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Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis [keywords]
- Ym1, an eosinophilic chemotactic factor, participates in the brain inflammation induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasitol Res 2013 May 24.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has caused hundreds of cases of human angiostrongyliasis worldwide. The larva in nonpermissive hosts cannot develop into an adult worm and can cause eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis. The mechanism of brain inflammation caused by the worm remains poorly defined. According to previous data of GeneChip, Ym1 in the brain of mice 21 days after infection with A. cantonensis was highly upregulated to over 7,300 times than the untreated mice. Ym1 is an eosinophilic chemotactic factor with the alternative names of chitinase-3-like protein 3, eosinophil chemotactic cytokine, and ECF-L. Ym1 displays chemotactic activity for T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells, and eosinophils and may favor inflammatory responses induced by parasitic infections and allergy. It has been reported that Ym1 is synthesized and secreted by activated macrophages during parasitic infection (Chang et al., J Biol Chem 276(20):17497-17506, 2001). In the brain, microglia are alternatively activated macrophage-derived cells which are the key immune cells in central nervous system inflammation. To explore the role of Ym1 in inflammation caused by A. cantonensis-infected mice, we examined the levels of Ym1 in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the infected animals, followed by detection of the mRNA expression level of Ym1 in various organs including the brain, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney and of the cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in the brain of the infected mice with or without intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) by real-time reserve transcription PCR. Furthermore, immunolocalization of Ym1 in the brains of the infected mice was observed by using a fluorescence microscope. Our results showed that Ym1 was most highly expressed in the brains and CSF of the infected mice along with the process of inflammation. The antibody localized Ym1 to the microglia in the brain of the mice in both infection and minocycline + infection groups. And as in the brain, the mRNA level of Ym1 changed more obviously than IL-5 and IL-13. The study implies that Ym1 might serve as an alternative potential pathological marker which is detected not only in the sera and CSF but also in the brains of the infected mice and Ym1 secreted by microglia might be involved in eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis infection.
- Matrix metalloproteinase-9 leads to claudin-5 degradation via the NF-κB pathway in BALB/c mice with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(3):e53370.
The epithelial barrier regulates the movement of ions, macromolecules, immune cells and pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the degradation of tight junction protein during infection with rat nematode lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The results showed that phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB was increased in mice with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Treatment with MG132 reduced the phosphorylation of NF-κB and the activity of MMP-9, indicating upregulation of MMP-9 through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Claudin-5 was reduced in the brain but elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), implying that A. cantonensis infection caused tight junction breakdown and led to claudin-5 release into the CSF. Degradation of claudin-5 coincided with alteration of the blood-CSF barrier permeability and treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 attenuated the degradation of claudin-5. These results suggested that degradation of claudin-5 was caused by MMP-9 in angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. Claudin-5 could be used for the pathophysiologic evaluation of the blood-CSF barrier breakdown and tight junction disruption after infection with A. cantonensis.
- Molecular diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) by polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluids of patients. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2013 Feb; 108(1):116-8.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable Angiostrongylus cantonensis-specific antibodies (n = 10), patients with clinically suspected cases that tested negative for A. cantonensis-antibodies (n = 5) and patients with cerebral gnathostomiasis (n = 2) and neurocysticercosis (n = 2) were examined by a single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the AC primers for the 66-kDa native protein gene. The PCR method detected A. cantonensis DNA in CSF samples from four of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases. The PCR results were negative for the remaining CSF samples. The nucleotide sequences of three positive CSF-PCR samples shared 98.8-99.2% similarity with the reference sequence of A. cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis.
- Intrathecal activation as a typical immune response within the central nervous system in angiostrongyliasis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013 Feb; 88(2):230-5.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes human angiostrongyliasis; its main clinical manifestation is eosinophilic meningitis. This report defines the concept of intrathecal activation of complement as evidence of intrathecal synthesis of major immunoglobulins during this disease. Details are presented of the activation of complement system components in cerebrospinal fluid, and their application to our understanding of this tropical disease, which is emerging in the Western hemisphere. Intrathecal synthesis of at least one of the major immunoglobulins and a wide spectrum of patterns may be observed. Although intrathecal synthesis of C3c is always present, C4 intrathecal synthesis does not occur in every patient. The diversity of intrathecal synthesis and activation of the different complement pathways enables their division into three variant groups (A, B, and C). Variant group A includes the classical and/or lectin pathway and involves two or more major immunoglobulins with C3 and C4 intrathecal synthesis. Variant group B involves C4 in cerebrospinal fluid that comes from blood in the intrathecal activation of the classical pathway. Variant group C includes the alternative pathway.
