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Angioedema urticaria [keywords]
- Drug-induced visceral angioedema. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2014; 4(4)
Angioedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is due to the accumulation of bradykinin and its metabolites. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce anti-hypertensive effects by blocking the angiotensin II AT1 receptor action; hence bradykinin-related side effects are not expected. However, we notice the occurrence of ARB-induced angioedema as not a very rare side effect. Visceral drug-induced angioedema has been reported with ACEIs, not with ARBs. This underlying review will help educate readers on the pathophysiology and recent guidelines pertaining to ACEI- and ARB-induced visceral angioedema.
- Progestins are Efficient Agents in Estrogen-sensitive Nonhistaminic Angioedema. [Letter]
- Am J Med 2014 Oct; 127(10):e7.
- Perioperative Management of Tooth Extractions for a Patient With Hereditary Angioedema. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Aug 27.
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder that causes a deficiency in or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) and is clinically characterized by sudden and recurrent attacks of angioedema. Although almost any part of the body can be affected, HAE is of greatest concern and can be life-threatening when the upper airway is involved, particularly the larynx (laryngeal attack). HAE attacks can be triggered by physical or psychological stress or can arise spontaneously without any apparent trigger. Dental treatments and routine oral surgical procedures, such as tooth extraction, abound with factors that can trigger an attack of HAE. Indeed, several cases of death resulting from HAE attacks have been reported after such procedures. Therefore, patients with HAE are of special concern in dentistry and require precautionary preparations before treatment. This report describes the successful management of tooth extractions in a patient with HAE who was at high risk of an HAE-induced laryngeal attack.
- [Use of antihistamines in a physician's clinical practice]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ter Arkh 2014; 86(8):106-9.
Histamine that belongs to one of the most important mediators involved in the regulation of the body's vital functions plays a great role in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Histamine is released during inflammatory and allergic reactions, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid shock, pseudoallergic reactions, and others. Acting through histamine receptors, it leads to increased intracellular concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, enhanced chemotaxis of eosinophils and neutrophils, production of prostaglandins and thromboxane B, suppressed synthesis of lymphokines, etc. and causes contraction of smooth muscles of particularly the bronchi and intestine, dilation of vessels and their increased permeability, mucus hypersecretion in the upper airways, lower blood pressure, angioedema and itch, etc. In this connection, antihistamines that block histamine-induced reactions in various ways: by inhibiting its biosynthesis, enhancing its neutralization, blocking the access to receptors, and suppressing the release from mast cells, occupy a prominent place in clinical practice. The review covers the classification, main mechanisms of pharmacological action, and indications for the use of antihistamines that not only have the well-known antihistamine properties, but have also a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity. There are data on the benefits of a group of antihistamines, the quinuclidine derivatives (quifenadine, sequifenadine) that were designed by Academician M.D. Mashkovsky and are one of the first examples of designing new classes of multifunctional non-sedating antihistamines, which combines a high selective activity to block histamine type 1 receptors and an ability to block serotonin and to break down histamine directly in tissues.
- Quality of life in patients with hereditary angioedema receiving therapy for routine prevention of attacks. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2014 Sep; 35(5):371-376.
Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but the effect of preventative treatment strategies on HRQoL has not been evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of routine prevention therapy with nanofiltered C1 inhibitor (C1 INH-nf; human) on the HRQoL of patients with HAE. Thiry-six-item Short Form (SF-36) Version 1.0 questionnaires were administered at the beginning and end of two 12-week treatment periods in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Patients (n = 22) received intravenous injections of 1000 U of C1 INH-nf or placebo every 3-4 days for 12 weeks and then crossed over to the other treatment arm for a second 12-week period. Patients could receive open-label C1 INH-nf (1000 U) for the acute treatment of angioedema attacks in either arm of the study. Sixteen patients had evaluable SF-36 data. Mean physical component summary scores (PCSs) were 36.41 at baseline, 37.06 at the end of the placebo period, and 43.92 at the end of the C1 INH-nf period. Mean mental component summary scores (MCSs) were 49.90, 44.98, and 54.00, respectively. Least square mean differences (95% confidence intervals) between C1 INH-nf and placebo in norm-based SF-36 scores at the end of each treatment period were 6.55 (1.48, 11.62; p = 0.015) for PCS and 8.70 (1.67, 15.72; p = 0.019) for MCS. In a clinical trial setting, patients with HAE had significantly better HRQoL after 12 weeks of C1 INH-nf for routine prevention compared with acute treatment of individual angioedema attacks in the absence of routine prevention while on placebo. This study was a part of the clinical trial NCT01005888 registered in www.clinicaltrials.gov.
