Anorexia poor appetite [keywords]
- APPETITE PREDICTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS. [Journal Article]
- J Ren Care 2016 Jun; 42(2):123-31.
Sub-optimal nutrition status is common amongst patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and leads to poor clinical outcome. This population experiences multi-factorial challenges to achieving optimal nutritional status, particularly driven by inadequate intake.The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with inadequate protein intake and sub-optimal nutritional status in patients undergoing PD.This was a cross-sectional study of 67 adult patients receiving PD (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 57% male) within a single centre. Participants were consecutively recruited and interviewed by renal dietitians, collecting: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); quality of life (using EQ-5D); dietary intake (via dietary interview); and appetite (using Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool). Participant demographics were obtained via survey or medical charts. Main outcome measures were inadequate dietary protein intake (<1.1 g/kg adjusted body weight/day) and malnutrition (as defined by SGA rating B or C).Overall, 15 (22%) patients were malnourished and 29 (43%) had inadequate protein intake. Poor appetite (anorexia) was reported in 62% (18/29) of participants with inadequate protein malnourished patients reported anorexia versus 12 (23%) of the well-nourished patients (p = 0.0001).Anorexia was a key risk factor for inadequate protein intake and malnutrition in patients undergoing PD. These findings highlight a need to closely monitor patients with appetite disturbances.
- A case of severe anorexia, excessive weight loss and high peptide YY levels after sleeve gastrectomy. [Journal Article]
- Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2015.:150020.
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is the second most commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Altered circulating gut hormones have been suggested to contribute post-operatively to appetite suppression, decreased caloric intake and weight reduction. In the present study, we report a 22-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic SG for obesity (BMI 46 kg/m(2)). Post-operatively, she reported marked appetite reduction, which resulted in excessive weight loss (1-year post-SG: BMI 22 kg/m(2), weight loss 52%, >99th centile of 1-year percentage of weight loss from 453 SG patients). Gastrointestinal (GI) imaging, GI physiology/motility studies and endoscopy revealed no anatomical cause for her symptoms, and psychological assessments excluded an eating disorder. Despite nutritional supplements and anti-emetics, her weight loss continued (BMI 19 kg/m(2)), and she required nasogastric feeding. A random gut hormone assessment revealed high plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels. She underwent a 3 h meal study following an overnight fast to assess her subjective appetite and circulating gut hormone levels. Her fasted nausea scores were high, with low hunger, and these worsened with nutrient ingestion. Compared to ten other post-SG female patients, her fasted circulating PYY and nutrient-stimulated PYY and active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) levels were markedly elevated. Octreotide treatment was associated with suppressed circulating PYY and GLP1 levels, increased appetite, increased caloric intake and weight gain (BMI 22 kg/m(2) after 6 months). The present case highlights the value of measuring gut hormones in patients following bariatric surgery who present with anorexia and excessive weight loss and suggests that octreotide treatment can produce symptomatic relief and weight regain in this setting.Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and SG produce marked sustained weight reduction. However, there is a marked individual variability in this reduction, and post-operative weight loss follows a normal distribution with extremes of 'good' and 'poor' response.Profound anorexia and excessive weight loss post-SG may be associated with markedly elevated circulating fasted PYY and post-meal PYY and GLP1 levels.Octreotide treatment can produce symptomatic relief and weight regain for post-SG patients that have an extreme anorectic and weight loss response.The present case highlights the value of measuring circulating gut hormone levels in patients with post-operative anorexia and extreme weight loss.
- Validating Appetite Assessment Tools Among Patients Receiving Hemodialysis. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- J Ren Nutr 2016 Mar; 26(2):103-10.
