(Anorexia nervosa) articles in PubMed
- Altered exposure-related reshaping of body appreciation in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa. [Journal Article]
- Body Image 2016 Sep 21; 19:113-121BI
- Several studies suggest a relation between repeated exposure to extremely thin bodies in media and the perceptual and emotional disturbances of body representation in anorexia nervosa (AN). In this s...
Several studies suggest a relation between repeated exposure to extremely thin bodies in media and the perceptual and emotional disturbances of body representation in anorexia nervosa (AN). In this study, we utilized an exposure paradigm to investigate how perceptual experience modulates body appreciation in adolescents with AN as compared to healthy adolescents. Twenty AN patients and 20 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of thin or round models and were then required to express liking judgments about bodies of variable weight. Brief exposure to round models increased the liking judgments of round bodies but not those of thin bodies in healthy adolescents. Furthermore, exposure to round models increased the liking judgments of both thin and round bodies in adolescents with AN. Patients did not show any change of liking judgments after exposure to thin models. These results point to weak norm-based reshaping of body appreciation in AN patients.
- Epidemiology of eating disorders in Europe: prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors. [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Psychiatry 2016 Sep 22CO
- CONCLUSIONS: Eating disorders are relatively common disorders that are often overlooked, although they are associated with high comorbidity and serious health consequences.
- Pitfalls in anorexia nervosa research: The risk of artifacts linked to denial of illness and methods of preventing them. [Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Danub 2016; 28(3):202-210PD
- One of the most serious problems faced by researchers studying eating disorders is denial of illness in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Importantly, the term "denial" not only has different meanin...
One of the most serious problems faced by researchers studying eating disorders is denial of illness in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Importantly, the term "denial" not only has different meanings, but in the case of anorexia nervosa its very nature still remains obscure. It is not even known whether it is deliberate or unintentional. Denial of illness in anorexic patients has serious consequences for evaluation of the reliability of information obtained from those individuals. Indeed, the most frequently used screening questionnaires, such as the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) (Garner & Garfinkel 1979) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) (Garner et al. 1983), may not reflect the psychological state of the subjects due to distorted responses. The objective of this review article is to elucidate, at least in part, the nature of denial of illness in anorexic individuals and, importantly, to present methods for direct or indirect measurement of this variable. The authors emphasize the detrimental effect of denial of illness on the quality of information obtained from the patients and the notorious unreliability of self-report data. The final part of the paper contains suggestions as to methods of bypassing the pitfalls associated with the influence of denial of illness on the results of studies involving anorexic individuals; for instance, it is recommended that one should build an honest and trustful relationship with the patient. Last but not least, the focus is placed on the potential of experimental psychology, which offers tools producing robust data, resistant to deliberate distortion by patients.
- Assessment of serum CX3CL1/fractalkine level in Han Chinese girls with anorexia nervosa and its correlation with nutritional status: a preliminary cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- J Investig Med 2016 Sep 22JI
- The chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1), also named fractalkine (FKN), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and functions as a novel adipocytokine. However, no attention has been paid ...
The chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1), also named fractalkine (FKN), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and functions as a novel adipocytokine. However, no attention has been paid to the role of FKN in anorexia nervosa (AN). The current study was performed to explore FKN levels in AN to determine its role in the involvement of AN. A total of 96 girls aged 11-18 years with AN (n=34), healthy controls (HC; n=32) and simple obesity (OB, n=30) were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Blood samples were collected during the fasting state. Serum FKN concentrations were determined using ELISA. The skinfold thickness (TSF) of the biceps and triceps as well as mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were used to determine the nutritional status. Our results showed that serum FKN levels were significantly lower in the AN group than in the control and OB groups. After adjusting for body mass index (BMI), FKN concentrations in the AN group were statistically higher than in the HC and OB groups. Significant correlations between serum FKN and body weight, BMI, Cole index and serum insulin were observed. In addition, serum FKN levels were positively related to TSF and MAMC in all subjects. Serum FKN concentrations are attenuated in girls with AN compared with healthy adolescents and are positively related to nutritional status. The lower FKN levels may be regulated by nutrition status and response to starvation. After adjusting for BMI, higher FKN levels may reflect that persistent inflammation is present in patients with AN.
- Expression of positive emotions differs in illness and recovery in anorexia nervosa. [Journal Article]
- Psychiatry Res 2016 Sep 13; 246:48-51PR
- People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) display reduced facial expression of emotions. This study investigated the expression of positive affect in response to a film, examining Duchenne and non-Duchenne s...
People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) display reduced facial expression of emotions. This study investigated the expression of positive affect in response to a film, examining Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles in 20 women who have recovered from AN (REC), 20 with acute AN and 20 healthy controls (HC). The results indicated that the REC group exhibited Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles with higher duration and intensity than the AN group, comparable to the HC group. The findings warrant longitudinal studies to confirm that reduced expressivity is linked to acute AN, ameliorating after recovery.
