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Angioedema urticaria [keywords]
- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Induced Angioedema. [REVIEW]
- Am J Med 2014 Jul 21.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are widely used, effective and well tolerated anti-hypertensive agents. The mechanisms by which those agents act can cause side effects such as decreased blood pressure, hyperkalemia and impaired renal function. ACE-I can induce cough in 5-35% and angioedema in up to 0.7% of the treated patients. Since cough and angioedema are considered class adverse effects, switching treatment to other ACE-I agents is not recommended. Angioedema due to ACE-I has a low fatality rate, although deaths have been reported when the angioedema involves the airways. Here, we review the role of bradykinin in the development of angioedema in patients treated with ACE-I as well as the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation and available treatments for ACE-I induced angioedema. We also discuss the risk for recurrence of angioedema after switching from ACE-I to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) treatment.
- Icatibant, an inhibitor of bradykinin receptor 2, for hereditary angioedema attacks: prospective experimental single-cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sao Paulo Med J 2014 Jul 22.:0.
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency manifests as recurrent episodes of edema involving the skin, upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. It can be lethal due to asphyxia. The aim here was to evaluate the response to therapy for these attacks using icatibant, an inhibitor of the bradykinin receptor, which was recently introduced into Brazil.Prospective experimental single-cohort study on the efficacy and safety of icatibant for HAE patients.Patients with a confirmed HAE diagnosis were enrolled according to symptoms and regardless of the time since onset of the attack. Icatibant was administered in accordance with the protocol that has been approved in Brazil. Symptom severity was assessed continuously and adverse events were monitored.24 attacks in 20 HAE patients were treated (female/male 19:1; 19-55 years; median 29 years of age). The symptoms were: subcutaneous edema (22/24); abdominal pain (15/24) and upper airway obstruction (10/24). The time taken until onset of relief was: 5-10 minutes (5/24; 20.8%); 10-20 (5/24; 20.8%); 20-30 (8/24; 33.4%); 30-60 (5/24; 20.8%); and 2 hours (1/24; 4.3%). The time taken for complete resolution of symptoms ranged from 4.3 to 33.4 hours. Adverse effects were only reported at injection sites. Mild to moderate erythema and/or feelings of burning were reported by 15/24 patients, itching by 3 and no adverse effects in 6.HAE type I patients who received icatibant responded promptly; most achieved improved symptom severity within 30 minutes. Local adverse events occurred in 75% of the patients.
- Expression of the. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Jul 22; 9(1):103.
SERPING1 mutations causing Hereditary Angioedema type I (HAE-I) due to C1-Inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency display a dominant-negative effect usually resulting in protein levels far below the expected 50%. To further investigate mechanisms for its reduced expression, we analyzed the promoter DNA methylation status of SERPING1 and its influence on C1-INH expression. Global epigenetic reactivation correlated with C1-INH mRNA synthesis and protein secretion in Huh7 hepatoma cells. However, PBMCs extracted from controls, HAE-I and HAE-II patients presented identical methylation status of the SERPING1 promoter when analyzed by bisulphite sequencing; the proximal CpG island (exon 2) is constitutively unmethylated, while the most distant one (5.7Kb upstream the transcriptional start site) is fully methylated. These results correlate with the methylation profile observed in Huh7 cells and indicate that there is not a direct epigenetic regulation of C1-INH expression in PBMCs specific for each HAE type. Other indirect modes of epigenetic regulation cannot be excluded.
- Amitriptyline and bromazepam in the treatment of vibratory angioedema: which role for neuroinflammation? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dermatol Ther 2014 Jul 22.
Vibratory angioedema is a rare form of physical urticaria, hereditary or acquired, which occurs at body sites exposed to vibrations. Pathogenic mechanisms of disease are not completely clear and, consequently, current pharmacological treatment is sometimes unsatisfactory. We report the case of a horn player affected by acquired vibratory angioedema, relapsing after prolonged use of the instrument and resistant to systemic antihistamines and corticosteroids, which successfully responded to therapy with low doses of amitriptyline and bromazepam. A neuroinflammatory mechanism can be likely implicated in the pathogenesis of vibratory angioedema, in line with many different cutaneous/mucosal diseases involving a complex interplay of homeostatic/allostatic systems. Furthermore, in mucosal diseases, such as vibratory angioedema, physical/psychological stressors have a relevant role. In such cases, because of the complex interplay between nervous and immune system, the pharmacological activity of benzodiazepines and typical antidepressants may downregulate neuroinflammation.
- [Uvular edema : Rare complication in anesthesia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul; 63(7):574-7.
A uvular edema can be associated with angioedema, urticaria and anaphylaxis. Furthermore, it can be caused by medications, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Other reasons can be cannabis or cocaine use or a traumatic irritation of the uvula. This article presents the case of a patient who underwent kidney transplantation and developed extensive edema of the uvula that occurred postoperatively after general anaesthesia. The case report describes the diagnosis and therapy of this rare disease.
- Activation of the ficolin-lectin pathway during attacks of hereditary angioedema. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014 Jul 16.
