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- Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes following luteal GnRH antagonist administration in patients with severe early OHSS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Reprod 2013 Apr 26.
STUDY QUESTION: Do high-risk patients who develop severe early ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and receive low-dose GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase have lower live birth rates compared with high-risk patients who do not develop severe early OHSS and do not receive GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase? SUMMARY ANSWER: Low-dose luteal GnRH antagonist administration in women with severe early OHSS is associated with similar live birth rates to that of high-risk patients who do not develop severe early OHSS and do not receive GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It has been reported that luteal GnRH antagonist administration in patients with established severe early OHSS appears to prevent patient hospitalization and results in quick regression of the syndrome on an outpatient basis. However, the effect of such treatment on pregnancy outcome has been investigated in only a small number of animal studies.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a prospective cohort study of 192 IVF patients who were at high risk for OHSS and who did not wish to cancel embryo transfer and have all embryos cryopreserved. The study was conducted between January 2009 and December 2011 at Eugonia Assisted Reproduction Unit. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING,
METHODS:Patients were <40 years of age, with polycystic ovaries, at high risk for OHSS (defined by the presence of at least 20 follicles ≥11 mm on the day of triggering of final oocyte maturation) and not willing to cancel embryo transfer and cryopreserve all embryos, if severe early OHSS was diagnosed by Day 5 of embryo culture. Patients who were diagnosed with severe early OHSS on Day 5 post-oocyte retrieval were administered 0.25 mg of ganirelix for 3 days, from Day 5 until and including Day 7 (OHSS + antag group, n = 22). High-risk patients who did not develop the severe early OHSS did not receive GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase (control group, n = 172). All patients underwent embryo transfer on Day 5. MAIN
RESULTSAND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Live birth rates (40.9 versus 43.6%), ongoing pregnancy rates (45.5 versus 48.8%), clinical pregnancy rates (50 versus 65.1%), positive hCG (72.7 versus 75%), duration of gestation (36.86 ± 0.90 weeks versus 36.88 ± 2.38 weeks) and neonatal weight (2392.73 ± 427.04 versus 2646.56 ± 655.74 g) were all similar in the OHSS + antag and control groups, respectively. The incidence of major congenital malformations was 2.9% (3/103) in children born in the control group compared with no cases (0/14) in children born following luteal GnRH antagonist administration. No stillbirths or intrauterine deaths, and no cases of pregnancy-induced late OHSS were recorded in either group. None of the 22 patients with severe early OHSS required hospitalization following luteal antagonist administration. Ovarian volume, ascites, hematocrit, white blood cell count, serum estradiol and progesterone decreased significantly (P < 0.001) by the end of the monitoring period (Day 11 post-oocyte retrieval), indicating rapid resolution of the severe OHSS. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This is a prospective cohort investigation with a very limited number of patients receiving the intervention and a larger number of control patients. Our findings suggest that low-dose luteal GnRH antagonist administration during the peri-implantation period may be safe, although larger studies with follow-up of the children born are required. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE
FINDINGS:Our study suggests for the first time that low-dose luteal GnRH antagonist administration in women with severe early OHSS is associated with a favourable IVF outcome, comparable to control high-risk patients without severe OHSS and not receiving the intervention. Regarding the wider implications on the concept of an OHSS-free clinic, administration of GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase may present a tertiary management level in patients with established severe OHSS, along with the use of GnRH antagonist protocols for primary prevention and the replacement of hCG with GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation for secondary prevention. However, at present, fresh embryo transfer combined with antagonist administration should only be used with caution by experienced practitioners, after carefully deciding which patients can have a fresh transfer or embryo cryopreservation, until the current data are confirmed by larger trials. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No external funding was sought for this study and the authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
- HOXA10 protein expression in the endometrium of normally menstruating women after receiving GnRH antagonist. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013 Mar 28.
OBJECTIVE(S): To compare HOXA10 protein expression in the endometrium between natural control cycles and GnRH antagonist-treated cycles obtained during the window of implantation of normally menstruating women.