- Understanding eating disorders in midwifery practice. [Journal Article]
- Pract Midwife 2016 Jul-Aug; 19(7):30-2PM
- Eating disorders (ED) are characterised as a severe disturbance in an individual's eating behaviours and are one of the most misdiagnosed and overlooked mental health conditions in the United Kingdom...
Eating disorders (ED) are characterised as a severe disturbance in an individual's eating behaviours and are one of the most misdiagnosed and overlooked mental health conditions in the United Kingdom. Six- eight per cent of the general population are reported to be affected by an ED, although the number is rising. There are two main diagnostic categories of ED: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, though those that do not meet the specific criteria are categorised as having an'eating disorder not otherwise specified' (Dooner 2015). Eating disorders predominantly present in women of childbearing age and, although many women experience alleviation of their symptoms during pregnancy, they are at significant risk of relapse in the postpartum period. This article aims to explore the impact that an eating disorder has on the woman and her family, with a focus on the postnatal period, as well as the challenges that midwives may face in identifying and caring for women with the condition.
- Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back. [Review]
- J Neurochem 2016 Sep 21JN
- The central-nervous-system and viscera constitute a functional ensemble, the gut-brain axis, that allows bidirectional information flow that contributes to the control of feeding-behaviour based not ...
The central-nervous-system and viscera constitute a functional ensemble, the gut-brain axis, that allows bidirectional information flow that contributes to the control of feeding-behaviour based not only on the homeostatic, but also on the hedonic aspects of food-intake. The prevalence of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, binge eating and obesity, poses an enormous clinical burden, and involves an ever-growing percentage of the population worldwide. Clinical and preclinical research is constantly adding new information to the field and orienting further studies with the aim of providing a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches to pathological conditions. A recent symposium at the XVI Congress of the Societá Italiana di Neuroscienze (SINS, 2015) "Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back" brought together basic scientists and clinicians with the objective of presenting novel perspectives in the neurobiology of eating disorders. Clinical studies presented by V. Ricca illustrated some genetic aspects of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Preclinical studies addressed different issues ranging from the description of animal models that mimic human pathologies such as anorexia nervosa, diet induced obesity and binge eating disorders (T. Lutz), to novel interactions between peripheral signals and central circuits that govern food intake, mood and stress (A. Romano and G. Provensi). The gut-brain axis has received increasing attention in the recent years as preclinical studies are demonstrating that the brain and visceral organs such as the liver and guts, but also the microbiota are constantly engaged in processes of reciprocal communication, with unexpected physiological and pathological implications. Eating is controlled by a plethora of factors; genetic predisposition, early life adverse conditions, peripheral gastrointestinal hormones that act directly or indirectly on the central nervous system, all are receiving attention as they presumably contribute to the development of eating disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States. [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Psychiatry 2016 Sep 17CO
- CONCLUSIONS: There are more similarities than differences in the prevalence of eating disorders across Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. However, the social context such as immigration status and acculturation is important to consider in the development of eating disorders. In addition, the Westernization of Latin America may change the future relationship of immigration status and development of eating disorder within the United States. Overall, cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments involved the inclusion of family within treatment, acculturation-related issues, and managing family conflicts that arise because of the changes in eating patterns.
- Predictors of short-term outcome variables in hospitalised female adolescents with eating disorders. [Journal Article]
- Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2016 Sep 20; :1-9IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: In EDs, diverse factors may predict different outcome variables.
New Search Next
- Postmortem Diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa: An Endocrinological and Immunohistochemical Approach. [Journal Article]
- J Med Invest 2016; 63(3-4):305-9JM
- A female in her 30s was found dead after a fire. She was severely emaciated and had been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) about 5 years ago, but had not been treated recently. Therefore, we inves...
A female in her 30s was found dead after a fire. She was severely emaciated and had been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) about 5 years ago, but had not been treated recently. Therefore, we investigated not only her cause of death but also her condition of AN. Some of her organs weighed less than normal although no clear lesions were observed. In the pituitary gland, the number of follicle-stimulating hormone-immunopositive cells was markedly decreased although a normal number of thyroid-stimulating hormone-positive cells were detected. A histological examination of the ovary suggested that she had been suffering from amenorrhea. The thyroid gland was atrophic, and marked variations in follicle size were observed. Because we could not obtain enough volume of her blood for endocrinological examinations, we tried to investigate her endocrinological condition by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining detected decreased triiodothyronine immunoreactivity and normal thyroxine immunoreactivity. The adrenal glands were also atrophic. Based on these findings, it was considered that she had been suffering from AN at the time of her death. The autopsy and other findings revealed that she had died of burning with carbon monoxide intoxication. J. Med. Invest. 63: 305-309, August, 2016.