To test the performance of appetite assessment tools among patients receiving hemodialysis (HD).Cross-sectional.Two hundred twenty-one patients receiving HD enrolled in seven dialysis facilities in Northern California.We assessed 5 appetite assessment tools (self-assessment of appetite, subjective assessment of appetite, visual analog scale [VAS], Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy [FAACT] score, and the Anorexia Questionnaire [AQ]).Reported food intake, normalized protein catabolic rate, and change in body weight were used as criterion measures, and we assessed associations among the appetite tools and biomarkers associated with nutrition and inflammation. Patients were asked to report their appetite and the percentage of food eaten (from 0% to 100%) during the last meal compared to usual intake.Fifty-eight (26%) patients reported food intake ≤ 50% (defined as poor appetite). The prevalence of anorexia was 12% by self-assessment of appetite, 6% by subjective assessment of appetite, 24% by VAS, 17% by FAACT score, and 12% by AQ. All the tools were significantly associated with food intake ≤ 50% (P < .001), except self-assessment of appetite. The FAACT score and the VAS had the strongest association with food intake ≤ 50% (C-statistic 0.80 and 0.76). Patients with food intake ≤ 50% reported weight loss more frequently than patients without low intake (36% vs 22%) and weight gain less frequently (19% vs 35%; P = .03). Normalized protein catabolic rate was lower among anorexic patients based on the VAS (1.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.2 ± 0.3, P = .03). Ln interleukin-6 correlated inversely with food intake (P = .03), but neither interleukin-6 nor C-reactive protein correlated with any of the appetite tools. Furthermore, only the self-assessment of appetite was significantly associated with serum albumin (P = .02), prealbumin (P = .02) and adiponectin concentrations (P = .03).Alternative appetite assessment tools yielded widely different estimates of the prevalence of anorexia in HD. When considering self-reported food intake as the criterion standard for anorexia, the FAACT score and VAS discriminated patients reasonably well.
- Mechanisms of the anorexia of aging-a review. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Age (Dordr) 2015 Aug; 37(4):9821.
Many, even healthy, older people fail to adequately regulate food intake and experience loss of weight. Aging-associated changes in the regulation of appetite and the lack of hunger have been termed as the anorexia of aging. The etiology of the anorexia of aging is multi-factorial and includes a combination of physiological changes associated with aging (decline in smell and taste, reduced central and peripheral drive to eat, delayed gastric emptying), pathological conditions (depression, dementia, somatic diseases, medications and iatrogenic interventions, oral-health status), and social factors (poverty, loneliness). However, exact mechanisms of the anorexia of aging remain to be elucidated. Many neurobiological mechanisms may be secondary to age-related changes in body composition and not associated with anorexia per se. Therefore, further studies on pathophysiological mechanisms of the anorexia of aging should employ accurate measurement of body fat and lean mass. The anorexia of aging is associated with protein-energy malnutrition, sarcopenia, frailty, functional deterioration, morbidity, and mortality. Since this symptom can lead to dramatic consequences, early identification and effective interventions are needed. One of the most important goals in the geriatric care is to optimize nutritional status of the elderly.
- [A young boy with elevated aminotransferases in physical examination--Two novel missense mutations associated with Wilson's disease were found]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2015 Jul; 17(7):741-3.
A 3-year-old boy had abnormal liver function, which was found in physical examination, for 5 months before admission. He had no symptoms such as anorexia, poor appetite, and jaundice, had normal growth and development, and showed no hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examination revealed significantly reduced ceruloplasmin (35 mg/L), as well as negative hepatotropic virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. There were normal muscle enzymes, blood glucose, and blood ammonia and negative liver-specific autoantibodies. The boy had negative K-F ring and normal 24-hour urine copper (0.56 μmol/L). The ATP7B gene testing for the boy, his sister, and their parents detected two novel missense mutations in the boy and his sister, i.e., compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.2075T>C, p.L692P) and exon 13 (c.3044T>C, p.L1015P), which were inherited from their father and mother, respectively. Wilson's disease was confirmed by genetic diagnosis in the boy and his sister. The boy and his sister were given a low-copper diet. The boy was administered with penicillamine for decoppering and zinc supplement against copper uptake. His sister received zinc supplement alone because no clinical symptoms were observed. The boy showed normal liver function in the reexamination after 3 months of treatment.
