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Anorexia nervosa [keywords]
- A qualitative study of young women's experiences of recovery from Bulimia Nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Adv Nurs 2014 Oct 22.
To describe experiences of recovery from bulimia nervosa among young adult women.Most studies into recovery from eating disorders focus on anorexia nervosa, although some include both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Recovery has been described as beginning with renewed self-esteem.Qualitative interview study.Fourteen women were invited to participate; five women, between 23-26 years of age, who assessed themselves as healthy for at least 2 years agreed to take part in narrative interviews. Tape-recorded interviews lasting 45-60 minutes (median 49 minutes) were conducted from February-April 2010 and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.The interviews revealed four themes in recovery from bulimia nervosa: feeling stuck in bulimia nervosa, getting ready to change, breaking free of bulimia nervosa and grasping a new reality, each comprising two or more subthemes. The process of recovery was not linear, but rather went back and forth between progress and relapse. The women expressed strong ambivalence about leaving the illness behind. An important part of their recovery was their ability to accept themselves. It was essential for their recovery to be supported in developing a unique explanation of the cause of their illness.Women's ability to recover from bulimia nervosa and take control over their lives is based on their self-efficacy. Effective care should therefore strive to strengthen women's beliefs in their own abilities, to instil hope for recovery and thus to bolster their self-efficacy.
- The Neuropsychology of Starvation: Set-Shifting and Central Coherence in a Fasted Nonclinical Sample. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e110743.
Recent research suggests certain neuropsychological deficits occur in anorexia nervosa (AN). The role of starvation in these deficits remains unclear. Studies of individuals without AN can elucidate our understanding of the effect of short-term starvation on neuropsychological performance.Using a within-subjects repeated measures design, 60 healthy female participants were tested once after fasting for 18 hours, and once when satiated. Measures included two tasks to measure central coherence and a set-shifting task.Fasting exacerbated set-shifting difficulties on a rule-change task. Fasting was associated with stronger local and impaired global processing, indicating weaker central coherence.Models of AN that propose a central role for set-shifting difficulties or weak central coherence should also consider the impact of short-term fasting on these processes.
- Alexithymia in parents and adolescent anorexic daughters: comparing the responses to TSIA and TAS-20 scales. [Journal Article]
- Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014.:1941-51.
A growing body of literature has been focusing on individual alexithymia in anorexia nervosa, while there are only scarce and conflicting studies on alexithymia in the families of anorexic patients, despite the important role played by family dynamics in the development of the anorexic disorder, especially in adolescent patients. The aim of this study is to assess alexithymia in anorexic adolescent patients and in their parents using a multimethod measurement to gain more direct, in-depth knowledge of the problem.Forty-six subjects, anorexic adolescent patients and their parents, underwent the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) along with the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA), which represents the first comprehensive clinically structured interview focused specifically on assessing alexithymia. The use of latent trait Rasch analysis allowed a comparison of the two instruments' sensitivity and ability to detect the presence and intensity of alexithymic components in patients and parents.Significant discordance was found between the two measures. The clinical instrument allowed detection of a greater level of alexithymia compared with the self-report, in particular in our adult parent sample. Moreover, a significant alexithymic gap emerged within families, particularly within parental couples, with noticeably more alexithymic fathers compared with the mothers.The TSIA clinical interview may be a more sensitive instrument in detecting alexithymia, minimizing parents' negation tendency. Clinical questions have arisen on how useful it would be to give greater weight to family functioning (ie, alexithymic gap) in order to predict the possibility of establishing a therapeutic alliance, and thus the outcome of the anorexic adolescent.
- Is Non-suicidal Self-injury Related to Impulsivity in Anorexia Nervosa? Results from Self-report and Performance-based Tasks. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Eat Disord Rev 2014 Oct 21.
The present study investigates the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and impulsivity in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients by means of self-report and behavioural tasks. In total, 60 female AN patients were included in the study, filled out the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and performed three performance-based tasks to assess different facets of impulsivity. Overall, 30% of the AN patients engaged in at least one form of NSSI during their lifetime. AN patients with and without NSSI did not significantly differ on the BIS-11 impulsiveness scale. On the performance-based measures, few differences emerged between AN patients with and without NSSI. Patients with NSSI showed more perseverations and perseveration errors (p < .05). The associations between self-report and performance-based measures were rather low, except for the association between the BIS-11 and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task perseveration responses and errors (correlations |r| range between .32 and .42). The implications for theory and treatment of AN patients with and without NSSI will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
- Seasonal BMI differences between restrictive and purging anorexia nervosa subtypes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Eat Disord 2014 Oct 18.
Seasonal differences in anorexia nervosa is an area of research which has received scarce attention in the literature. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of seasonal variation in body weight in anorexia nervosa patients admitted to an eating disorders unit from January 2007 to December 2011.Anorexia nervosa restrictive (ANR) and binge eating/purging (ANBP) subtypes were compared with respect to BMI on admission during the Warm and Cold Semester, and in terms of lenght of hospital stay.The main result was that BMI differences between ANBP and ANR patients were due to bodyweight differences during the colder months of the year (p < 0.01) whereas no difference in bodyweight on admission was observed between both subtypes during the Warm Semester months. Furthermore, ANR patients' bodyweight was lower when admitted during the Cold compared to the Warm Semester (p < 0.05). Length of stay was significantly associated with reduced BMI in ANR patients (p < 0.01), but not so for ANBP patients.To our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature providing data on seasonal variations in the BMI on admission of anorexia nervosa patients, and in the length of hospitalization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014).
