- Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in subgroups of obese infertile women: a subgroup analysis of a RCT. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Reprod 2016; 31(12):2704-2713
- Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women?
Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women?
- Puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, and postpartum ovulation in captive Sichuan golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on changes in urinary and fecal gonadal steroid metabolites. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2017 Jan 1; 87:179-186
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14.7 ± 4.8, 10.4 ± 2.8, and 25.1 ± 3.3 days, respectively. The first ovulation (puberty) in a female monkey was observed at 5.1 years old, and the first pregnancy was diagnosed at 6.4 years old. For the first 2 months of pregnancy (204 days), fecal E2 and PdG maintained constant high values and then increased until parturition. These profiles were similar to urinary E2G and PdG changes. During the last trimester of a twin pregnancy, fecal PdG was up to approximately three times higher compared with a single pregnancy. Therefore, fecal PdG levels in late pregnancy may be effective for the detection of a twin pregnancy. The first postpartum ovulation occurred 66 (fetal death and artificial rearing), 143 (fetal death), and 189 (natural suckling) days after parturition. The anovulation period of the natural suckling case was longer than the others. Conception and postpartum ovulation were detected between September and January. Fecal testosterone levels of the male were correlated with the fecal E2 level of the nonpregnancy period in exhibited together female. Our results reported that urinary (E2G and PdG) and fecal (E2 and PdG) hormone measurement is effective for monitoring the reproductive status, thereby expanding knowledge of the reproductive endocrinology of this endangered species.
- [Polycystic ovary sindrome: impact on reproductive and material fetal health]. [Journal Article]
- RFRev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 2016; 73(2):102-13
- CONCLUSIONS: patients with PCOS have a higher risk for complications during pregnancy and newborns more frequently have low weight or macrosomy. A careful history can recognize patients with higher perinatal risk to develop complications.
- Evolutionary determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome: part 1. [Review]
- FSFertil Steril 2016; 106(1):33-41
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex genetic disorder that develops under varying degrees of hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions that cause phenotypic variability ra...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex genetic disorder that develops under varying degrees of hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions that cause phenotypic variability ranging from mild hirsutism to anovulation and infertility. In addition to increased risk of reproductive disability, PCOS is associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar prevalence rates and shared genetic susceptibility of PCOS among different populations suggest that genetic risk factors were already present in the ancestors of humans. Contemporary human genetic studies inform us that the origin of human ancestors is from Africa. Sharing common susceptibility loci between Chinese and European ancestry suggests that PCOS may have persisted for more than 50,000 years, before the migration of humans out of Africa. Although PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, its high prevalence is still a paradox. From an evolutionary perspective, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PCOS might be candidate factors for survival advantage of the human being. Former compensatory advantageous factors may become pathogenic mechanisms underlying complex metabolic disease with prolonged life expectancy and transition to sedentary lifestyle.
- What affects functional ovarian reserve, thyroid function or thyroid autoimmunity? [Journal Article]
- RBReprod Biol Endocrinol 2016 May 10; 14(1):26
- CONCLUSIONS: Even after adjustment for thyroid autoimmunity and age, TSH <3.0μIU/mL in euthyroid infertility patients is associated with significantly better FOR (higher AMH) than TSH ≥3.0μIU/mL. This observation suggests a direct beneficial effect of lower TSH levels on follicular recruitment, and warrants investigations of thyroxin supplementation in infertile women with TSH levels ≥3.0μIU/mL in attempts to improve FOR.
- Diagnostic criteria for PCOS: Is there a need for a rethink? [Review]
- BPBest Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2016; 37:5-11
- The diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been grouped in different classifications that have been conflicting for many years. At present, the classification of Rotterdam is...
The diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been grouped in different classifications that have been conflicting for many years. At present, the classification of Rotterdam is the most used, but with varying frequency depending on the country and medical specialties. This classification is now >10 years old. Although its fundamental principle (two criteria required out of three) is still valid, each of its three items (oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA), and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM)) needs to be updated. The definition of biological HA is still unresolved. The criteria used to define OA are insufficient. The definition of PCOM proposed in 2003 is now obsolete when using the latest generation of ultrasound machines. The serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) assay seems increasingly to be an excellent substitute for follicular count and is likely to emerge as the official PCOM marker. A new consensus conference is urgently needed.
- The role of anti-Müllerian hormone in the pathogenesis and pathophysiological characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome. [Review]
- EJEur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016; 199:82-7
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the major causes of anovulatory infertility. High levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum of PCOS patients participate in the major steps of t...
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the major causes of anovulatory infertility. High levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum of PCOS patients participate in the major steps of the anovulation, and are related to pathogenesis and pathophysiological characteristic of PCOS, including the interactions of AMH with intra/extra ovarian factors like FSH, LH, androgen, and estrogen, as well as the role of AMH in folliculogenesis of PCOS. AMH promotes follicular atresia which may participate in the follicle pattern in PCOS patients. Recent years, the abnormally increased AMH in serum and follicle fluid of PCOS patients have attracted many scholars' attention. In this review, we summarized the role of AMH played in PCOS patients. It is of great significance for clarifying the role of AMH in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS patients because AMH has the potential to increase our understanding of ovarian pathophysiology and to guide the clinical management of a broader range of conditions.
- Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome and its associated complications in Iranian women: A meta-analysis. [Review]
- IJIran J Reprod Med 2015; 13(10):591-604
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PCOS in Iran is not high. However, given the risk of complications such as heart disease - cardiovascular and infertility, prevention of PCOS is important; we suggest that health officials must submit plans for the community in this respect.
