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Anorexia nervosa [keywords]
- Seasonal BMI differences between restrictive and purging anorexia nervosa subtypes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Eat Disord 2014 Oct 18.
Seasonal differences in anorexia nervosa is an area of research which has received scarce attention in the literature. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of seasonal variation in body weight in anorexia nervosa patients admitted to an eating disorders unit from January 2007 to December 2011.Anorexia nervosa restrictive (ANR) and binge eating/purging (ANBP) subtypes were compared with respect to BMI on admission during the Warm and Cold Semester, and in terms of lenght of hospital stay.The main result was that BMI differences between ANBP and ANR patients were due to bodyweight differences during the colder months of the year (p < 0.01) whereas no difference in bodyweight on admission was observed between both subtypes during the Warm Semester months. Furthermore, ANR patients' bodyweight was lower when admitted during the Cold compared to the Warm Semester (p < 0.05). Length of stay was significantly associated with reduced BMI in ANR patients (p < 0.01), but not so for ANBP patients.To our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature providing data on seasonal variations in the BMI on admission of anorexia nervosa patients, and in the length of hospitalization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014).
- Increased resting state functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal and default mode network in anorexia nervosa. [Journal Article]
- Front Behav Neurosci 2014.:346.
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is poorly understood. Results from functional brain imaging studies investigating the neural profile of AN using cognitive and emotional task paradigms are difficult to reconcile. Task-related imaging studies often require a high level of compliance and can only partially explore the distributed nature and complexity of brain function. In this study, resting state functional connectivity imaging was used to investigate well-characterized brain networks potentially relevant to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the symptomatology and etiology of AN. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was obtained from 35 unmedicated female acute AN patients and 35 closely matched healthy controls female participants (HC) and decomposed using spatial group independent component analyses (ICA). Using validated templates, we identified components covering the fronto-parietal "control" network, the default mode network (DMN), the salience network, the visual and the sensory-motor network. Group comparison revealed an increased functional connectivity between the angular gyrus and the other parts of the fronto-parietal network in patients with AN in comparison to HC. Connectivity of the angular gyrus was positively associated with self-reported persistence in HC. In the DMN, AN patients also showed an increased functional connectivity strength in the anterior insula in comparison to HC. Anterior insula connectivity was associated with self-reported problems with interoceptive awareness. This study, with one of the largest sample to date, shows that acute AN is associated with abnormal brain connectivity in two major resting state networks (RSN). The finding of an increased functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network adds novel support for the notion of AN as a disorder of excessive cognitive control, whereas the elevated functional connectivity of the anterior insula with the DMN may reflect the high levels of self- and body-focused ruminations when AN patients are at rest.
- Menstrual Cycle Recovery in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: The Importance of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Horm Res Paediatr 2014 Oct 15.
Background: Follow-up visits of patients recovering from anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown that some patients do not resume menstrual cycles despite returning to the normal weight for their age and height. Aim: To verify whether leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or another hormonal marker could be a good predictor of the return of menses. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included female adolescents diagnosed with AN or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and who were being treated in an ambulatory care unit during nutritional recovery. Body mass index and leptin, luteinizing hormone, estradiol and IGF-1 levels of these patients were evaluated. Blood samples were collected in the 1st (T1), 5th (T2), 10th (T3), 15th (T4) and 20th (T5) weeks of treatment. The hormone levels during nutritional recovery and at the time of the resumption of menses were analyzed. Results: The hormonal profiles improved after nutritional recovery, with IGF-1 correlating the most with the resumption of menses and nutritional recovery (p = 0.0001). At the resumption of menstruation, the patients showed IGF-1 levels >342.8 ng/ml. Conclusion: IGF-1 was the best predictor of the return of menses in female adolescents with AN or EDNOS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- The effect of multiple family therapy on weight gain in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: pilot data. [Journal Article]
- J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Sep; 23(3):196-9.
Preliminary research suggests that multiple family therapy (MFT) may be an effective intervention for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study compared the extent of weight restoration for patients enrolled in one year of MFT compared to a matched control group receiving treatment as usual (TAU).A retrospective chart review was performed using data from 25 MFT cases matched to 25 controls on age, diagnosis and year of entry to the eating disorder program.Both cases and controls experienced significant weight restoration, however patients enrolled in MFT were restored to a higher mean percent ideal body weight than the TAU group (99.6% (±7.27%) vs. 95.4 (±6.88); p<0.05).MFT may be more effective than TAU in restoring weight in adolescents with AN.
- Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow. [Journal Article]
- J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2014; 4(4)
Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.
- [Mutual assessment of their marital relationship by parents of female patients with eating disorders]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Jul-Aug; 48(4):809-22.
