Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Anorexia nervosa [keywords]
- Endocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa. [REVIEW]
- Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014 Apr 2.
Anorexia nervosa is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhoea; a nutritionally acquired growth-hormone resistance leading to low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); relative hypercortisolaemia; decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin, and incretins; and increases in ghrelin, peptide YY, and adiponectin. These changes in turn have harmful effects on bone and might affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression, and the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is particularly concerning, because it is associated with changes in bone microarchitecture, strength, and clinical fractures. Recovery leads to improvements in many-but not all-hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual can persist. Oestrogen-replacement therapy, primarily via the transdermal route, increases BMD in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral oestrogen-combined with recombinant human IGF-1 in one study and bisphosphonates in another-increased BMD, but not to the normal range. More studies are necessary to investigate the optimum therapeutic approach in patients with, or recovering from, anorexia nervosa.
- The effect of driven exercise on treatment outcomes for adolescents with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Eat Disord 2014 Apr 11.
This study investigated the prevalence of driven exercise (DE) and its role in treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN).Participants were 201 adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) (80 with BN and 121 with AN) presenting for outpatient treatment at two specialist clinics. All adolescents participated in one of two randomized controlled trials. Descriptive statistics were conducted to evaluate the presence and frequency of baseline DE. Exploratory hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate the effect of baseline DE on treatment outcomes.About 66.3% of adolescents with BN and 23.1% of adolescents with AN presented with baseline DE. The presence of baseline DE predicted significantly worse outcomes for adolescents with AN in terms of ED symptom severity (ps < .004); however, baseline DE did not significantly predict any of the evaluated outcomes for adolescents with BN (ps < .05).The results of this secondary exploratory data suggest that DE is prevalent for adolescents with BN and AN. However, DE may be related to different constructs for adolescents with AN than those with BN, suggesting differences in treatment needs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014).
- Desirable possible selves and depression in adult women with eating disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eat Weight Disord 2014 Apr 13.
Possible selves are conceptions of our selves in future states. Previous findings indicated that women with anorexia nervosa tended to have more negative possible selves than a control group, even when rating future situations normally regarded in our society as desirable. The present study investigated whether this was a general pattern in women with eating disorders, relating findings on possible selves to depression. Possible selves concerning treatment were also included.Patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 19), bulimia nervosa (n = 29) or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (n = 18) and a control group (n = 27) rated the valence of five possible selves on Likert's scales. Levels of depression were measured among the patients using the Beck Depression Inventory.The patients rated the valence of the possible selves significantly less positively and more negatively than did the control group. A strong correlation between valence and depression was found in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No such correlation was found in patients with EDNOS. Possible selves concerning future treatment were rated even more negatively.The results indicate that, when compared to a non-patient group, eating disorder patients make more negative evaluations of possible selves usually seen as desirable. Depression may be a mediating factor in these evaluations for the anorexia and bulimia patients.
- Predictors and moderators of outcome for severe and enduring anorexia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Behav Res Ther 2014 Mar 29.:91-98.
Few of the limited randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) have explored predictors and moderators of outcome. This study aimed to identify predictors and moderators of outcome at end of treatment (EOT) and 6- and 12-month follow-up for adults with AN (N = 63). All participants met criteria for severe and enduring AN (duration of illness ≥ 7 years) and participated in an RCT of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-AN) and specialist supportive clinical management (SSCM). General linear models were utilized and included all available outcome data at all time points. Outcome was assessed across three domains: eating disorder quality of life (EDQOL), mental health (MCS), and depressive symptoms (BDI). Predictors of better outcome included: lower age, shorter duration of illness, having AN-R, being employed, not taking psychotropic medication, and better social adjustment. Four moderators of treatment outcome emerged: eating disorder psychopathology (EDE Global), depression (BDI), age, and AN subtype. Participants with higher baseline scores on these measures, older age, or binge eating/purging subtype benefited more from CBT-AN than SSCM. Older patients with more severe eating-related psychopathology and depression have better outcomes in a behaviorally targeted treatment such as CBT-AN rather than a supportive treatment such as SSCM.
- [Brain imaging in early onset anorexia.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Pediatr 2014 Apr 9.
Structural and functional brain alterations in the structures involved in taste processing, emotions regulation and the reward system have been described in anorexia nervosa. The neurodevelopmental origin of this disorder has been recently discussed. In this article, brain-imaging data in early onset anorexia nervosa will be recalled and the relationship between clinical symptoms, normal brain maturation and brain imaging data in adolescents and adults will be discussed.