- Prognostic factors in outcome of angioedema in the emergency department. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2014 Sep; 35(5):362-370.
Angioedema is a transient, localized swelling caused by two distinct mechanisms, mediated by histamine and bradykinin, respectively, although a proportion of cases remain idiopathic. Studies that characterize undifferentiated angioedema presenting in emergency departments (EDs) are limited. This study investigates the presentation patterns of undifferentiated angioedema in the ED based on the presumed mechanism of swelling. Medical records from all ED visits to two tertiary care hospitals from July 2007 to March 2012 were electronically reviewed. Records with documented visible swelling on general inspection and/or fiberoptic laryngoscopy and a diagnostic code for anaphylactic shock, angioneurotic edema, allergy unspecified, defects in the complement system, or unspecified drug adverse effects were included. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected via a standardized form. Data were analyzed descriptively, including frequencies and percentages for categorical data and means and SDs for continuous data. Predictors for admission were identified using multivariate logistic regression models. ED records from 527 visits for angioedema by 455 patients were included in the study. Annual rate of angioedema was 1 per 1000 ED visits. Urticaria was associated with peripheral (p = 0.008) and lip angioedema (p = 0.001), and the absence of urticaria correlated with tongue angioedema (p = 0.001) and trended toward correlation with pharyngeal angioedema (p = 0.056). Significant predictors of admission included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced angioedema (odds ratio [OR], 15.3), epinephrine treatment (OR, 8.34), hypotension (OR, 15.7), multiple-site angioedema (OR, 4.25), and pharyngeal (OR, 1.23) and tongue angioedema (OR, 4.62). Concomitant urticaria was associated with a significant longer stay in the ED (p < 0.001). The presence of urticaria correlated with the location of angioedema, need for airway management, length of ED visit, and recurrence. A detailed drug and family history, screening blood work for C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency when indicated, and prompt management of angioedema based on presumed mechanism of swelling are crucial steps in managing undifferentiated angioedema in ED.
- Update on skin allergy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Allergy 2014 Oct 4.
Skin diseases with an allergic background such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and urticaria are very common. Moreover, diseases arising from a dysfunction of immune cells and/or their products often manifest with skin symptoms. This review aims to summarize recent published articles in order to highlight novel research findings, clinical trial results and current guidelines on disease management. In recent years, an immense progress has been made in understanding the link between skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization initiating the atopic march. In consequence, new strategies for treatment and prevention have been developed. Novel pathogenic insights, e.g. in urticaria, angioedema, mastocytosis, led to the development of new therapeutic approaches and their implementation in daily patient care. By understanding distinct pathomechanisms, e.g. the role of IL-1, novel entities such as autoinflammatory diseases have been described. Considerable effort has been made to improve and harmonize patient management as documented in several guidelines and position papers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Recurrent angioedema after naproxen use in a patient stabilized with losartan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2014 Oct 1.
- Angioedema deaths in the United States, 1979-2010. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2014 Sep 30.
Hospital admission data indicate that the angioedema incidence has increased during the past several decades. Little is known about mortality trends.To count the number of deaths associated with angioedema in the United States, investigate correlations with age, sex, race, and other contributory causes, and analyze trends from 1979 to 2010.All US death certificates in which angioedema was listed as an underlying or contributing cause of death during 1979 to 2010 were analyzed. Age-adjusted mortality rates were analyzed by age, sex, and race. Other conditions designated as the underlying cause of death were investigated.From 1979 to 2010, there were 5,758 deaths in which angioedema was listed as a contributing cause. The age-adjusted death rate for hereditary angioedema decreased from 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.32) to 0.06 (95% CI 0.05-0.08) per million persons per year. Conversely, mortality for angioedema increased from 0.24 (95% CI 0.21-0.27) to 0.34 (95% CI 0.31-0.37) per million. Blacks constituted 55% of angioedema deaths that were associated with use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. On death certificates that listed hereditary angioedema as the underlying cause of death, cancer (frequently lymphoma or leukemia) was the second most commonly listed cause.Angioedema-associated deaths were very rare from 1979 to 2010. Hereditary angioedema deaths became even more so, whereas nonhereditary angioedema deaths increased. Risks associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were higher in blacks. Lack of specific coding for acquired angioedema most likely explains the observed association between cancer and hereditary angioedema. In the future, more granular coding systems may help distinguish hereditary from acquired angioedema.