- Increased resting state functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal and default mode network in anorexia nervosa. [Journal Article]
- Front Behav Neurosci 2014.:346.
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is poorly understood. Results from functional brain imaging studies investigating the neural profile of AN using cognitive and emotional task paradigms are difficult to reconcile. Task-related imaging studies often require a high level of compliance and can only partially explore the distributed nature and complexity of brain function. In this study, resting state functional connectivity imaging was used to investigate well-characterized brain networks potentially relevant to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the symptomatology and etiology of AN. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was obtained from 35 unmedicated female acute AN patients and 35 closely matched healthy controls female participants (HC) and decomposed using spatial group independent component analyses (ICA). Using validated templates, we identified components covering the fronto-parietal "control" network, the default mode network (DMN), the salience network, the visual and the sensory-motor network. Group comparison revealed an increased functional connectivity between the angular gyrus and the other parts of the fronto-parietal network in patients with AN in comparison to HC. Connectivity of the angular gyrus was positively associated with self-reported persistence in HC. In the DMN, AN patients also showed an increased functional connectivity strength in the anterior insula in comparison to HC. Anterior insula connectivity was associated with self-reported problems with interoceptive awareness. This study, with one of the largest sample to date, shows that acute AN is associated with abnormal brain connectivity in two major resting state networks (RSN). The finding of an increased functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network adds novel support for the notion of AN as a disorder of excessive cognitive control, whereas the elevated functional connectivity of the anterior insula with the DMN may reflect the high levels of self- and body-focused ruminations when AN patients are at rest.
- Menstrual Cycle Recovery in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: The Importance of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Horm Res Paediatr 2014 Oct 15.
Background: Follow-up visits of patients recovering from anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown that some patients do not resume menstrual cycles despite returning to the normal weight for their age and height. Aim: To verify whether leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or another hormonal marker could be a good predictor of the return of menses. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included female adolescents diagnosed with AN or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and who were being treated in an ambulatory care unit during nutritional recovery. Body mass index and leptin, luteinizing hormone, estradiol and IGF-1 levels of these patients were evaluated. Blood samples were collected in the 1st (T1), 5th (T2), 10th (T3), 15th (T4) and 20th (T5) weeks of treatment. The hormone levels during nutritional recovery and at the time of the resumption of menses were analyzed. Results: The hormonal profiles improved after nutritional recovery, with IGF-1 correlating the most with the resumption of menses and nutritional recovery (p = 0.0001). At the resumption of menstruation, the patients showed IGF-1 levels >342.8 ng/ml. Conclusion: IGF-1 was the best predictor of the return of menses in female adolescents with AN or EDNOS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- The effect of multiple family therapy on weight gain in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: pilot data. [Journal Article]
- J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Sep; 23(3):196-9.
Preliminary research suggests that multiple family therapy (MFT) may be an effective intervention for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study compared the extent of weight restoration for patients enrolled in one year of MFT compared to a matched control group receiving treatment as usual (TAU).A retrospective chart review was performed using data from 25 MFT cases matched to 25 controls on age, diagnosis and year of entry to the eating disorder program.Both cases and controls experienced significant weight restoration, however patients enrolled in MFT were restored to a higher mean percent ideal body weight than the TAU group (99.6% (±7.27%) vs. 95.4 (±6.88); p<0.05).MFT may be more effective than TAU in restoring weight in adolescents with AN.
- Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow. [Journal Article]
- J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2014; 4(4)
Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.
- [Mutual assessment of their marital relationship by parents of female patients with eating disorders]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatr Pol 2014 Jul-Aug; 48(4):809-22.
The goal of this study was to assess the perception of marital relationship and its mutual connections by parents of(female) patients diagnosed with eating disorders. Data from: 54 (female) patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa (ANR), 22 with binge-purge anorexia nervosa (ANBP), 36 with bulimia (BUL), and two control groups: 36 (female) patients diagnosed with depressive disorders (DEP) and 85 Krakow schoolgirls (NOR).The study employed the Dyadic Relations Scale, a part of the Family Assessment Measure (Polish version).Wives in the BUL group, compared to wives in the NOR group, rated their husbands worse when assessing their husbands in terms of how well they functioned in the marital relationship, their performance of duties, affective involvement, and the integrity of values and rules of conduct. Wives in the ANR group, compared to wives in the NOR group, negatively rated the affective involvement of their husbands in the marital relationship. Husbands in the DEP group, compared to husbands in the NOR group, rated their wives worse when assessing their wives' general functioning in the marital relationship, degree of communication within it, degree of understanding, how well they performed their spousal duties, and the coherence of their system of values and rules of conduct. The image of the marital relationship held by parents of Krakow schoolgirls was characterized by a strong correlation, in contrast to the image of the relationship held by parents of (female) patients, regardless of the nature of the diagnosis.Comparison of the results of parents of(female) patients with eating disorders and parents of(female) patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder revealed no difference in the image of the marital relationship, whether in the mutual assessment of spouses towards each other or in connection with the assessments.