- Efficacy of tribendimidine against Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in the mice. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Parasitol Res 2013 Mar; 112(3):1039-46.
Angiostrongyliasis, also known as eosinophils meningitis, is caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis parasites in the human central nervous system. Currently, the drug of choice for treatment of angiostrongyliasis is albendazole, but dead worm lysis causes severe inflammatory response, which leads to central nervous system damage. Tribendimidine, a broad-spectrum anti-helmintic drug developed in China, is a derivative of amidantel. This study was designed to test the efficacy of tribendimidine against A. cantonensis in mice. We treated 65 infected female BALB/c mice with tribendimidine or albendazole by oral route. We observed that tribendimidine at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day was effective, and the worm reduction rates were 54.8 %,77.4 %, and 100 % compared with the control group. In addition, the therapeutic effect of early tribendimidine treatment (7 days post-infection [PI]) was better than the late treatment (14 days PI), in comparison with the albendazole group (20 mg/kg/day). The index of therapeutic efficacy included body weight, neurological function, survival time, worm reduction, mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines in brain tissue, histopathological examination and electron microscopy scanning. The results showed that tribendimidine could kill the larvae of A. cantonensis in the mice model, and the worm's body wall was observed to be damaged. After treatment with tribendimidine, the survival conditions such as body weight and neurological function were improved, and brain inflammation was reduced in infected mice. This study showed a strong efficacy of tribendimidine against A. cantonensis and provided suitable alternative treatments to further explore its potential use in treatment of human angiostrongyliasis.
- Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a putative activation-associated secreted protein from Angiostrongylus cantonensis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Parasitol Res 2013 Feb; 112(2):781-8.
Activation-associated secreted protein (ASP) had been found in many helminthes, which was associated with pathogenesis and stage transition. A complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence encoding a putative two-domain ASP was obtained from an Angiostrongylus cantonensis fourth-stage larvae cDNA library, which we designated as AgASP. The cDNA of AgASP contains an open reading frame encoding 424 amino acids, the first 19 residues being a putative secretion signal. The expression pattern of this protein was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We found that this protein expressed most highly in the brain-stage larvae (Lbr) of this parasite and existed in the excretory/secretory products of this stage. Immunofluorescence showed it existed in the lumen of the Lbr. The recombinant protein can be recognized by the infection sera from mice (nonpermissive host), while it cannot be recognized by infection sera from rats (permissive host). The infiltration of neutrophils in infected nonpermissive host can be lessened by immunizing this host with this protein (immunized vs control group, 13.7 ± 10.2 vs 65.5 ± 19.2). These findings suggest that this protein plays a role in the pathogenesis of human angiostrongyliasis and is worthy of further study.
- Population structure of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Thailand based on PCR-RAPD markers. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2012 May; 43(3):567-73.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of angiostrongyliasis, which is widely distributed throughout the world. It can specifically infect many species of intermediate and definitive hosts. This study examined the genetic differentiation and population structure using the RAPD-PCR method of parasites obtained from 8 different geographical areas of Thailand. Based on 8 primers, high levels of genetic diversity and low levels of gene flow among populations were found. Using genetic distance and neighbor-joining dendrogram methods, A. cantonensis in Thailand could be divided into two groups with statistically significant genetic differentiation of the two populations. However, genotypic variations and haplotype relationships need to be further elucidated using other markers.