- Common behaviors alterations after extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure in rat animal model. [Journal Article]
- Electromagn Biol Med 2016; 35(3):222-7.
Naturally, the presence of electromagnetic waves in our living environment affects all components of organisms, particularly humans and animals, as the large part of their body consists of water. In the present study, we tried to investigate the relation between exposure to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and common behaviors such as body weight, food and water intake, anorexia (poor appetite), plasma glucose concentration, movement, rearing and sniffing in rats. For this purpose, rats were exposed to 40 Hz ELF-EMF once a day for 21 days, then at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after exposure, any changes in the above-mentioned items were assessed in the exposed rats and compared to the non-exposed group as control. Body weight of irradiated rats significantly increased only a week after exposure and decreased after that. No significant change was observed in food and water intake of irradiated rats compared to the control, and the anorexia parameter in the group exposed to ELF-EMF was significantly decreased at one and two weeks after irradiation. A week after exposure, the level of glucose was significantly increased but at other days these changes were not significant. Movements, rearing and sniffing of rats at day 1 after exposure were significantly decreased and other days these changes did not follow any particular pattern. However, the result of this study demonstrated that exposure to ELF-EMF can alter the normal condition of animals and may represent a harmful impact on behavior.
- Assessing protein energy wasting in a Malaysian haemodialysis population using self-reported appetite rating: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Nephrol 2015.:99.
Poor appetite could be indicative of protein energy wasting (PEW) and experts recommend assessing appetite in dialysis patients. Our study aims to determine the relationship between PEW and appetite in haemodialysis (HD) patients.HD patients (n=205) self-rated their appetite on a scale of 1 to 5 as very good (1), good (2), fair (3), poor (4) or very poor (5). Nutritional markers were compared against appetite ratings. Using logistic regression analysis associations between dichotomized appetite with PEW diagnosis were determined as per the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) criteria and alternate objective measures. Data was adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.Poorer appetite ratings were significantly associated with lower income (P = 0.021), lower measurements (P < 0.05) for mid-arm muscle circumference, mid-arm muscle area and lean tissue mass (LTM), serum urea (P = 0.007) and creatinine (P = 0.005). The highest hsCRP (P = 0.016) levels occurred in patients reporting the poorest appetite. Serum albumin did not differ significantly across appetite ratings. Poor oral intake represented by underreporting (EI/BMR < 1.2) was evident for all appetite ratings. PEW was prevalent irrespective of appetite ratings (very good: 17.6 %, good: 40.2 %, fair: 42.3 % and poor: 83.3 %). After dichotomizing appetite ratings into normal and diminished categories, there was a marginal positive association between diminished appetite and overall PEW diagnosis (OR adj: 1.71; 95 % CI: 0.94-3.10, P = 0.079). Amongst individual ISRNM criteria, only BMI < 23 kg/m2 was positively associated with diminished appetite (OR adj: 2.17; 95 % CI: 1.18-3.99). However, patients reporting diminished appetite were more likely to have lower LTM (OR adj: 2.86; 95 % CI: 1.31-6.24) and fat mass (OR adj: 1.91; 95 % CI: 1.03-3.53), lower levels of serum urea (OR adj: 2.74; 95 % CI: 1.49-5.06) and creatinine (OR adj: 1.99; 95 % CI: 1.01-3.92), higher Dialysis Malnutrition Score (OR adj: 2.75; 95 % CI: 1.50-5.03), Malnutrition Inflammation Score (OR adj: 2.15; 95 % CI: 1.17-3.94), and poorer physical (OR adj: 3.49; 95 % CI: 1.89-6.47) and mental (OR adj: 5.75; 95 % CI: 3.02-10.95) scores.A graded but non-significant increase in the proportion of PEW patients occurred as appetite became poorer. However, after dichotomization, a positive but marginally significant association was observed between diminished appetite and PEW diagnosis.
- Cancer cachexia, mechanism and treatment. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Gastrointest Oncol 2015 Apr 15; 7(4):17-29.
