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Anorexia nervosa [keywords]
- A Case of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in a Severely Malnourished, HIV-Negative Patient: A Role for Malnutrition in Opportunistic Infections? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2014 Aug 29.
Malnutrition increases the risk of infections in patients receiving medical and surgical procedures, but it is not clear whether it may facilitate also the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients not receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Here we report the first case of a non-HIV, severely malnourished woman who developed Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This report highlights the clinical relevance of malnutrition as a determinant of immune suppression, which in turn may also favor opportunistic infections. Therefore, routine nutrition screening and assessment, as well as timely start of nutrition therapy, should be prioritized in daily clinical practice to reduce complications and improve outcome.
- Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders. [Journal Article]
- J Eat Disord 2014; 2(1):21.
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a "new" diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort.A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients with eating disorders between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients with ARFID were compared to those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other specified feeding or eating disorder/unspecified feeding or eating disorder with respect to demographics, anthropometrics, clinical symptoms, and psychometric testing, using Chi-square, ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis.39/173 (22.5%) patients met ARFID criteria. The ARFID group was younger than the non-ARFID group and had a greater proportion of males. Similar degrees of weight loss and malnutrition were found between groups. Patients with ARFID reported greater fears of vomiting and/or choking and food texture issues than those with other eating disorders, as well as greater dependency on nutritional supplements at intake. Children's Eating Attitudes Test scores were lower for children with than without ARFID. A higher comorbidity of anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorder, and learning disorders, and a lower comorbidity of depression, were found in those with ARFID.This study demonstrates that there are significant demographic and clinical characteristics that differentiate children with ARFID from those with other eating disorders in a day treatment program, and helps substantiate the recognition of ARFID as a distinct eating disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5.
- Essstörungen. [Journal Article]
- Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2014 Sep; 42(5):361-8.
The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) resulted in substantial changes with regard to the classification of Eating Disorders. In DSM-5, Feeding and Eating Disorders are for the first time subsumed in a single category. The Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was established as the third classical eating disorder in addition to Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN). The criteria for AN changed remarkably, whereas there were only minor changes to the BN criteria. The criteria for BED differ only marginally from the DSM-IV research criteria. There are now subtypes of AN, BN, and BED in the new category "Other Specific Feeding and Eating Disorders." The rest category "Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified" has been renamed to "Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorders." The practicability of the DSM-5 criteria for Eating Disorders, and for AN in particular, for both clinical practice and research remains to be seen.
- Family History of Education Predicts Eating Disorders across Multiple Generations among 2 Million Swedish Males and Females. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e106475.
To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP) are associated with eating disorders (ED), and how this varies by ED subtype and over time.Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973-1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income.15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income.Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families.
- Is problematic internet use an indicator of eating disorders among Turkish university students? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Weight Disord 2014 Aug 27.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between problematic internet use and eating attitudes in a group of university students.The study sample consisted of 314 students attending programs at the faculties of education, medicine and communications at the Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. One hundred forty-seven (46.8 %) were male and 167 (53.2 %) female. The Problematic Internet Use Scale was used to measure problematic internet use levels among university students and the Eating Attitudes Test to determine anorexia nervosa symptoms. Additionally, a Personal Data Form was used to determine age, gender, faculty attended and computer ownership. Data were analyzed on SPSS 15.00. Pearson's product moments correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis, the independent t test and one-way ANOVA were used for data analysis.The research findings showed that 46.8 % of students were female and 53.2 % male. Mean age was 20.65 (SD 1.42). Analysis showed a significant positive correlation between problematic internet use and eating attitudes (r = 0.77, p < 0.01). Problematic internet use was found to be a significant predictor of eating attitudes. The results also showed a significant difference in problematic internet use with regard to program variables [F (2,311) = 102.79]. There were no significant differences in problematic internet use in terms of gender or computer ownership.The results of this study indicate that problematic internet use is significantly correlated with eating disorders, that problematic internet use does not vary on the basis of gender or computer ownership and that variations arise in problematic internet use depending on the faculty attended.
- The relationship between premorbid body weight and weight at referral, at discharge and at 1-year follow-up in anorexia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug 27.
Body mass index (BMI) is one of the most important outcome predictors in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). A low premorbid BMI percentile calculated by the patients recalled premorbid weight and the height at first admission has been found to predict the BMI at first inpatient admission. In this study, we sought to confirm this relationship. We additionally analyze the relationship between premorbid BMI percentile and BMI percentile at discharge from the first inpatient treatment and at 1-year follow-up or alternatively if applicable upon readmission within this time period. We included 161 female patients aged 11-18 years of the multisite ANDI-trial with a DSM-IV diagnosis of AN. We used a multivariate statistical model including the independent variables age, duration of illness, duration of treatment, BMI at admission and BMI percentile at discharge. The relationship between premorbid BMI percentile and BMI at admission was solidly confirmed. In addition to premorbid BMI percentile, BMI at admission and age were significant predictors of BMI percentile at discharge. BMI percentile at discharge significantly predicted BMI percentile at 1-year follow-up. An additional analysis that merely included variables available upon referral revealed that premorbid BMI percentile predicts the 1-year follow-up BMI percentile. Further studies are required to identify the underlying biological mechanisms and to address the respective treatment strategies for AN patients with a low or high premorbid BMI percentile.
- Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents: State of the Art Review. [REVIEW]
- Pediatrics 2014 Aug 25.
Despite their high prevalence, associated morbidity and mortality, and available treatment options, eating disorders (EDs) continue to be underdiagnosed by pediatric professionals. Many adolescents go untreated, do not recover, or reach only partial recovery. Higher rates of EDs are seen now in younger children, boys, and minority groups; EDs are increasingly recognized in patients with previous histories of obesity. Medical complications are common in both full and subthreshold EDs and affect every organ system. No single cause of EDs has emerged, although neurobiological and genetic predispositions are emerging as important. Recent treatment paradigms acknowledge that they are not caused by families or chosen by patients. EDs present differently in pediatric populations, and providers should have a high index of suspicion using new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition diagnostic criteria because early intervention can affect prognosis. Outpatient family-based treatment focused on weight restoration, reducing blame, and empowering caregivers has emerged as particularly effective; cognitive behavioral therapy, individual therapy, and higher levels of care may also be appropriate. Pharmacotherapy is useful in specific contexts. Full weight restoration is critical, often involves high-calorie diets, and must allow for continued growth and development; weight maintenance is typically inappropriate in pediatric populations. Physical, nutritional, behavioral, and psychological health are all metrics of a full recovery, and pediatric EDs have a good prognosis with appropriate care. ED prevention efforts should work toward aligning with families and understanding the impact of antiobesity efforts. Primary care providers can be key players in treatment success.
- Restrictive Eating Disorders Among Adolescent Inpatients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatrics 2014 Aug 25.
Clinicians are increasingly observing adolescents who have lost large amounts of weight, experience typical cognitions and acute medical complications of anorexia nervosa (AN), yet do not meet diagnostic criteria for AN owing to weight. We refer to this category of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified as EDNOS-Wt. We set out to describe the changing incidence of EDNOS-Wt compared with AN, and to compare the characteristics of these 2 groups in a cohort that required hospitalization after weight loss.A 6-year retrospective cohort study (2005 to 2010) was undertaken of first admissions of 12- to 19-year-old patients to a tertiary children's hospital using Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV) AN or EDNOS-Wt. Clinical, biochemical, and nutritional data were collected up to day 28 of admission.Ninety-nine adolescents were admitted; 73 had AN and 26 had EDNOS-Wt. Mean (SD) age at admission was 15.2 years (1.3) and 87% were female. In 2005, EDNOS-Wt represented 8% of admissions; by 2009 this proportion had increased to 47%. Hypophosphatemia developed in 41% of AN and in 39% of EDNOS-Wt patients. The lowest mean pulse rate in AN was 45.1 bpm compared with 47.1 bpm in EDNOS-Wt patients.We have experienced more than a fivefold increase in the proportion of adolescents who have EDNOS-Wt admitted over this 6-year period. Despite not being underweight, EDNOS-Wt patients experienced a similar profile of life-threatening complications of weight loss as patients who have AN. Higher-weight adolescents who have extensively lost weight require careful medical assessment.
- Growth impairment and growth hormone-IGF-1 axis in infantile anorexia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2014 Aug 15.
Abstract Background: Infantile anorexia nervosa (AN) is a specific eating disorder of prepubertal children. Poor data are available on growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis in this disorder. Patient report: We report on a boy (4.5 years) with progressive growth impairment. At psychiatric assessment (DC: 0-3 R, AXIS I), he fulfilled all required criteria for diagnosis of infantile AN. Endocrine evaluation suggested impaired peripheral response to GH (high GH and low IGF-1 levels), likely related to energy deficiency. Methods: Auxological evaluation was shown as raw data and SDS using Italian reference values. GH secretion was assessed by arginine provocative test; IGFI generation test was done administering recombinant GH (0.05 mg/kg/day for four days). Psychiatric assessment was performed according to the DC:0-3R protocol. Conclusion: Impaired GH-IGF-1 axis may be involved in growth delay of children with infantile AN. A strict collaboration between endocrine pediatricians and child psychiatrists is advisable in the assessment of poor growing children without recognizable organic causes, showing normal/high GH levels and low IGF-1 values.
- Case report: Delayed diagnosis of trichobezoar in a patient with presumed anorexia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Adolesc Med Health 2014 Aug 12.
Abstract Anorexia nervosa is a medical and psychological disorder classically seen in young women who present with significant weight loss, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of gaining weight despite being underweight. A rare diagnosis that is also associated with weight loss is a trichobezoar, a collection of hair or hair-like fibers in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the stomach. In this report, we present the case of a 14.5-year-old girl with weight loss caused by a trichobezoar, initially thought to be due to anorexia nervosa, and we review the details of both disorders.