Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- [Improvement of consciousness by administration of flumazenil in a patient with unexpectedly delayed emergence from general anesthesia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Apr; 62(4):449-52.
A 64-year-old woman was scheduled for the removal of hepatic cystadenoarcinoma. The preoperative examination did not reveal any neurological disorders. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam (5 mg) and remifentanil (0.1.ag x kg-1 x min-1) and the trachea was intubated following administration of rocuronium. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol (1.2-4.0 mg x kg-1 x hr-1), remifentanil (0.1-0.4microg kg 1 x min-1), and rocuronium (10 mg) as needed. The dose of propofol was controlled so that bispectral index (BIS) ranged between 40 and 60 during surgery. The duration of surgery was 10 hr 29 min. Administration of propofol and remifentanil was terminated at the end of surgery. After confirmation of T2 appearance by train-of-four stimuli, sugammadex (2 mg x kg 1) was intravenously administered. Although respiratory rate and tidal volume were 12-18 breaths x min-1 and 350-450 ml, respectively, she remained unconsciousness at about 40 of BIS. We could not find any factors associated with delayed emergence from anesthesia. Flumazenil (0.5 mg) was administered intravenously 90 min after termination of anesthesia. Two min later, she became fully awake and alert with increase in BIS (above 90). Laboratory examination showed that the plasma concentrations of propofol, midazolam, and its active metabolite alpha-hydroxymidazolam before administration of flumazenil were within the range considered to have no sedative effects. From experience of this case, administration of flumazenil may be beneficial for improvement in consciousness in cases with unexpectedly delayed emergence from anesthesia.
- Is neural activation within the rescued penumbra impeded by selective neuronal loss? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain 2013 May 16.
After stroke, penumbral salvage determines clinical recovery. However, the rescued penumbra may be affected by selective neuronal loss, as documented both histopathologically in animals and using the validated in vivo positron emission tomography marker (11)C-flumazenil in humans. However, whether the non-infarcted penumbra is capable of neuronal activation, and how selective neuronal loss may interfere, is unknown. Here we prospectively mapped the topographical relationships between functional magnetic resonance imaging responses and non-infarcted penumbra, and tested the hypothesis that the former do take place in the latter, but only in its subsets spared selective neuronal loss. Seven patients (mean age 74 years; three thrombolysed) with first-ever acute anterior circulation stroke, presence of penumbra on computed tomography perfusion performed within 6 h of onset, and substantial deficit on admission but good outcome at 1-3 months (National Institute of Health Stroke Score range 6-13 and 0-1, respectively, P = 0.001), were studied. At follow-up, patients underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging to map the infarct, functional magnetic resonance imaging (three tasks selected to probe the right or left hemisphere), and (11)C-flumazenil positron emission tomography generating binding potential maps. Patients with significant carotid or middle-cerebral artery disease or impaired vasoreactivity were excluded. Following image coregistration, the non-infarcted penumbra comprised all acutely ischaemic voxels (identified on acute computed tomography perfusion using previously validated thresholds) not part of the final infarct. To test our hypotheses, the overlap between functional magnetic resonance imaging activation clusters and non-infarcted penumbra was mapped, and binding potential values then computed both within and outside this overlap. In addition, the overlap between functional magnetic resonance imaging activation clusters and areas of significantly reduced binding potential (determined using Statistical Parametric Mapping against 16 age-matched control subjects) was assessed in each patient. An overlap between non-infarcted penumbra and functional magnetic resonance imaging clusters was present in seven of seven patients, substantial in four. Binding potential was significantly reduced in the whole non-infarcted penumbra (P < 0.01) but not within the functional magnetic resonance imaging overlap. Clusters with significantly reduced binding potential showed virtually no overlap with functional magnetic resonance imaging activation compared with 12 age-matched controls (P = 0.04).The results from this proof of principle study suggest that 1-3 months after stroke the non-infarcted penumbra is capable of neuronal activation, consistent with its established role in recovery of neurological functions. However, although the non-infarcted penumbra as a whole was affected by selective neuronal loss, activations tended to occur within portions spared selective neuronal loss, suggesting the latter impedes neuronal activation. Although its clinical correlates are still elusive, selective neuronal loss may represent a novel therapeutic target in the aftermath of ischaemic stroke.