- Endemic angiostrongyliasis in the Brazilian Amazon: natural parasitism of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and sympatric giant African land snails, Achatina fulica. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Acta Trop 2013 Jan; 125(1):90-7.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is one etiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This zoonosis is frequently found in Asia and, more recently, in North America, Caribbean Island and northeastern of South America. Until now, research of A. cantonensis in southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil has been found natural infections only terrestrial and freshwater intermediate snail hosts (Achatina fulica, Sarasinula marginata, Subulina octona, Bradybaena similaris and Pomacea lineate). In this study, we examined the occurrence of helminthes in the synantropic rodents Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus in northern Brazil, focusing on the role of these species as vertebrate hosts of A. cantonensis and A. fulica as intermediate host have found natural. Thirty specimens of R. rattus and twelve of R. norvegicus were collected in the Guamá and Jurunas neighborhoods of the city of Belém, in the Brazilian state of Pará, of which almost 10% harbored adult worms in their pulmonary arteries. Sympatric A. fulica were found to be infected by L(3) larvae, which experimental infection confirmed to be A. cantonensis. Natural infection of snails and rodents with A. cantonensis was confirmed through morphological and morphometrical analyses of adults and larvae using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and molecular sequences of partial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. cantonensis isolated from Pará, Brazil is similar to Japan isolate; once these specimens produced a single haplotype with high bootstrap support with Rio de Janeiro isolate. This study confirms that A. cantonensis is now endemic in northern Brazil, and that R. rattus and R. norvegicus act as natural definitive hosts, and A. fulica as the intermediate host of the parasite in this region.
- The 31-kDa antigen of Angiostrongylus cantonensis comprises distinct antigenic glycoproteins. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012 Nov; 12(11):961-8.
Human angiostrongyliasis results from accidental infection with Angiostrongylus, an intra-arterial nematode. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections result in eosinophilic meningitis, and A. costaricensis infections cause eosinophilic enteritis. Immunological methodologies are critical to the diagnosis of both infections, since these parasites cannot be isolated from fecal matter and are rarely found in cerebrospinal fluid samples. A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis share common antigenic epitopes which elicit antibodies that recognize proteins present in either species. Detection of antibodies to a 31-kDa A. cantonensis protein present in crude adult worm extracts is a sensitive and specific method for immunodiagnosis of cerebral angiostrongyliasis. The objective of the present work was to isolate and characterize the 31-kDa proteins using soluble protein extracts derived from adult female worms using both one- (1DE) and two-dimensional (2DE) gel electrophoresis. Separated proteins were blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed using sera from infected and non-infected controls. The 31-kDa band present in 1DE gels and the 4 spots identified in 2DE gels were excised and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Using the highest scores obtained following Mascot analysis, amino acid sequences were obtained that matched four unique proteins: tropomyosin, the 14-3-3 phosphoserine-binding protein, a protein containing a nascent polypeptide-associated complex domain, and the putative epsilon subunit of coatomer protein complex isoform 2. Oxidative cleavage of diols using sodium m-periodate demonstrated that carbohydrate moieties are essential for the antigenicity of all four spots of the 31-kDa antigen. In this article we describe the identification of the 31-kDa antigen, and provide DNA sequencing of the targets. In conclusion, these data suggest that reactivity to the 31-kDa proteins may represent antibody recognition of more than one protein, and recombinant protein-based assays for cerebral angiostrongyliasis diagnosis may require eukaryotic expression systems to maintain antigenicity.
- [Magnetic resonance imaging expression of central nervous system due to angiostrongyliasis cantonensis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 2012 Feb 29; 30(1):49-51.
To analyze the MRI characteristics of the central nervous system (CNS) due to infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.A retrospective study was carried out to analyze MRI expression of CNS in 25 cases of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis in the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province from May 1997 to July 2011.Among the 25 patients, 8 cases were normal on MRI, 7 manifested meningitis, 8 showed parenchymal pathological change, and 2 patients showed spinal meningitis and ventriculomegaly, respectively. These lesions diffused or scattered in CNS and appeared as iso- or slightly low signal intensity on T1WI, high signal intensity on T2WI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. After administration of Gd-DTPA, multiple enhanced round- or oval-shaped nodules appeared. Meningeal involvement revealed linear or nodular enhancement in leptomeninges or ependyma.MRI image of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis was diverse. Multiple linear and nodular enhancement in the brain and spinal cord and enhancement in the leptomeninges were the main findings, but the MRI findings are mostly nonspecific.