STUDY DESIGN:This study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Thirty-five volunteers were recruited into this prospective, self-controlled study, which was divided into two cycles, the first a natural control cycle and the second a GnRH antagonist-treated cycle. The two cycles were separated by one resting cycle. In the GnRH antagonist-treated cycle, when the leading follicle was 15mm, ganirelix (Orgalutran(®)) 0.25mg was administered daily. In both cycles, ovulation was induced when the largest follicle reached 18mm in diameter. Finally, endometrial biopsy was performed on day 6 after documented ovulation, which corresponds to the window of implantation. Endometrial HOXA10 protein expression, a marker of endometrial receptivity, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression was compared between the two cycles regarding their percentage of immunostained cells and IHC-scores (percentage of stained cells×intensity of nuclear staining).
RESULTS:HOXA10 protein was exclusively localized in the stromal compartment of the endometrium. The percentage of HOXA10 nuclear staining in the endometrium collected from GnRH antagonist-treated cycles was higher than that of the natural cycles, whereas the IHC-scores showed no difference between the two cycles.
CONCLUSION(S):GnRH antagonists may have no effect on HOXA10 protein expression in the endometrium obtained during the implantation window of normally menstruating women.
- High ovarian response does not jeopardize ongoing pregnancy rates and increases cumulative pregnancy rates in a GnRH-antagonist protocol. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Hum Reprod 2013 Feb; 28(2):442-52.
STUDY QUESTION: Is the ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) related to the ongoing pregnancy rate when taking into account the main covariates affecting the probabilities of pregnancy following fresh embryo transfer? SUMMARY ANSWER: In patients treated with corifollitropin alfa or daily recombinant FSH (rFSH) in a GnRH-antagonist protocol, a high ovarian response did not compromise ongoing pregnancy rates and increased cumulative pregnancy rates following fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: A strong association between the number of oocytes and pregnancy rates has been described but this is the first comprehensive analysis assessing important confounders that might affect pregnancy rates.
STUDY DESIGN:In a large, prospective, double-blind, randomized trial (Engage; n = 1506), patients were treated with either a single dose of 150 μg corifollitropin alfa or daily 200 IU rFSH for the first 7 days of COS in a GnRH-antagonist (ganirelix) protocol. In this retrospective analysis, patients were categorized into five groups according to the number of oocytes retrieved (0-5, 6-9, 10-13, 14-18 and >18 oocytes). The number of good-quality embryos obtained and transferred, as well as the ongoing pregnancy rates, live birth rates and cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle by group were evaluated. Univariate analysis was performed to identify factors that predict the chance of ongoing pregnancy. Logistic regression analysis on the dependent variables ongoing pregnancy and cumulative ongoing pregnancy, respectively, including oocyte category as an independent factor in the model, was performed by treatment group (corifollitropin alfa and rFSH) and overall. The likelihood of ongoing pregnancy and cumulative ongoing pregnancy was then evaluated taking into account ovarian response as well as other identified significant predictors of success.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING:In total, 1506 patients had been randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to either of the treatment groups. Patients were aged ≤ 36 years and had a body weight >60 kg. MAIN
RESULTSAND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle increased in the corifollitropin alfa and rFSH groups from 31.9 and 31.3%, respectively, in the lowest response group (0-5 oocytes) to 41.9 and 43.4% in the highest response group (>18 oocytes) with a significant linear trend (P = 0.04). The cumulative pregnancy rates taking frozen-thawed embryo transfers into account increased from 33.0 and 31.3% to 60.8 and 55.9% in the corifollitropin alfa and rFSH groups, respectively. Univariate logistic regression analyses of ongoing pregnancy showed significant effects for the following factors: embryo transfer (double or single, P < 0.01), region of treatment (North America or Europe, P < 0.01), progesterone level on the day of hCG (>1.5 or ≤ 1.5 ng/ml, P < 0.01), start day of the stimulation (cycle day 2 or 3, P = 0.02) and age (P = 0.04). Logistic regression analysis of ongoing pregnancy using 10-13 oocytes as the reference category, per treatment group and overall revealed estimated odds ratios (OR) close to 1.0 versus the reference, without statistically significant differences with and without adjustment for significant predictive factors affecting pregnancy rates. Unadjusted OR for cumulative pregnancy reflected significantly lower odds of pregnancy for the lowest response group and significantly higher odds of pregnancy for the highest response group in comparison with the reference. When adjusted for the predictive factors, the cumulative ongoing pregnancy OR (95% confidence interval) of the highest response group versus the reference group was 1.87 (1.34-2.59) when the data of both treatment groups were pooled. BIAS, CONFOUNDING AND OTHER REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of covariates included in the final model was limited to five major factors and not all other potentially significant predictive factors were available for evaluation. GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS: This analysis is limited to IVF patients with a regular menstrual cycle up to 36 years of age and a body weight >60 and ≤ 90 kg treated with a GnRH-antagonist protocol and cannot be extrapolated to other patient populations or treatment regimens.