- The Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents. [Review]
- PedPediatrics 2015; 136(6):1154-65
- Consensus has recently been reached by international pediatric subspecialty societies that otherwise unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation using age- and stage-appropriate standards are ...
Consensus has recently been reached by international pediatric subspecialty societies that otherwise unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation using age- and stage-appropriate standards are appropriate diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. The purpose of this review is to summarize these recommendations and discuss their basis and implications. Anovulation is indicated by abnormal uterine bleeding, which exists when menstrual cycle length is outside the normal range or bleeding is excessive: cycles outside 19 to 90 days are always abnormal, and most are 21 to 45 days even during the first postmenarcheal year. Continued menstrual abnormality in a hyperandrogenic adolescent for 1 year prognosticates at least 50% risk of persistence. Hyperandrogenism is best indicated by persistent elevation of serum testosterone above adult norms as determined in a reliable reference laboratory. Because hyperandrogenemia documentation can be problematic, moderate-severe hirsutism constitutes clinical evidence of hyperandrogenism. Moderate-severe inflammatory acne vulgaris unresponsive to topical treatment is an indication to test for hyperandrogenemia. Treatment of PCOS is symptom-directed. Cyclic estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives are ordinarily the preferred first-line medical treatment because they reliably improve both the menstrual abnormality and hyperandrogenism. First-line treatment of the comorbidities of obesity and insulin resistance is lifestyle modification with calorie restriction and increased exercise. Metformin in conjunction with behavior modification is indicated for glucose intolerance. Although persistence of hyperandrogenic anovulation for ≥2 years ensures the distinction of PCOS from physiologic anovulation, early workup is advisable to make a provisional diagnosis so that combined oral contraceptive treatment, which will mask diagnosis by suppressing hyperandrogenemia, is not unnecessarily delayed.
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- AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME--PART 1. [Practice Guideline]
- EPEndocr Pract 2015; 21(11):1291-300
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Associat...
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AES) aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2015. PCOS has been defined using various criteria, including menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM). General agreement exists among specialty society guidelines that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological) and polycystic ovaries. There is need for careful clinical assessment of women's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, emphasizing the accuracy and validity of the methodology used for both biochemical measurements and ovarian imaging. Free testosterone (T) levels are more sensitive than the measurement of total T for establishing the existence of androgen excess and should be ideally determined through equilibrium dialysis techniques. Value of measuring levels of androgens other than T in patients with PCOS is relatively low. New ultrasound machines allow diagnosis of PCOM in patients having at least 25 small follicles (2 to 9 mm) in the whole ovary. Ovarian size at 10 mL remains the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone are useful for determining a diagnosis of PCOS. Correct diagnosis of PCOS impacts on the likelihood of associated metabolic and cardiovascular risks and leads to appropriate intervention, depending upon the woman's age, reproductive status, and her own concerns. The management of women with PCOS should include reproductive function, as well as the care of hirsutism, alopecia, and acne. Cycle length >35 days suggests chronic anovulation, but cycle length slightly longer than normal (32 to 35 days) or slightly irregular (32 to 35-36 days) needs assessment for ovulatory dysfunction. Ovulatory dysfunction is associated with increased prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, in addition to infertility. In PCOS, hirsutism develops gradually and intensifies with weight gain. In the neoplastic virilizing states, hirsutism is of rapid onset, usually associated with clitoromegaly and oligomenorrhea. Girls with severe acne or acne resistant to oral and topical agents, including isotretinoin (Accutane), may have a 40% likelihood of developing PCOS. Hair loss patterns are variable in women with hyperandrogenemia, typically the vertex, crown or diffuse pattern, whereas women with more severe hyperandrogenemia may see bitemporal hair loss and loss of the frontal hairline. Oral contraceptives (OCPs) can effectively lower androgens and block the effect of androgens via suppression of ovarian androgen production and by increasing sex hormone-binding globulin. Physiologic doses of dexamethasone or prednisone can directly lower adrenal androgen output. Anti-androgens can be used to block the effects of androgen in the pilosebaceous unit or in the hair follicle. Anti-androgen therapy works through competitive antagonism of the androgen receptor (spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, flutamide) or inhibition of 5α-reductase (finasteride) to prevent the conversion of T to its more potent form, 5α-dihydrotestosterone. The choice of antiandrogen therapy is guided by symptoms. The diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents is particularly challenging given significant age and developmental issues in this group. Management of infertility in women with PCOS requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of anovulation as well as currently available treatments. Many features of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularities, and hyperinsulinemia, are common in normal puberty. Menstrual irregularities with anovulatory cycles and varied cycle length are common due to the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in the 2- to 3-year time period post-menarche. Persistent oligomenorrhea 2 to 3 years beyond menarche predicts ongoing menstrual irregularities and greater likelihood of underlying ovarian or adrenal dysfunction. In adolescent girls, large, multicystic ovaries are a common finding, so ultrasound is not a first-line investigation in women <17 years of age. Ovarian dysfunction in adolescents should be based on oligomenorrhea and/or biochemical evidence of oligo/anovulation, but there are major limitations to the sensitivity of T assays in ranges applicable to young girls. Metformin is commonly used in young girls and adolescents with PCOS as first-line monotherapy or in combination with OCPs and anti-androgen medications. In lean adolescent girls, a dose as low as 850 mg daily may be effective at reducing PCOS symptoms; in overweight and obese adolescents, dose escalation to 1.5 to 2.5 g daily is likely required. Anti-androgen therapy in adolescents could affect bone mass, although available short-term data suggest no effect on bone loss.