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Ankle pain [keywords]
- Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Italian version of the Foot Function Index in patients with foot and ankle diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Qual Life Res 2013 May 21.
PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to translate the Foot Function Index (FFI) into Italian, to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of FFI.
METHODS:The Italian FFI was developed according to the recommended forward/backward translation protocol and evaluated in patients with foot and ankle diseases. Feasibility, reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)], internal consistency [Cronbach's alpha (CA)], construct validity (correlation with the SF-36 and a visual analogue scale (VAS) assessing for pain), responsiveness to surgery were assessed. The standardized effect size and standardized response mean were also evaluated.
RESULTS:A total of 89 patients were recruited (mean age 51.8 ± 13.9 years, range 21-83). The Italian version of the FFI consisted in 18 items separated into a pain and disability subscales. CA value was 0.95 for both the subscales. The reproducibility was good with an ICC of 0.94 and 0.91 for pain and disability subscales, respectively. A strong correlation was found between the FFI and the scales of the SF-36 and the VAS with related content, particularly in the areas of physical function and pain was observed indicating good construct validity. After surgery, the mean FFI improved from 55.9 ± 24.8 to 32.4 ± 26.3 for the pain subscale and from 48.8 ± 28.8 to 24.9 ± 23.7 for the disability subscale (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS:The Italian version of the FFI showed satisfactory psychometric properties in Italian patients with foot and ankle diseases. Further testing in different and larger samples is required in order to ensure the validity and reliability of this score.
- Body Mass Index and Achilles Tendonitis: A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Foot Ankle Spec 2013 May 17.
Introduction.High body mass index (BMI) has been implicated as an etiologic agent in Achilles tendonitis (AT) and may contribute to poorer treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to better elucidate the role of BMI in both the development and treatment of AT. Methods. A matched case-control (1:1) study design was used. Matching criteria were age, gender, and year of presentation. Consecutive patients who presented with a diagnosis of AT between 2002 and 2011 at a single foot and ankle specialty clinic were identified. Patients who presented with other foot pain at the same clinic served as controls (CG). The AT group was further stratified into treatment responders and nonresponders. The main effect measure for both analyses was an adjusted odds ratio.
Results.A total of 944 patients (472 AT; 472 CG) were included. AT patients had higher BMI than those in the CG (30.2 ± 6.5 vs 25.9 ± 5.3, P < .001). Overweight and obese patients were 2.6 to 6.6 times more likely than those with a normal BMI to present with Achilles tendonitis (P < .001). There was also elevated risk of presenting with AT at higher BMI categories (Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) = 8.074, P = .004). However, only age, not BMI, correlated with having failed conservative treatment among the AT group, with patients older than 65 years at the greatest risk (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.5 to 4.1, P < .001).
Conclusion.BMI plays a role in the development of AT but does not appear to influence patient response to conservative treatment.Levels of Evidence: Prognostic, Level II.
- Ultrasound and MRI of the peroneal tendons and associated pathology. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Skeletal Radiol 2013 May 18.
Lateral ankle pain is common with overuse and sports-related injuries and may cause considerable morbidity. The differential diagnosis of lateral ankle pain is extensive. Disorders of the peroneal tendons should be an important consideration during interpretation of a routine ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound (US). This article presents a review of the common causes of peroneal tendon pathology with particular reference to anatomy, US, and MRI features. The importance of dynamic evaluation with ultrasound is also emphasized.
- The Brachial Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity is Associated with the Presence of Significant Coronary Artery Disease but Not the Extent. [Journal Article]
- Korean Circ J 2013 Apr; 43(4):239-45.
Arterial stiffness is well known as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. At our institution, we assessed the association between arterial stiffness, as determined by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD), as detected by conventional coronary angiography (CAG) in patients who visited the outpatient clinic for angina without any previous history of heart disease. In addition, we evaluated if the level of baPWV could predict the revascularization as a clinical outcome.On a retrospective basis, we analyzed the data of 651 consecutive patients who had undergone baPWV and elective CAG for suspected CAD between June 2010 and July 2011, at a single cardiovascular center.The baPWV was one of the statistically meaningful predictors of significant CAD (diameter of stenosis >50%) in addition to male gender, age, the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c in multivariate analysis. However, baPWV was not the significant predictor of revascularization. When the extent of CAD was classified into following 4 groups; no significant CAD, 1-, 2- and 3-vessel disease, there was significant difference of baPWV between the significant and non-significant CAD group, but there was no difference of baPWV among the 3 significant CAD groups, although there was a trend toward the positive correlation.Although baPWV was an independent predictor of significant CAD, it was neither associated significantly with the extent of CAD nor with the risk of revascularization. Therefore, baPWV has a limited value for portending the severity of CAD in patients with chest pain.