- Rodent model of activity-based anorexia. [Journal Article]
- Curr Protoc Neurosci 2014.:9.47.1-9.47.11.
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased activity, and a severe progression of weight loss. Due to the parallelism with the clinical manifestations of anorexia nervosa including increased activity, reduced food intake and severe weight loss, the ABA procedure has been proposed as the best analog of human anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, ABA research could both allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN and generate useful leads for treatment development in AN. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 67:9.47.1-9.47.11. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Bone disease in anorexia nervosa. [Journal Article]
- Hormones (Athens) 2014 Jan; 13(1):38-56.
Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by emaciation due to self-starvation and displays a unique hormonal profile. Alterations in gonadal axis, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor I levels, hypercortisolemia and low triiodothyronine levels are almost universally present and constitute an adaptive response to malnutrition. Bone metabolism is likewise affected resulting in low bone mineral density, reduced bone accrual and increased fracture risk. Skeletal deficits often persist even after recovery from the disease with serious implications for future skeletal health. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying bone disease are quite complicated and treatment is a particularly challenging task.
- Neuropsychological function in patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Eat Disord 2014 Apr 9.
This study explored the neuropsychological performance of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) compared with healthy controls (HCs). An additional aim was to investigate the effect of several possible mediators on the association between eating disorders (EDs) and cognitive function.Forty patients with AN, 39 patients with BN, and 40 HCs who were comparable in age and education were consecutively recruited to complete a standardized neuropsychological test battery covering the following cognitive domains: verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, speed of information processing, visuospatial ability, working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, attention/vigilance, and motor function.The AN group scored significantly below the HCs on eight of the nine measured cognitive domains. The BN group also showed inferior performance on six cognitive domains. After adjusting for possible mediators, the nadir body mass index (lowest lifetime BMI) and depressive symptoms explained all findings in the BN group. Although this adjustment reduced the difference between the AN and HC groups, the AN group still performed worse than the HCs regarding verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuospatial ability, working memory, and executive functioning.Patients with EDs scored below the HCs on several cognitive function measures, this difference being most pronounced for the AN group. The nadir BMI and depressive symptoms had strong mediating effects. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify the importance of weight restoration and treatment of depressive symptoms in the prevention of a possible cognitive decline. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014).
- Anorexia nervosa complicated by diabetes mellitus: The case for permissive hyperglycemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Eat Disord 2014 Apr 9.
The coexistence of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and anorexia nervosa results in an increased incidence of known diabetic complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy, presumably because blood glucose is difficult to control within the throes of comorbid anorexia nervosa. In addition, even when a diabetic patient with anorexia nervosa has committed to resolving his or her eating disorder, glucose control is again difficult and fraught with complexity and peril as will be highlighted in the following case report. Prudence dictates that strict glucose control is not indicated for the relatively short period of time that constitutes the early stage of refeeding in a patient with severe anorexia nervosa. Rather, "permissive hyperglycemia" may be the more optimal course to pursue, as a clinical strategy which is considerate of both the criticality of the refeeding treatment plan and of the long-term nature of the diabetic illness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014).
- Pre-treatment attachment anxiety predicts change in depressive symptoms in women who complete day hospital treatment for anorexia and bulimia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychol Psychother 2014 Apr 9.
Individuals with eating disorders are prone to depressive symptoms. This study examines whether depressive symptoms can change in women who complete intensive day treatment for anorexia and bulimia nervosa (BN), and whether these changes are associated with pre-treatment attachment insecurity.Participants were 141 women with anorexia nervosa restricting type (n = 24), anorexia nervosa binge purge type (n = 30), and BN (n = 87) who completed a day hospital treatment programme for eating disorders. They completed a pre-treatment self-report measure of attachment, and a pre-treatment and post-treatment self-report measure of depressive symptoms.Participants experienced significant reductions in depressive symptoms at post-treatment. Eating disorder diagnosis was not related to these improvements. However, participants lower in attachment anxiety experienced significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms than those who were higher in attachment anxiety.These results suggest that clinicians may tailor eating disorders treatments to patients' attachment patterns and focus on their pre-occupation with relationships and affect regulation to improve depressive symptoms.That depressive symptoms can decrease in women who complete day hospital treatment for anorexia and BN. That improvements in depressive symptoms do not vary according to eating disorder diagnosis in these women. That patients who complete treatment and who have higher attachment anxiety experience less improvements in depressive symptoms compared to those lower in attachment anxiety. That clinicians may attend to aspects of attachment anxiety, such as need for approval and up-regulation of emotions, to improve depressive symptoms in female patients with eating disorders.