It is estimated that half of all patients with cancer eventually develop a syndrome of cachexia, with anorexia and a progressive loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Cancer cachexia is characterized by systemic inflammation, negative protein and energy balance, and an involuntary loss of lean body mass. It is an insidious syndrome that not only has a dramatic impact on patient quality of life, but also is associated with poor responses to chemotherapy and decreased survival. Cachexia is still largely an underestimated and untreated condition, despite the fact that multiple mechanisms are reported to be involved in its development, with a number of cytokines postulated to play a role in the etiology of the persistent catabolic state. Existing therapies for cachexia, including orexigenic appetite stimulants, focus on palliation of symptoms and reduction of the distress of patients and families rather than prolongation of life. Recent therapies for the cachectic syndrome involve a multidisciplinary approach. Combination therapy with diet modification and/or exercise has been added to novel pharmaceutical agents, such as Megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, ghrelin, omega-3-fatty acid among others. These agents are reported to have improved survival rates as well as quality of life. In this review, we will discuss the emerging understanding of the mechanisms of cancer cachexia, the current treatment options including multidisciplinary combination therapies, as well an update on new and ongoing clinical trials.
- Nutrition in cancer patients. [Journal Article]
- Coll Antropol 2014 Dec; 38(4):1271-5.
Cachexia is defined as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10%. Patients with advanced cachexia express anorexia, early satiety, severe weight loss, weakness, anemia, and edema. Anorexia represents the result of a failure of the usual appetite signals whereas cachexia is the debilitating state of involuntary weight loss. This syndrome, referred to as the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome, (CACS) and usually consists of a combination of anorexia, tissue wasting, malnutrition, weight loss and loss of compensatory increase in feeding. CACS represents the result of a complex interaction between cancer growth and host response and is associated with a poor response to chemotherapy and with an increase in drug-related toxicity. In advanced cachexia (mostly in metastatic cancer and terminally disease) any interventions with nutritional suplements are ineffective. Therefore, nutritional support in the reversion of tumor cachexia and in the importance of maintaining patient weight, muscle mass, quality of life, has the exceptional importance, becouse good nutritional status of patients leads to the possibility of more aggressive and longer treatment and thus to longer survival.
- Major barriers responsible for malnutrition in hemodialysis patients: challenges to optimal nutrition. [Journal Article]
- Nephrourol Mon 2014 Nov; 6(6):e23158.
Nutritional barriers may contribute to malnutrition in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Higher rates of morbidity and mortality rates have been reported in malnourished HD patients. These patients are faced with different challenges affecting their nutritional status.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify most important barriers responsible for malnutrition in HD patients.We randomly selected 255 of 800 stable HD patients from three HD centers with an age range of 18-85 years, who had been on hemodialysis for at least three months without any acute illness. Each patient was interviewed to evaluate malnutrition [subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS)], and potential medical, behavioral and socioeconomic barriers. Body composition of patients was checked through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Routine clinical markers of malnutrition such as serum albumin and total protein were measured using standard automated techniques. Binary logistic regression model was used to find the association between nutritional markers and potential barriers.Patients with higher SGA had lower knowledge about general nutrition [odds ratio (OR), 1.3], potassium (OR, 1.89), difficulty chewing (OR, 1.16), and shopping (OR, 1.16). Those with greater MIS scores had poor appetite (OR, 1.3), depression (OR, 1.21), and difficulty with cooking (OR, 1.15). Lower BCM (body cell mass) was associated with poor appetite (OR, 0.92) and needed help for cooking (OR, 0.88). Patients with higher BFMI (body fat mass index) had insufficient general nutrition (OR, 1.15), and protein (OR, 1.27) knowledge, and needed help for shopping (OR, 1.14). Moreover, patients with higher SGA scores were those with older age and longer duration of HD.Three medical barriers (poor appetite, depression and difficulty chewing), one behavioral barrier (poor total nutrition, protein, and potassium knowledge), and one socioeconomic barrier (needing help for shopping and cooking) were independently associated with nutritional markers.