- [Analysis on arthroscopic debridement and visco supplement for the treatment of degenerative osteoarthropathy of ankle]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Gu Shang 2013 Feb; 26(2):115-8.
To evaluate effects of arthroscopic debridement and visco supplement for the treatment of degenerative osteoarthropathy of ankle.From October 2008 to May 2012, 30 patients with degenerative osteoarthropathy of ankle were treated with arthroscopy after ineffective treatment with conservative methods. Two patients lost follow-up. Among the patients, 19 patients were male and 9 patients were female, ranging in age from 28 to 56 years old, with a mean of (40.0+ 5.9)years old. Patients who had inflammatory or postinfectious arthritis,rheumatoid,gout,tuberculosis were excluded. Other exclusion criteria included previous arthroscopic treatment for ankle osteoarthropathy, intraarticular corticosteroid injection within the previous 6 months, a major neurologic deficit, serious medical illness and pregnancy. Articular cartilage iijuries were classified according to Outerbridge by the same doctor. Follow procedures were involved in the surgery: synovectomy,debridement or excision of fragments of articular cartilage or chondral flaps and osteophytes that prevented full extension. Microfracture of chondral defects was not performed. Ogilvie-Harris criteria was used to evaluate therapeutic effects.According to Ogilvie-Harris criteria, 10 patients got an excellent results, 14 good, 3 poor and 1 bad. The mean VAS score of pain decreased from preoperative 7.5+/-1.3 to postoperative 2.4+/-2.3. The score of dorsiflexion range (ROM-D) had no obvious change after operation [preoperative(27.0+/-7.3)degree and postoperative(29.0+/-5.6)degree]. The mean Tegner score increased from preoperative 2.7+/-1.3 to postoperative 5.6+/-2.2.Synovectomy, debridement or excision of chondral flaps and osteophytes under arthroscopy, as well as scheduled intraarticular sodium hyaluronate injection should be recommened to treat ankle degenerative osteoarthropathy.
- Cardiac myxosarcoma with thoracic spinal metastasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 May 16.
Echocardiography revealed a left atrial tumor in a 59-year-old man with back pain that concurrently worsened with left foot drop and loss of the left ankle reflex soon after admission to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an epidural tumor extending from Th5 with spinal cord compression. The patient was immediately treated by emergency Th4-5 laminectomy and epidural decompression. One month later, a cardiac tumor excised via the left atrial approach was histopathologically diagnosed as myxosarcoma, and the Th5 tumor was consistent with this finding. This is the first report to describe spinal metastasis of cardiac myxosarcoma.
- Outcome after severe multiple trauma: a retrospective analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Trauma Manag Outcomes 2013 May 15; 7(1):4.
BACKGROUND:Aim of this study was to evaluate prognosis of severely injured patients.
METHODS:All severely injured patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >= 50 were identified in a 6-year-period between 2000 and 2005 in German Level 1 Trauma Center Murnau. Data was evaluated from German Trauma Registry and Polytrauma Outcome Chart of the German Society for Trauma Surgery and a personal interview to assess working ability and disability and are presented as average.
RESULTS:88 out of 1435 evaluated patients after severe polytrauma demonstrated an ISS >= 50 (6.5 %), among them 23 % women and 77 % men. 66 patients (75 %) had an ISS of 50-60, 14 (16 %) 61-70, and 8 (9 %) >= 70. In 27 % of patients trauma was caused by motor bike accidents. 3.6 body regions were involved. Patients had to be operated 5.3 times and were treated 23 days in the ICU and stayed 73 days in hospital. Mortality rate was 36 % and rate of multi-organ failure 28 %. 15 % of patients demonstrated severe senso-motoric dysfunction as well as residues of severe head injury. 25 % recovered well or at least moderately. 29 out of 56 survivors answered the POLO-chart. A personal interview was performed with 13 patients. The state of health was at least moderate in 72 % of patients. In 48 % interpersonal problems and in 41 % severe pain was observed. In 57 % of patients problems with working ability regarding duration, as well as quantitative and qualitative performance were observed. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder were found in 41 %. The more distal the lesions were located (foot/ankle) the more functional disability affected daily life. In only 15 %, working ability was not impaired. 8 out of 13 interviewed patients demonstrated complete work disability.
