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Anorexia poor appetite [keywords]
- Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jul 27.:CD008190.
Chronic loss of appetite in cystic fibrosis concerns both individuals and families. Appetite stimulants have been used to help cystic fibrosis patients with chronic anorexia attain optimal body mass index and nutritional status. However, these may have adverse effects on clinical status.The aim of this review is to systematically search for and evaluate evidence on the beneficial effects of appetite stimulants in the management of CF-related anorexia and synthesize reports of any side-effects.Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, handsearching reference lists and contacting local and international experts.Last search of online databases: 01 April 2014.Last search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 08 April 2014.Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of appetite stimulants, compared to placebo or no treatment for at least one month in adults and children with cystic fibrosis.Authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias within eligible trials. Meta-analyses were performed.Three trials (total of 47 recruited patients) comparing appetite stimulants (cyproheptadine hydrochloride and megesterol acetate) to placebo were included; the numbers of adults or children within each trial were not always reported. The risk of bias of the included trials was graded as moderate.A meta-analysis of all three trials showed appetite stimulants produced a larger increase in weight z score at three months compared to placebo, mean difference 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.93) (P < 0.001) (n = 40) with no evidence of a difference in effect between two different appetite stimulants. One of these trials also reported a significant weight increase with megesterol acetate compared to placebo at six months (n = 17). The three trials reported no significant differences in forced expiratory volume at one second (per cent predicted) between the appetite stimulant groups and placebo at follow up, with durations ranging from two to nine months. A meta-analysis of two trials showed a significantly higher proportion of patients reporting increased appetite, odds ratio 45.25 (95% confidence interval 3.57 to 573.33) (P = 0.003) (n = 23), but the frequency of reported side effects was undetermined.In the short term (six months) in adults and children, appetite stimulants improved only two of the outcomes in this review - weight (or weight z score) and appetite; and side effects were insufficiently reported to determine the full extent of their impact. Whilst the data may suggest the potential use of appetite stimulants in treating anorexia in adults and children with cystic fibrosis, this is based upon moderate quality data from a small number of trials and so this therapy cannot be conclusively recommended based upon the findings in the review. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential adverse effects of appetite stimulants and actively monitor any patients prescribed these medications accordingly.Research is needed to determine meaningful surrogate measures for appetite and define what constitutes quality weight gain. Future trials of appetite stimulants should use a validated measure of symptoms including a disease-specific instrument for measuring poor appetite. This review highlights the need for multicentred, adequately powered and well-designed trials to evaluate agents to safely increase appetite in people with cystic fibrosis and to establish the optimal mode of treatment.
- Prevalence of 'being at risk of malnutrition' and associated factors in adult patients receiving nursing care at home in Belgium. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Nurs Pract 2014 May 9.
Malnutrition is a known problem in hospitals and nursing homes. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of being at risk of malnutrition in community living adults receiving homecare nursing and to determine factors independently associated with this risk of malnutrition. Furthermore, it also aimed to describe aspects of current nutritional nursing care. Patients (n = 100) are screened with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool to evaluate their risk of malnutrition. A patient survey was used to analyse associated factors. In this population, 29% are at risk for malnutrition. Following a multivariate logistic regression analysis, 'loss of appetite' proved the most important factor. A survey for nurses (n = 61) revealed low awareness, poor knowledge, poor communication between stakeholders and a moderate approach of malnutrition. These findings should encourage homecare nurses to use a recommended screening tool for malnutrition and to actively observe and report loss of appetite to initiate the prescription of individual tailored interventions. Belgian homecare nurses' management does not yet fully comply with international recommendations. Additional training in nutritional nursing care and screening methods for malnutrition is needed. Systematic screening should be further developed and evaluated in this at-risk population.
- ANTHROPOMETRICS IDENTIFY WASTING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR ENCAPSULATING PERITONEAL SCLEROSIS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Perit Dial Int 2014 Mar 1.
Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis in which gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms reduce appetite and dietary intake. Adequate nutrition is important, especially if surgery is required. Although the incidence of EPS is low, the present report is able to detail preoperative nutrition status and treatment in a large cohort of patients from a national EPS referral center. ♢ METHODS: Of 51 patients admitted to this EPS specialist center hospital for their first peritonectomy in the study period, 50 had a preoperative dietetic assessment, and 49 underwent upper-arm anthropometry. ♢ RESULTS: Mean body mass index (BMI) was 20.6 kg/m(2). Mean weight loss was 14% of body weight in the preceding 6 months, with 35 of 50 patients losing more than 10%. On anthropometry, 25 of 49 patients were below the 5th percentile for mid-arm circumference (MAC), 17 of 49 were below for triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and 21 of 49 were below for mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC). Mean handgrip strength (HGS) was 60% of normal, with 43 of 49 patients being below 85% of normal. Appetite was poor in 21 of 50 patients, and 37 of 50 had upper and 40 of 50 had lower GI symptoms. By subjective global assessment, 27 of 51 patients were graded as severely malnourished, and 5 of 51, as well-nourished. Mean serum albumin was 28 g/L and did not correlate with BMI, MAC, TSF, MAMC, or HGS. In most patients, C-reactive protein was elevated (mean: 111 mg/L). Preoperative parenteral nutrition was given to 46 of 51 patients for a mean of 21 days. ♢ Discussion: Our findings demonstrate the poor nutrition status of patients admitted for EPS surgical intervention. Anthropometrics reveal depleted fat and lean body mass in EPS patients, which might be a result of anorexia and inflammation, and the reason that albumin was not an accurate marker of nutrition. Poor nutrition status is likely to negatively affect outcome in this patient group. ♢ CONCLUSIONS: Early recognition of GI symptoms may herald a diagnosis of EPS. Optimization of preoperative nutrition status with intensive nutrition support is needed.