- GABAA Receptor Imaging With Positron Emission Tomography in the Human Newborn: A Unique Binding Pattern. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Neurol 2013 Jun; 48(6):459-62.
Flumazenil is a specific, reversibly bound antagonist at benzodiazepine binding sites of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors; these sites can be imaged using positron emission tomography with 11C-flumazenil. We reported an exponential decline of flumazenil volume of distribution (proportional to receptor binding) of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in children 2 to 17 years. Six newborns (33.3-46.7 weeks' postconception) were studied. All had experienced epileptic seizures and undergone 60-minute dynamic 11C-flumazenil-positron emission tomography imaging after injection of 0.4 mCi/kg of 11C-flumazenil. All newborns were scanned during their natural sleep. Binding potential (indicating flumazenil receptor binding) was calculated using Logan-plot analysis. Visual and quantitative analyses showed highest receptor binding in the amygdala-hippocampus region, sensory-motor cortex, thalamus, brainstem and basal ganglia, in that order. Cerebellum and most of the cerebral cortex showed relatively low binding. This is the first demonstration of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor binding in human neonates and is strikingly different from that in older children/adults, showing a programmed pattern of expression. The ontogeny data of flumazenil receptor binding from children may contribute to understanding regional differences in synaptic plasticity and improve rational therapeutic use of drugs acting at the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor in the pediatric population.
- Involvement of the GABAergic system in the anxiolytic-like effect of the flavonoid ellagic acid in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Apr 17; 710(1-3):49-58.
Anxiolytic-like effects of dietary flavonoids are relatively well known. Ellagic acid is a naturally occurring flavonoid compound which is abundant in many plants and fruits. The present study was designed to investigate the antianxiety-like effect of ellagic acid in mice using an elevated plus-maze test. The involvement of the GABAergic and serotonergic systems in the antianxiety-like activity of ellagic acid was also studied. Our results showed that ellagic acid treatment (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.), produced a significant increase in the percentage of time spent and entry into the open arms, with a profile comparable to that of diazepam (1mg/kg, p.o.). Unlike diazepam, the anxiolytic doses of ellagic acid did not prolong the duration of sodium thiopental-induced loss of righting reflex, indicating that this flavonoid is non-hypnotic. The anxiolytic effect observed with ellagic acid treatment (25mg/kg, p.o.) was antagonized by pretreatment with picrotoxin (a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, 1mg/kg, i.p.) and flumazenil (a benzodiazepine site antagonist, 1mg/kg, i.p.) but not with p-chlorophenylalanine (a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, 100mg/kg, i.p.) and pindolol (a β-adrenoceptors blocker/5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, 10mg/kg, i.p.). Taken together, the data demonstrated that acute and chronic administration of ellagic acid to mice has produced antianxiety-like effect when tested in the elevated plus-maze. The experiments with different receptor blockers suggest an involvement of GABAergic system in the anxiolytic action of this bioflavonoid. However, this action is not seems to be mediated through serotonergic system.
- Modulation of native GABAA receptor activity by triazolo 1,5-benzodiazepines. [Journal Article]
- Neuroscience 2013 Jul 23.:158-64.
In previous work our group described the synthesis and the activity on rat cerebellum granule cell GABAA receptors of new 1,5-benzodiazepine compounds. Here we are describing the synthesis of new triazolobenzodiazepines (mainly 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives) and the evaluation of their biological activity in terms of effects on those GABAA receptors. Their effects were compared to those of 1,4-benzodiazepine agonists and some known 1,5-benzodiazepines. The activities were evaluated for the two GABAA receptor populations present in cerebellar granule cells, one mediating phasic inhibition and the other one mediating tonic inhibition. Some of the compounds displayed a profile of agonist at the component mediating phasic inhibition. This agonistic activity was prevented by the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. Interestingly, the active compounds displayed an agonistic activity at these receptors significantly greater than that of "classical" 1,4-benzodiazepine agonists, such as diazepam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam.
