnostics with Ultrasound (US) and CT scans indicated the presence of a single peritoneal mass (10-12 cm diameter) close to the great epiploon. The patient was operated through a midline abdominal incision and the mass was removed with the great omentum. No primary tumor was found anywhere else in the abdomen and in the pelvis. The operation lasted approximately 50 minutes. The post-operative course was normal and the patient was discharged four days later. The histological exam of the neoplasia, supported by immunohistochemical analysis, showed a significant positivity for CA 125, vimentin and cytocheratin, presence of psammoma bodies, and cytoarchitectural pattern resembling that of a serous ovarian carcinoma even in absence of primitiveness, leading to a final diagnosis of EOPPC. The patient later underwent six cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel (135 mg/m2/24 hr) in association with cisplatin (75mg/m2). At the fourth year follow-up no sign of relapse was observed.
- [Analysis of clinical phenotypes of compound heterozygotes of Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2013 Apr; 30(2):148-51.
To analyze hematological characteristics of compound heterozygotes of Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia, and to explore the influence of Hb J-Bangkok on the phenotype of β-thalassemia.Peripheral blood samples from a patient carrying Hb J-Bangkok and a β-thalassemia mutation, her family members and three sporadic Hb J-Bangkok carriers were collected. RBC analysis and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. Genotypes of α- and β-globin genes were analyzed.The father of the proband and the three sporadic cases were single carriers of Hb J-Bangkok. All of them were asymptomatic and have normal hematological parameters except for an abnormal hemoglobin band detected on hemoglobin electrophoresis. The proband was a compound heterozygote for Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia mutation IVS-Ⅱ-654. She presented typical β-thalassemia trait, featuring hypochromic microcytic anemia and increased Hb A₂ level. An abnormal hemoglobin band was also detected.Carriers of Hb J-Bangkok alone are asymptomatic. Co-existence of Hb J-Bangkok and β-thalassemia may not aggravate the phenotype. Therefore, couples with one carrying Hb J-Bangkok and another carrying a β-thalassemia mutation do not require prenatal diagnosis.
- Etiology of anemia in primary hypothyroid subjects in a tertiary care center in Eastern India. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 2):S361-3.
The association of anemia with primary hypothyroidism has been common knowledge for many years. However; its pathogenesis is far from clear in many cases. Often the causes of anemia are manifold.In this study, we evaluated the causes of anemia in patients with primary hypothyroidism.Sixty adult nonpregnant untreated primary hypothyroid patients with anemia without any obvious cause were included. All patients were subjected to full medical history, clinical examination, biochemical and imaging studies. Serum iron profile, vitamin B12, folic acid, anti parietal cell antibody, anti TPO antibody, bone marrow study, and stool for occult blood, Coomb's test, HPLC for hemoglobinopathies and complete hemogram with reticulocyte count were done and analyzed.Normocytic, normochromic anemia was present in 31 patients (51.6%) followed by microcytic anemia in 26 patients (43.3%). Six patients (10%) had megaloblastic anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency including 3 cases of pernicious anemia. Two patients had combined deficiency of iron and vitamin B12.Normocytic normochromic anemia with normal bone marrow was commonest type of anemia in this study, followed by iron deficiency anemia.
- Red blood cell morphology. [Journal Article]
- Int J Lab Hematol 2013 Jun; 35(3):351-7.
The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis.
- Identification of the first mutation in a BRE motif of the β-globin gene and its inheritance with two other α-globin gene mutations in a Lebanese family. [Journal Article]
- Hemoglobin 2013; 37(2):171-5.
A 7-year old boy presented with a history of recurrent respiratory infections and hypochromic microcytic anemia. Iron profiles were normal thereby prompting genetic analysis of α- and β-globin mutations. The first mutation in a BRE motif of the β-globin gene in the proband, sibling and the mother was identified. The proband and his sibling also inherited common α-globin mutations from the father and mother. In all cases, no serious thalassemia disease was detected.
- Increased adiposity, dysregulated glucose metabolism and systemic inflammation in Galectin-3 KO mice. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(2):e57915.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased production of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a protein that modulates inflammation and clearance of glucose adducts. We used Lean and Diet-induced Obese (DIO) WT and Gal-3 KO mice to investigate the role of Gal-3 in modulation of adiposity, glucose metabolism and inflammation. Deficiency of Gal-3 lead to age-dependent development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as indicated by elevated production of acute-phase proteins, number of circulating pro-inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes and development of neutrophilia, microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis in 20-week-old Lean and DIO male Gal-3 KO mice. This was associated with impaired fasting glucose, heightened response to a glucose tolerance test and reduced adipose tissue expression of adiponectin, Gal-12, ATGL and PPARγ, in the presence of maintained insulin sensitivity and hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in 20-week-old Gal-3 KO mice compared to their diet-matched WT controls. Expression of PGC-1α and FGF-21 in the liver of Lean Gal-3 KO mice was comparable to that observed in DIO animals. Impaired fasting glucose and altered responsiveness to a glucose load preceded development of excess adiposity and systemic inflammation, as demonstrated in 12-week-old Gal-3 KO mice. Finally, a role for the microflora in mediating the fasting hyperglycemia, but not the excessive response to a glucose load, of 12-week-old Gal-3 KO mice was demonstrated by administration of antibiotics. In conclusion, Gal-3 is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, adiposity and inflammation.