- [Systemic and local mechanisms leading to cachexia in cancer]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2013.:1397-409.
Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome of atrophy of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, resulting in progressive loss of body weight associated with low quality of life and poor prognosis in cancer. Studies on experimental animal models and observations on patients have shown that the soluble factors secreted by tumor cells and tissues of the patient can participate in regulation of the wasting process. Cachexia is often accompanied by anorexia, which is caused by predominance of signals inhibiting appetite in the hypothalamus, such as release of proopiomelanocortin and anorexigenic action of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α). Cachexia is also accompanied by extensive metabolic changes consisting of increase of resting energy expenditure and disturbance of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Increased expression of protein uncoupling phosphorylation leads to increased thermogenesis in skeletal muscle. Tumor tissue hypoxia caused by its growth beyond blood vessels activates the transcription factor HIF-1, which results in increase in glycolysis, and leads to lactic acid accumulation and activation of the energy inefficient Cori cycle. Loss of fat tissue is caused by increase of lipolysis induced by lipid-mobilizing factor (LMF) and proinflammatory cytokines. Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia is caused by a reduction of protein synthesis at the stage of initiation and elongation of translation and the simultaneous increase of protein degradation via ubiquitin-dependent and lysosomal pathways. The main mediators of skeletal muscle wasting in cancer are proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), proinflammatory cytokines, and angiotensin II acting through increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor NF-κB activation, as well as glucocorticoid activated FOXO transcription factors and myostatin. Understanding of the complexity of the interaction of factors produced by the tumor and the patient's body may form the basis for the development of effective treatments for cachexia in cancer and other pathological conditions.
- Anorexia of aging: a modifiable risk factor for frailty. [Journal Article]
- Nutrients 2013 Oct; 5(10):4126-33.
Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.
- Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Indian J Pharmacol 2013 May-Jun; 45(3):217-22.
Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer.To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy.A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Oncology Clinic, Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil from September 2007 to July 2009. Forty six patients with BC, Stage II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day) or placebo. Patients were evaluated during treatment period.Patient supplemented with A. sylvaticus improved in clinical parameters and gastrointestinal functions. Poor appetite decreased by 20% with no changes in bowel functions (92.8%), nausea and vomiting (80%).Dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus improved nutritional status and reduced abnormal bowel functions, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with BC receiving chemotherapy.
- The role of ghrelin in anorexia-cachexia syndromes. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Review]
- Vitam Horm 2013.:61-106.
Anorexia, sarcopenia, and cachexia are common complications of many chronic conditions including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV infection, aging, and chronic lung, heart, or kidney disease. Currently, there is no effective treatment for muscle atrophy or wasting conditions although they typically take a significant toll on the quality of life of patients and are associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. Ghrelin affects multiple key pathways in the regulation of body weight, body composition, and appetite in the setting of cachexia that may lead to an increase in appetite and growth hormone secretion and a reduction in energy expenditure and inflammation. The net effect is increased lean body mass and fat mass preservation. In this chapter, we review the mechanisms of action of ghrelin and present the available data in animal models and human trials using ghrelin or ghrelin mimetics in different settings of cachexia.
- Anorexia and hypothalamic degeneration. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Vitam Horm 2013.:27-60.
Anorexia, meaning poor appetite, occurs in many human conditions, for example, anorexia nervosa, cachexia, and failure to thrive in infants. A key player in the regulation of appetite/food intake in general, as well as conditions of anorexia, is the hypothalamus, in particular, the AGRP/NPY and POMC/CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus. In this chapter, we review the hypothalamic aberrances seen in the anorectic anx/anx mouse. This mouse displays deviations in neuropeptidergic/-transmitter systems, including selective hypothalamic degeneration and inflammation that have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we discuss data from other animal models, as well as clinical data relating hypothalamic inflammation/degeneration, neurogenesis, and mitochondrial dysfunction to conditions of disturbed regulation of food intake.
- Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Am Med Dir Assoc 2013 Sep; 14(9):642-8.
Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people.
- Malnutrition in older adults - urgent need for action: a plea for improving the nutritional situation of older adults. [Journal Article, Review]
- Gerontology 2013; 59(4):328-33.
During the past decades, malnutrition has attracted increasing scientific attention and is by now regarded as a true geriatric syndrome characterized by multifactorial causality, identified by symptoms and accompanied by frailty, disability and poor outcome. This viewpoint summarizes our present knowledge and the usual current handling of malnutrition in older people and highlights the urgent need for action in this field. Age-related changes in the complex system of appetite regulation, resulting in the so-called anorexia of aging, predispose older adults to a decrease in food intake which may lead to malnutrition, if additional risk factors like health or social problems occur. Consequently, malnutrition is widespread in the older population, notably in those who are institutionalized. Despite the fact that effective interventions are available, prevention and treatment of malnutrition do not currently receive appropriate attention. As an important first step towards better awareness, screening for malnutrition should become a mandatory integral part of the comprehensive geriatric assessment. Furthermore, practical local guidelines should be implemented in all geriatric hospital wards and nursing homes in order to improve nutritional care in the daily routine. Important to note is that reasonable nutritional management is not possible without qualified staff in adequate numbers allowing appropriate individual nutritional care. Regarding future research, studies at the cellular, metabolic and clinical levels and the linking of information from different research approaches are required to better understand the transition from good nutritional health and independence of old people to malnutrition, functional impairment and poor health. In parallel to well-designed observational and intervention studies, standardized documentation of nutritional information in daily routine would enable the uniform collection of data for research as well as for political decisions. In summary, the time is ripe for better inclusion of nutrition in geriatric health care. This will not only bring about improved nutritional status and outcome, and thus individual benefit for the affected person, but also economic benefits both for the institution and the health-care system.