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Anorexia poor appetite [keywords]
- A mixed-methods qualitative research study to develop a complex intervention for weight loss and anorexia in advanced cancer: The Family Approach to Weight and Eating. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Palliat Med 2014 Dec 12.
Worldwide, most people with incurable cancer experience weight loss and anorexia. These symptoms can distress patients and their family caregivers. Interventions that take account of the relationship between patient and family caregiver may improve outcomes for both members of this dyad.To report an example of process for the development of a complex intervention, the Family Approach to Weight and Eating.A mixed-methods process informed by the Medical Research Council's guidelines for developing a complex intervention was used to develop a psychosocial intervention for patients with incurable cancer and weight loss or poor appetite and their family caregivers and then to test for its feasibility, acceptability and perceived benefit.South of England in 2010/2011.A purposive sample of patient-family caregiver dyads under the care of a specialist community palliative care team. Patient participants had incurable cancer and were cachectic or at risk of cachexia.The patient-family caregiver dyads comprised seven female and nine male patients (age range 41-84 years) and their carers. The emergent form of the Family Approach to Weight and Eating was found to aid family talk about food, feelings and reciprocity, without adverse consequences. Of the dyads, 15 reported benefits of the Family Approach to Weight and Eating. Three patient participants spoke of the approach evoking sadness and three carers of guilt.The Family Approach to Weight and Eating should now be tested in a pilot trial and the effect on emotional health outcomes in patients and their family caregivers evaluated.
- Correlation Between Nutritional Markers and Appetite Self-Assessments in Hemodialysis Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ren Nutr 2014 Dec 9.
Protein-energy malnutrition is among the comorbidities that most strongly affect the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease. Anorexia, defined as a loss of desire to eat, is one cause of such malnutrition. Tools that evaluate appetite and the correlation between appetite and nutritional parameters require further study. To evaluate the appetite status in patients from 2 hemodialysis clinics in Fortaleza, Brazil and the correlations between appetite (evaluated in the past week and in the past 4 weeks) and demographic, laboratory, and nutritional parameters.This was a cross-sectional study of patients aged ≥18 years who had undergone dialysis for >3 months. Appetite was evaluated using the first 3 questions of the Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool (ADAT) questionnaire, which evaluate the appetite status during the past week as well as 1 question from the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life™ Short Form that assesses appetite in the past 4 weeks. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the degree of appetite: group 1: very good and good appetite (ADAT) or not and somewhat (Kidney Disease and Quality of Life™ Short Form); group 2: fair or moderately; and group 3: poor and very poor, or very much and extremely. The nutritional parameters evaluated were body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and lean body mass index (lean mass in kilogram per square meter) as obtained by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients with a BMI <23 kg/m(2), albumin <4 g/dL, GNRI <98, and lean body mass index below the lowest quartile were considered malnourished. The associations between appetite and nutritional variables were tested using Fisher exact test and by comparing the means of the variables in the 3 groups using the analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests.A total of 136 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 50.9 years and a median time on dialysis of 45 months; 57% of the patients were male. Regarding the first question on the ADAT questionnaire, 36% of patients exhibited anorexia in the past week. Furthermore, 28.7% of the population reported a lack of appetite in the last month. Moreover, 34.3% of the patients were considered malnourished according to BMI, 34.1% according to albumin, and 31.6% according to GNRI. Among the studied variables, the mean values of the following variables were different between groups 1, 2, and 3: hemoglobin (P = .0186), creatinine (P = .0392), albumin (P = .0065), GNRI (P = .0274), and lean BMI (P = .0274).The prevalence of a lack of appetite in hemodialysis patients in both the past week and the past month was high in the present study. The questionnaire evaluating appetite in the last 4 weeks could be used as a malnutrition screening tool in hemodialysis patients as suggested by the correlation of decreased appetite in the last month with variables that assess nutritional status such as albumin, lean body mass index, and GNRI.
- Brief versions of the FACIT-fatigue and FAACT subscales for patients with non-small cell lung cancer cachexia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Support Care Cancer 2014 Oct 29.
Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is common in advanced cancer patients and associated with weight loss, fatigue, impaired quality of life (QoL), and poor prognosis. The goal of this project was to identify the most responsive items from two QoL measures in the ROMANA 2 (NCT01387282) phase III global study evaluating anamorelin HCl in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cachexia: the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT).In the ROMANA 2 trial, 477 patients with unresectable stage III or IV NSCLC and cachexia were to be enrolled and randomized (2:1) to receive anamorelin HCl or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. All 203 patients who reached the week 12 visit at the time of data analysis were included. Co-primary endpoints were change from baseline in lean body mass and handgrip strength. QoL was a secondary outcome with FACIT-F and FAACT questionnaires administered at baseline and at weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12.Two 4-item scales (fatigue/activity and appetite/eating) from the FACIT-F and FAACT questionnaires, respectively, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability, validity, and responsiveness (also referred to as the Simplified Evaluation of Fatigue (SEF) and Simplified Evaluation of Appetite (SEA), respectively). The estimated important difference for each scale was 1-2 points.These brief scales provide the psychometric properties necessary to promote future research in NSCLC patients with CACS. Additional work should examine the clinical utility of these scales and their impact on treatment decision-making.
- Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in six harbor seals (Phoca vitulina spp.). [Journal Article]
- J Zoo Wildl Med 2014 Sep; 45(3):620-31.
Six cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were identified in six captive adult Pacific (Phoca vitulina richardsii; n = 2) and Atlantic (Phoca vitulina concolor; n = 4) harbor seals. These seals presented with intermittent dysphagia, regurgitation, inappetence, and abnormal posturing. Common clinical pathology findings in these seals included azotemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, and leukocytosis. Gastrointestinal endoscopy commonly revealed an ulcerated mass near the gastroesophageal junction. Each seal was euthanized (n = 3) due to poor prognosis, subsequently died while undergoing an anesthetic procedure (n = 2), or found dead (n = 1). The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed via biopsy of esophageal mucosa during endoscopy or histopathologic examination of affected tissues after necropsy. On the basis of clinical and postmortem findings, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in aged harbor seals exhibiting clinical signs of regurgitation, decreased appetite or anorexia, vomiting, and/or abnormal posturing.
- Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jul 27.:CD008190.
Chronic loss of appetite in cystic fibrosis concerns both individuals and families. Appetite stimulants have been used to help cystic fibrosis patients with chronic anorexia attain optimal body mass index and nutritional status. However, these may have adverse effects on clinical status.The aim of this review is to systematically search for and evaluate evidence on the beneficial effects of appetite stimulants in the management of CF-related anorexia and synthesize reports of any side-effects.Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, handsearching reference lists and contacting local and international experts.Last search of online databases: 01 April 2014.Last search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 08 April 2014.Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of appetite stimulants, compared to placebo or no treatment for at least one month in adults and children with cystic fibrosis.Authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias within eligible trials. Meta-analyses were performed.Three trials (total of 47 recruited patients) comparing appetite stimulants (cyproheptadine hydrochloride and megesterol acetate) to placebo were included; the numbers of adults or children within each trial were not always reported. The risk of bias of the included trials was graded as moderate.A meta-analysis of all three trials showed appetite stimulants produced a larger increase in weight z score at three months compared to placebo, mean difference 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.93) (P < 0.001) (n = 40) with no evidence of a difference in effect between two different appetite stimulants. One of these trials also reported a significant weight increase with megesterol acetate compared to placebo at six months (n = 17). The three trials reported no significant differences in forced expiratory volume at one second (per cent predicted) between the appetite stimulant groups and placebo at follow up, with durations ranging from two to nine months. A meta-analysis of two trials showed a significantly higher proportion of patients reporting increased appetite, odds ratio 45.25 (95% confidence interval 3.57 to 573.33) (P = 0.003) (n = 23), but the frequency of reported side effects was undetermined.In the short term (six months) in adults and children, appetite stimulants improved only two of the outcomes in this review - weight (or weight z score) and appetite; and side effects were insufficiently reported to determine the full extent of their impact. Whilst the data may suggest the potential use of appetite stimulants in treating anorexia in adults and children with cystic fibrosis, this is based upon moderate quality data from a small number of trials and so this therapy cannot be conclusively recommended based upon the findings in the review. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential adverse effects of appetite stimulants and actively monitor any patients prescribed these medications accordingly.Research is needed to determine meaningful surrogate measures for appetite and define what constitutes quality weight gain. Future trials of appetite stimulants should use a validated measure of symptoms including a disease-specific instrument for measuring poor appetite. This review highlights the need for multicentred, adequately powered and well-designed trials to evaluate agents to safely increase appetite in people with cystic fibrosis and to establish the optimal mode of treatment.
- Prevalence of 'being at risk of malnutrition' and associated factors in adult patients receiving nursing care at home in Belgium. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Nurs Pract 2014 May 9.
Malnutrition is a known problem in hospitals and nursing homes. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of being at risk of malnutrition in community living adults receiving homecare nursing and to determine factors independently associated with this risk of malnutrition. Furthermore, it also aimed to describe aspects of current nutritional nursing care. Patients (n = 100) are screened with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool to evaluate their risk of malnutrition. A patient survey was used to analyse associated factors. In this population, 29% are at risk for malnutrition. Following a multivariate logistic regression analysis, 'loss of appetite' proved the most important factor. A survey for nurses (n = 61) revealed low awareness, poor knowledge, poor communication between stakeholders and a moderate approach of malnutrition. These findings should encourage homecare nurses to use a recommended screening tool for malnutrition and to actively observe and report loss of appetite to initiate the prescription of individual tailored interventions. Belgian homecare nurses' management does not yet fully comply with international recommendations. Additional training in nutritional nursing care and screening methods for malnutrition is needed. Systematic screening should be further developed and evaluated in this at-risk population.