- Arterial input function derived from pairwise correlations between PET-image voxels. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013 Apr 10.
A metabolite corrected arterial input function is a prerequisite for quantification of positron emission tomography (PET) data by compartmental analysis. This quantitative approach is also necessary for radioligands without suitable reference regions in brain. The measurement is laborious and requires cannulation of a peripheral artery, a procedure that can be associated with patient discomfort and potential adverse events. A non invasive procedure for obtaining the arterial input function is thus preferable. In this study, we present a novel method to obtain image-derived input functions (IDIFs). The method is based on calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient between the time-activity curves of voxel pairs in the PET image to localize voxels displaying blood-like behavior. The method was evaluated using data obtained in human studies with the radioligands [(11)C]flumazenil and [(11)C]AZ10419369, and its performance was compared with three previously published methods. The distribution volumes (VT) obtained using IDIFs were compared with those obtained using traditional arterial measurements. Overall, the agreement in VT was good (∼3% difference) for input functions obtained using the pairwise correlation approach. This approach performed similarly or even better than the other methods, and could be considered in applied clinical studies. Applications to other radioligands are needed for further verification.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 10 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.47.
- Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice. [Journal Article]
- Braz J Med Biol Res 2013 Mar 15; 46(3):263-9.
The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD50) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia.
- Depression of neuronal activity by sedatives is associated with adverse effects after brain injury. [Journal Article]
- Brain Res 2013 May 13.:1-9.
Analgesics and sedatives are frequently used in the treatment of acute brain injury and subsequent brain swelling. Most agents act on specific receptors to modulate neuronal activity, which is normally involved in feedback loops that direct system building and maintenance. We investigated the neurodegenerative effects of midazolam and isoflurane in a rat model of controlled cortical impact injury (CCII). Two hours prior to CCII, four experimental groups were treated with different agents including a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC 1.0) of isoflurane. For additional sedation, isoflurane MAC 1.67, midazolam alone, or midazolam in combination with flumazenil was used. Blood pressure and blood gas analysis were monitored to investigate systemic side effects. Two days after treatment, relative apoptotic cell counts were determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. With isoflurane and midazolam, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings revealed a decrease in amplitude size and altered frequency distribution. Treatment using deep sedation with isoflurane MAC 1.67 or midazolam increased relative apoptotic cell count by 14.8% (95% CI 3.6 to 26.1, p<0.01) and 18.0% (95% CI 6.8 to 29.3, p<0.01), respectively. Co-treatment with flumazenil reversed the neurodegenerative effect of midazolam by -13.2% (95% CI -24.5 to -2.0, p<0.05). Functional neurological outcome was worse after isoflurane MAC 1.67 (18.8 score points; p<0.01) and midazolam (21.4 score points, p<0.001). Flumazenil antagonized the neurodegenerative effects of midazolam. In conclusion, neuronal survival and functional recovery are reduced by sedative use in a rat model of acute brain injury.
- The combined effects of midazolam and propofol sedation on muscle power. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesia 2013 May; 68(5):478-83.
We performed a randomised, crossover study to investigate the effects of intravenous sedation on grip strength and bite force. Twenty male volunteers received a bolus intravenous injection of midazolam (0.02 mg.kg(-1)) together with a 30-min propofol infusion designed to achieve an effect-site concentration of 1.0 μg.ml(-1). Observed variables included bispectral index, observer's assessment of alertness/sedation, correct answer rate of Stroop colour-word test, grip strength and bite force. Grip strength decreased from a median (IQR [range]) of 483 (443-517 [380-586]) N to 358 (280-405 [108-580]) N (p < 0.001) during sedation and recovered following flumazenil administration, while bite force increased from 818 (593-1026 [405-1406]) N to 1377 (1243-1585 [836-2357]) N (p < 0.001) during sedation. Although bite force gradually returned to baseline following flumazenil administration, it remained increased throughout the experimental period. We conclude that bite force increased during intravenous sedation and that this may have clinical implications.
- Diazepam Inhibits Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells Through Triggering a G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2013 Mar 19.