The activation of plasma enzyme systems is insufficiently controlled in hereditary angioedema due to the deficiency of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) (HAE-C1-INH). Recently, it was suggested that the ficolin-lectin pathway (ficolin-LP) might play a more dominant role than the mannose-binding lectin-lectin pathway in the pathomechanism of HAE-C1-INH.Because the role of the ficolin-LP during edematous attacks is still enigmatic, we analyzed its activity during such episodes.Thirty-five patients with HAE-C1-INH, who have experienced severe attacks on 106 occasions, were enrolled. We analyzed blood samples drawn during attacks, and obtained 35 samples from the same patients during symptom-free periods. The serum levels of ficolin-2, ficolin-3, MASP-2, ficolin-3/MASP-2 complex, C1-INH, and C4, as well as the extent of ficolin-3-mediated terminal complement complex (FCN3-TCC) deposition, were measured using ELISA-based methods.Levels of MASP-2 and of the ficolin-3/MASP-2 complex were elevated (P < .0001 and .033, respectively), whereas that of FCN3-TCC was lower (P < .0001) during attacks than during the symptom-free period. During symptom-free periods, FCN3-TCC deposition was significantly related to concentrations of ficolin-3 (R = 0.2778; P = .0022), antigenic C1-INH (R = 0.3152; P = .0006), and C4 (R = 0.5307; P < .0001). Both ficolin-3 and MASP-2 levels correlated inversely with the time from the onset of the attack until blood sampling.There is a marked heterogeneity of the pathomechanism and development of hereditary angioedema attacks in different patients. Our results suggest that the activation of the ficolin-LP may deplete the innately low level of C1-INH and thus, it may contribute to the uncontrolled activation of plasma cascade systems, and thereby to edema formation.
- Are complement deficiencies really rare? Overview on prevalence, clinical importance and modern diagnostic approach. [REVIEW]
- Mol Immunol 2014 Jul 15.
Complement deficiencies comprise between 1 and 10% of all primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) according to national and supranational registries. They are still considered rare and even of less clinical importance. This not only reflects (as in all PIDs) a great lack of awareness among clinicians and general practitioners but is also due to the fact that only few centers worldwide provide a comprehensive laboratory complement analysis. To enable early identification, our aim is to present warning signs for complement deficiencies and recommendations for diagnostic approach. The genetic deficiency of any early component of the classical pathway (C1q, C1r/s, C2, C4) is often associated with autoimmune diseases whereas individuals, deficient of properdin or of the terminal pathway components (C5 to C9), are highly susceptible to meningococcal disease. Deficiency of C1 Inhibitor (hereditary angioedema, HAE) results in episodic angioedema, which in a considerable number of patients with identical symptoms also occurs in factor XII mutations. New clinical entities are now reported indicating disease association with partial complement defects or even certain polymorphisms (factor H, MBL, MASPs). Mutations affecting the regulators factor H, factor I, or CD46 and of C3 and factor B leading to severe dysregulation of the alternative pathway have been associated with renal disorders, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and - less frequent - with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). We suggest a multi-stage diagnostic protocol starting based on the recognition of so called warning signs which should aid pediatricians and adult physicians in a timely identification followed by a step-wise complement analysis to characterize the defect at functional, protein and molecular level.
- ACE inhibitors: upper respiratory symptoms. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
Cough and angioedema are well-known adverse reactions of ACE inhibitors. However, other adverse effects of upper airways such as postnasal drainage, rhinitis and nasal blockage, are less frequently recognised. These might share the same pathophysiological mechanism: bradykinin accumulation. We present two patients with ACE inhibitor-induced upper respiratory symptoms that improved after the discontinuation of ACE-inhibitors and substitution with angiotensin II receptor blockers. The incidence of these adverse events is not accurately known, since these are not required to be reported, but it is estimated to be low. This presents challenges to the physician and demonstrates the importance of keeping it as a differential diagnosis. Most physicians are aware of ACE inhibitor-induced cough but not of ACE inhibitor-induced nasal blockage, rhinitis or postnasal drainage. Identifying these can avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests and inappropriate treatment.
- Trends in hypersensitivity drug reactions: more drugs, more response patterns, more heterogeneity. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2014; 24(3):143-53; quiz 1 p following 153.
Hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs) vary over time in frequency, drugs involved, and clinical entities. Specific reactions are mediated by IgE, other antibody isotypes (IgG or IgM), and T cells. Nonspecific HDRs include those caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). beta-Lactams--the most important of which are amoxicillin and clavulanic acid--are involved in specific immunological mechanisms. Fluoroquinolones (mainly moxifloxacin, followed by ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) can also induce HDRs mediated by IgE and T cells. In the case of radio contrast media, immediate reactions have decreased, while nonimmediate reactions, mediated by T cells, have increased. There has been a substantial rise in hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics and latex in perioperative allergic reactions to anesthetics. NSAIDs are the most frequent drugs involved in HDRs. Five well-defined clinical entities, the most common of which is NSAID-induced urticaria/angioedema, have been proposed in a new consensus classification. Biological agents are proteins including antibodies that have been humanized in order to avoid adverse reactions. Reactions can be mediated by IgE or T cells or they may be due to an immunological imbalance. Chimeric antibodies are still in use and may have epitopes that are recognized by the immune system, resulting in allergic reactions.