- ANTHROPOMETRICS IDENTIFY WASTING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR ENCAPSULATING PERITONEAL SCLEROSIS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Perit Dial Int 2014 Mar 1.
Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis in which gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms reduce appetite and dietary intake. Adequate nutrition is important, especially if surgery is required. Although the incidence of EPS is low, the present report is able to detail preoperative nutrition status and treatment in a large cohort of patients from a national EPS referral center. ♢ METHODS: Of 51 patients admitted to this EPS specialist center hospital for their first peritonectomy in the study period, 50 had a preoperative dietetic assessment, and 49 underwent upper-arm anthropometry. ♢ RESULTS: Mean body mass index (BMI) was 20.6 kg/m(2). Mean weight loss was 14% of body weight in the preceding 6 months, with 35 of 50 patients losing more than 10%. On anthropometry, 25 of 49 patients were below the 5th percentile for mid-arm circumference (MAC), 17 of 49 were below for triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and 21 of 49 were below for mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC). Mean handgrip strength (HGS) was 60% of normal, with 43 of 49 patients being below 85% of normal. Appetite was poor in 21 of 50 patients, and 37 of 50 had upper and 40 of 50 had lower GI symptoms. By subjective global assessment, 27 of 51 patients were graded as severely malnourished, and 5 of 51, as well-nourished. Mean serum albumin was 28 g/L and did not correlate with BMI, MAC, TSF, MAMC, or HGS. In most patients, C-reactive protein was elevated (mean: 111 mg/L). Preoperative parenteral nutrition was given to 46 of 51 patients for a mean of 21 days. ♢ Discussion: Our findings demonstrate the poor nutrition status of patients admitted for EPS surgical intervention. Anthropometrics reveal depleted fat and lean body mass in EPS patients, which might be a result of anorexia and inflammation, and the reason that albumin was not an accurate marker of nutrition. Poor nutrition status is likely to negatively affect outcome in this patient group. ♢ CONCLUSIONS: Early recognition of GI symptoms may herald a diagnosis of EPS. Optimization of preoperative nutrition status with intensive nutrition support is needed.
- [Systemic and local mechanisms leading to cachexia in cancer]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2013.:1397-409.
Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome of atrophy of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, resulting in progressive loss of body weight associated with low quality of life and poor prognosis in cancer. Studies on experimental animal models and observations on patients have shown that the soluble factors secreted by tumor cells and tissues of the patient can participate in regulation of the wasting process. Cachexia is often accompanied by anorexia, which is caused by predominance of signals inhibiting appetite in the hypothalamus, such as release of proopiomelanocortin and anorexigenic action of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α). Cachexia is also accompanied by extensive metabolic changes consisting of increase of resting energy expenditure and disturbance of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Increased expression of protein uncoupling phosphorylation leads to increased thermogenesis in skeletal muscle. Tumor tissue hypoxia caused by its growth beyond blood vessels activates the transcription factor HIF-1, which results in increase in glycolysis, and leads to lactic acid accumulation and activation of the energy inefficient Cori cycle. Loss of fat tissue is caused by increase of lipolysis induced by lipid-mobilizing factor (LMF) and proinflammatory cytokines. Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia is caused by a reduction of protein synthesis at the stage of initiation and elongation of translation and the simultaneous increase of protein degradation via ubiquitin-dependent and lysosomal pathways. The main mediators of skeletal muscle wasting in cancer are proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), proinflammatory cytokines, and angiotensin II acting through increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor NF-κB activation, as well as glucocorticoid activated FOXO transcription factors and myostatin. Understanding of the complexity of the interaction of factors produced by the tumor and the patient's body may form the basis for the development of effective treatments for cachexia in cancer and other pathological conditions.
- Anorexia of aging: a modifiable risk factor for frailty. [Journal Article]
- Nutrients 2013 Oct; 5(10):4126-33.
Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.
- Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Indian J Pharmacol 2013 May-Jun; 45(3):217-22.
Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer.To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy.A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Oncology Clinic, Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil from September 2007 to July 2009. Forty six patients with BC, Stage II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day) or placebo. Patients were evaluated during treatment period.Patient supplemented with A. sylvaticus improved in clinical parameters and gastrointestinal functions. Poor appetite decreased by 20% with no changes in bowel functions (92.8%), nausea and vomiting (80%).Dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus improved nutritional status and reduced abnormal bowel functions, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with BC receiving chemotherapy.