The goal of this study was to assess the perception of marital relationship and its mutual connections by parents of(female) patients diagnosed with eating disorders. Data from: 54 (female) patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa (ANR), 22 with binge-purge anorexia nervosa (ANBP), 36 with bulimia (BUL), and two control groups: 36 (female) patients diagnosed with depressive disorders (DEP) and 85 Krakow schoolgirls (NOR).The study employed the Dyadic Relations Scale, a part of the Family Assessment Measure (Polish version).Wives in the BUL group, compared to wives in the NOR group, rated their husbands worse when assessing their husbands in terms of how well they functioned in the marital relationship, their performance of duties, affective involvement, and the integrity of values and rules of conduct. Wives in the ANR group, compared to wives in the NOR group, negatively rated the affective involvement of their husbands in the marital relationship. Husbands in the DEP group, compared to husbands in the NOR group, rated their wives worse when assessing their wives' general functioning in the marital relationship, degree of communication within it, degree of understanding, how well they performed their spousal duties, and the coherence of their system of values and rules of conduct. The image of the marital relationship held by parents of Krakow schoolgirls was characterized by a strong correlation, in contrast to the image of the relationship held by parents of (female) patients, regardless of the nature of the diagnosis.Comparison of the results of parents of(female) patients with eating disorders and parents of(female) patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder revealed no difference in the image of the marital relationship, whether in the mutual assessment of spouses towards each other or in connection with the assessments.
- [Correlations between the perception of family functioning by patients with eating disorders and their parents and the perception of relations in the parents' families of origin]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Jul-Aug; 48(4):789-808.
To assess the correlations between the perception of relations in parents' families of origin and the assessment of the current family by the parents and their daughters suffering from eating disorders. STUDIED GROUP: Statistical analyses were applied to the results obtained from 54 patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa, from 22 with binge-purge anorexia, from 36 with bulimia and from two control groups: 36 patients diagnosed with depressive disorders and 85 Krakow schoolgirls. The study also covered the parents of the investigated girls.Family of Origin Scale and Family Assessment Questionnaire (FAM Polish version) were used in the study.The procreative family assessment made by the mothers was correlated with the assessment of their own generational family and the assessment of own generational family made by their husbands. Procreative family assessment made by the fathers was correlated only with their assessment of their family of origin. Family of origin assessment made by patients with diagnosed eating disorders, particularly bulimia, was correlated only with the family of origin assessment made by their fathers. The last correlation did not occur in the control groups.The research shows a correlation between the experience of the families of origin and the current functioning of the family. They show the impact of the fathers' trangenerational experience on the perception of family relations of daughters with diagnosed anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
- Nonvisual multisensory impairment of body perception in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review of neuropsychological studies. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e110087.
Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence.PubMed and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains.Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available.Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN.The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory, probably shapes bodily experience in patients with AN.
- Management of ischiopubic stress fracture in patients with anorexia nervosa and excessive compulsive exercising. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
This case report describes a 28-year-old non-athlete female patient with anorexia nervosa who was diagnosed with an ischiopubic ramus stress fracture and treated successfully as an inpatient with a cognitive behaviour-based therapy. The patient's clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described, and a brief review of the relevant literature is included. The importance of this case report stems from the rarity of descriptions of this kind of injury in such patients, despite their inherent risk, and the originality of the treatment applied. This, in addition to the usual approach to medical management, exploited specific cognitive and behavioural procedures and strategies to address the patient's excessive compulsive exercising, promoting rest and movement avoidance in order to allow the fracture to heal, while simultaneously addressing the underlying psychopathology.
- Who Seeks Residential Treatment? A Report of Patient Characteristics, Pathology, and Functioning in Females at a Residential Treatment Facility. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Disord 2014 Oct 8.:1-14.
There has been a growth in the availability and use of residential treatment for eating disorders. Yet there is a paucity of information on the individuals who seek this treatment. This study provides data on 259 consecutive patients (116 adults and 143 adolescents) entering residential treatment for their eating disorders. Upon admission all patients provided individual characteristics data and the following measures: the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3), the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Eating Disorder Quality of Life (EDQOL), and the SF-36 Health Survey-Version 2. Findings are presented by diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified) and age (adult and adolescent). Results show that 61% of adolescents and 80% of adults were above the clinical cutoff for depression, and 59% of adolescents and 78% of adults were above the clinical cutoff for anxiety. Scores on the EDI-3 are presented by subscale and diagnosis. Very low quality of life is reported for both adults and adolescents on the EDQOL. For both adolescents and adults the SF-36 showed average population scores for the physical scale but very low mental scores. Implications for these findings and future directions for this work are discussed.