CONCLUSIONS:Even severely injured patients after multiple trauma have a good prognosis. The ISS is an established tool to assess severity and prognosis of trauma, whereas prediction of clinical outcome cannot be deducted from this score.
- Achilles tendinopathy and partial tear diagnosis using dual-energy computed tomography collagen material decomposition application. [Journal Article]
- J Comput Assist Tomogr 2013 May-Jun; 37(3):475-7.
Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the ankle and foot are frequently obtained with in-patients with hind foot and ankle pain to identify fractures, arthritis, and bone lesions. Soft tissue detail is limited, however. Dual-energy CT provides additional information on soft tissue structures, including tendons, with no additional radiation dose to the patient. We present a case of an Achilles tendon tear visualized on DECT, which was subsequently confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging.
- The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire(MOXFQ): Development and validation of a summary index score. [Journal Article]
- Bone Joint Res 2013; 2(4):66-9.
The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score.The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three domains of the MOXFQ (pain, walking/standing and social interaction) were subjected to higher order factor analysis. Reliability and validity of the summary index score was assessed.The mean age of the participants was 52.8 years (sd 15.68; 18 to 89). Higher order principle components factor analysis produced one factor, accounting for 74.7% of the variance. The newly derived single index score was found to be internally reliable (α = 0.93) and valid, achieving at least moderate correlations (r ≥ 0.5, p < 0.001) with related (pain/function) domains of the SF-36.Analyses indicated that data from the MOXFQ can be presented in summary form. The MOXFQ summary index score (MOXFQ-Index) provides an overall indication of the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Furthermore, the single index reduces the number of statistical comparisons, and hence the role of chance, when exploring MOXFQ data.
- Understanding patient-provider conversations: what are we talking about? [Journal Article]
- Acad Emerg Med 2013 May; 20(5):441-8.
Effective patient-provider communication is a critical aspect of the delivery of high-quality patient care; however, research regarding the conversational dynamics of an overall emergency department (ED) visit remains unexplored. Identifying both patterns and relative frequency of utterances within these interactions will help guide future efforts to improve the communication between patients and providers within the ED setting. The objective of this study was to analyze complete audio recordings of ED visits to characterize these conversations and to determine the proportion of the conversation spent on different functional categories of communication.Patients at an urban academic ED with four diagnoses (ankle sprain, back pain, head injury, and laceration) were recruited to have their ED visits audio recorded from the time of room placement until discharge. Patients were excluded if they were age < 18 years, were non-English-speaking, had significant history of psychiatric disease or cognitive impairment, or were medically unstable. Audio editing was performed to remove all silent downtime and non-patient-provider conversations. Audiotapes were analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). RIAS is the most widely used medical interaction analysis system; coders assign each "utterance" (or complete thought) spoken by the patient or provider to one of 41 mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all 41 categories and then grouped according to RIAS standards for "functional groupings." The percentage of total utterances in each functional grouping is reported.Twenty-six audio recordings were analyzed. Patient participants had a mean (±SD) age of 38.8 (±16.0) years, and 30.8% were male. Intercoder reliability was good, with mean intercoder correlations of 0.76 and 0.67 for all categories of provider and patient talk, respectively. Providers accounted for the majority of the conversation in the tapes (median = 239 utterances, interquartile range [IQR] = 168 to 308) compared to patients (median = 145 utterances, IQR = 80 to 198). Providers' utterances focused most on patient education and counseling (34%), followed by patient facilitation and activation (e.g., orienting the patient to the next steps in the ED or asking if the patient understood; 30%). Approximately 15% of the provider talk was spent on data gathering, with the majority (86%) focusing on biomedical topics rather than psychosocial topics (14%). Building a relationship with the patient (e.g., social talk, jokes/laughter, showing approval, or empathetic statements) constituted 22% of providers' talk. Patients' conversation was mainly focused in two areas: information giving (47% of patient utterances: 83% biomedical, 17% psychosocial) and building a relationship (45% of patient utterances). Only 5% of patients' utterances were devoted to question asking. Patient-centeredness scores were low.In this sample, both providers and patients spent a significant portion of their talk time providing information to one another, as might be expected in the fast-paced ED setting. Less expected was the result that a large percentage of both provider and patient utterances focused on relationship building, despite the lack of traditional, longitudinal provider-patient relationships.