- Effect of length of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates. [Journal Article]
- J Reprod Med 2012 Sep-Oct; 57(9-10):415-20.
To compare pregnancy outcomes between shorter and longer in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using GnRH antagonist protocol.Retrospective cohort analysis at a large military academic hospital. A total of 351 patients underwent 412 IVF/ICSI cycles using a GnRH antagonist protocol from September 2002 through May 2008. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates for all IVF/ICSI cycles were compared independently for both total length of ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins (< 10 days vs. > or = 10 days) and GnRH antagonist use (< 4 days vs. > or = 4 days), respectively.Clinical pregnancy rates were 54.6% among cycles with total gonadotropin use <10 days vs. 48.6% for those cycles > or = 10 days, odds ratio 0.82 (0.53-1.27); live birth rates were 50.0% vs. 47.7%, odds ratio 0.91 (0.59-1.42). Clinical pregnancy rates were 54.0% among cycles with GnRH antagonist use < 4 days vs. 52.8% with GnRH antagonist use > or = 4 days, odds ratio 0.95 (0.62-1.45); live birth rates were 46.8% vs. 50.4%, odds ratio 1.15 (0.76-1.76).Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates are not adversely affected by longer IVF/ICSI cycles using GnRH antagonists.
- Analysis of the impact of intravenous LH pulses versus continuous LH infusion on testosterone secretion during GnRH-receptor blockade. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2012 Nov 15; 303(10):R994-R1002.
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility is required for optimal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, but whether LH pulsatility is required for physiological testosterone (T) secretion is not known. To test the postulate that pulses of recombinant human (rh) LH stimulate greater T secretion than continuous infusion of the same dose, a potent selective GnRH antagonist was administered overnight to 19 healthy men ages 18-49 yr. Subjects then received saline or rhLH intravenously continuously or as 6-min pulses intravenously every 1 or 2 h at the same total dose. Blood was sampled every 10 min for 10 h to quantify T responses. For the four interventions, the descending rank order of mean LH and mean T concentrations was 1-h = 2-h rhLH pulses > continuous rhLH > saline (P < 10(-3)). Plateau LH and T concentrations correlated positively (R(2) = 0.943, P = 0.029) as did LH concentrations and LH half-lives (R(2) = 0.962, P = 0.019). Percentage pulsatile T secretion assessed by deconvolution analysis (Keenan DM, Takahashi PY, Liu PY, Roebuck PD, Nehra AX, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Endocrinology 147: 2817-2828, 2006) was the highest (P = 0.019), and half-time to attain peak T concentrations was the shortest (P < 10(-6)), for 1-h rhLH pulses. Approximate entropy (a pattern-regularity measure) revealed more orderly T secretion for 1- than 2-h rhLH pulses (P = 0.0076). Accordingly, a pulsatile LH signal, while not obligatory to maintain mean T concentrations, controls the mean plasma LH concentration and determines quantifiable patterns of T secretion. These data introduce the question whether blood T patterns in turn supervise distinctive target-tissue responses.
- Outpatient management of severe early OHSS by administration of GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase: an observational cohort study. [Journal Article]
- Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2012.:69.
