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Anorexia nervosa [keywords]
- Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eat Disord 2014; 2(1):20.
Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment.This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression.The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%.The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.
- Anorexia nervosa and gender dysphoria in two adolescents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Eat Disord 2014 Nov 25.
Little has been published about the co-occurrence of gender dysphoria (GD) and eating disorders (ED) in adults, with no cases described in the adolescent population. The emphasis on body shape in both conditions suggests that there may be some overlap in symptomatology. We report two adolescent cases initially diagnosed with anorexia nervosa who later met criteria for GD. The drive for thinness for the 16-year-old male was associated with a wish to achieve a feminine physique whereas there was an emphasis for stunted breast growth and a desire for muscularity in the 13-year-old female. Complexities in presentation, evolution of symptoms over time, and the treatment of the two cases are discussed. Clinicians should inquire about sexual issues in the presentation of ED and should monitor for symptoms of GD, not only at initial presentation, but throughout treatment, especially as weight gain progresses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014).
- Melanocortin-4 receptor gene variants are not associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese patients with eating disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatr Genet 2014 Nov 21.
We aimed to determine whether variability in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, predisposing to hyperphagia and obesity, may also be present in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior or be related to anthropometric or psychopathological parameters in these patients. The coding region of the MC4R gene was sequenced in nonobese patients with binge-eating behavior diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder (n=77); individuals with severe early-onset obesity (n=170); and lean women with anorexia nervosa (n=20). A psychometric evaluation (Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist 90 Revised inventories) was carried out for all the patients with eating disorders. In the obesity group, 10 different variants were identified, whereas in the binge-eating patients, only two individuals with bulimia nervosa were found to carry the I251L polymorphism, which did not correlate with weight, BMI, or psychopathological features. We found no evidence that mutations in the MC4R gene are associated with binge-eating behavior in nonobese eating disorder patients.
- Anorexia nervosa. [Journal Article]
- World Rev Nutr Diet 2015.:169-73.
- A systematic review of the frequency, duration, type and effect of involuntary treatment for people with anorexia nervosa, and an analysis of patient characteristics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eat Disord 2014; 2(1):29.
Involuntary treatment of anorexia nervosa is controversial and costly. A better understanding of the conditions that determine involuntary treatment, as well as the effect of such treatment is needed in order to adequately assess the legitimacy of this model of care. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and duration of involuntary treatment, the characteristics of this group of patients, the kind of involuntary actions that are applied and the effect of such actions.Relevant databases were systematically searched for studies investigating the involuntary treatment of individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa.The studies included in the review contained people treated in an inpatient setting for severe or severe and enduring anorexia nervosa. People that were treated involuntarily were characterised by a more severe psychiatric load. The levels of eating disorder pathology between involuntary and voluntary groups were similar and the outcome of involuntary treatment was comparable in terms of symptom reduction to that of voluntary treatment.Despite inconsistent findings, the comparable levels of eating disorder pathology observed between involuntary and voluntary patient-groups together with findings of higher co-morbidity, more preadmissions, longer duration of illness and more incidences of self-harm for involuntary patients suggest that involuntary treatment is not a reaction to the severity of eating disorder symptoms alone, but is most likely a response to the complexity of the patient's situation as a whole.
- The multifactorial etiology of eating disorders outlined in a case of anorexia nervosa and complicated by psychiatric co-morbidities. [Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Danub 2014 Nov.:250-5.
This article outlines a case of anorexia nervosa within the context of its multifactorial etiology and complex neurobiology. Additionally, it also highlights that in this case there were several co-morbid personality traits and other psychiatric co-morbidites such as OCD and bipolar disorder.
- The Process of Help-Seeking in Anorexia Nervosa: Patients' Perspective of First Contact With Health Services. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Disord 2014 Nov 20.:1-17.
In this study we explored circumstances, reflections, and reactions to first treatment contact in 34 women (aged 18-51) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) (DSM-IV). Using methods from grounded theory we identified how the meeting came about, what motivated the patients, and how they reacted to the conversation. The results suggest that (a) health care professionals need to demonstrate effective professional communication skills and proficient knowledge about eating disorders in early contacts; (b) treatment goals other than recovery from AN should be explored; and (c) patients' view of AN as a strategy for increased control and mastery in life may be a topic for discussion in the early contacts.
- The Effectiveness of an Individualized Form of Day Hospital Treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Disord 2014 Nov 20.:1-15.
The traditional group format of day hospital treatment for eating disorders restricts individual tailoring of treatment, which is challenging when complex cases are referred. In 2007 we introduced a new program that included individual sessions. Patients referred to this program were older, had longer illness duration, and more pre-treatment symptoms than the original group program. These clients also had more psychopathology, and were more likely to have a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype. Weight gain and abstinence from symptoms were less likely for patients in this new program. However, premature discharge, rapid response, symptom frequencies, and relapse rates did not differ.