Management of established severe OHSS requires prolonged hospitalization, occasionally in intensive care units, accompanied by multiple ascites punctures, correction of intravascular fluid volume and electrolyte imbalance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is feasible to manage women with severe OHSS as outpatients by treating them with GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase.This is a single-centre, prospective, observational, cohort study. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OHSS, five days post oocyte retrieval, were managed as outpatients after administration of GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg) daily from days 5 to 8 post oocyte retrieval, combined with cryopreservation of all embryos. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with severe OHSS, in whom outpatient management was not feasible.11.3% (95% CI 8.3%-15.0%) of patients (40/353) developed severe early OHSS. None of the 40 patients required hospitalization following luteal antagonist administration and embryo cryopreservation. Ovarian volume, ascites, hematocrit, WBC, serum oestradiol and progesterone decreased significantly (P < 0.001) by the end of the monitoring period, indicating rapid resolution of severe OHSS.The current study suggests, for the first time, that successful outpatient management of severe OHSS with antagonist treatment in the luteal phase is feasible and is associated with rapid regression of the syndrome, challenging the dogma of inpatient management. The proposed management is a flexible approach that minimizes unnecessary embryo transfer cancellations in the majority (88.7%) of high risk for OHSS patients.
- Endometrial gene expression in the early luteal phase is impacted by mode of triggering final oocyte maturation in recFSH stimulated and GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF cycles. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Hum Reprod 2012 Nov; 27(11):3259-72.
Do differences in endometrial gene expression exist after ovarian stimulation with four different regimens of triggering final oocyte maturation and luteal phase support in the same patient? SUMMARY ANSWER: Significant differences in the expression of genes involved in receptivity and early implantation were seen between the four protocols. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: GnRH agonist triggering is an alternative to hCG triggering in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles, resulting in an elimination of early ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Whereas previous studies have revealed a low ongoing clinical pregnancy rate after GnRH agonist trigger due to a high early pregnancy loss rate, despite supplementation with the standard luteal phase support, more recent studies, employing a 'modified' luteal phase support including a bolus of 1500 IU hCG on the day of oocyte aspiration, have reported ongoing pregnancy rates similar to those seen after hCG triggering. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE DURATION: A prospective randomized study was performed in four oocyte donors recruited from an oocyte donation program during the period 2010-2011. PARTICIPANTS, MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Four oocyte donors in a university IVF center each prospectively underwent four consecutive stimulation protocols, with different modes of triggering final oocyte maturation and a different luteal phase support, followed by endometrial biopsy on Day 5 after oocyte retrieval. The following protocols were used: (A) 10 000 IU hCG and standard luteal phase support, (B) GnRH agonist (triptorelin 0.2 mg), followed by 1500 IU hCG 35 h after triggering final oocyte maturation, and standard luteal phase support, (C) GnRH agonist (triptorelin 0.2 mg) and standard luteal phase support and (D) GnRH agonist (triptorelin 0.2 mg) without luteal phase support. Microarray data analysis was performed with GeneSpring GX 11.5 (RMA algorithm). Pathway and network analysis was performed with the gene ontology software Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Ingenuity® Systems, www.ingenuity.com, Redwood City, CA, USA). Samples were grouped and background intensity values were removed (cutoff at the lowest 20th percentile). A one-way ANOVA test (P< 0.05) was performed with Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction.Significant differences were seen in endometrial gene expression, related to the type of ovulation trigger and luteal phase support. However, the endometrial gene expression after the GnRH agonist trigger and a modified luteal phase support (B) was similar to the pattern seen after the hCG trigger (A). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The study was performed in four oocyte donors only; however, it is a strength of the study that the same donor underwent four consecutive stimulation protocols within 1 year to avoid inter-individual variations. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These endometrial gene-expression findings support the clinical reports of a non-significant difference in live birth rates between the GnRH agonist trigger and the hCG trigger, when the GnRH agonist trigger is followed by a bolus of 1500 IU hCG at 35 h post trigger in addition to the standard luteal phase support. STUDY FUNDING/ COMPETING INTERESTS: This study was supported by an un-restricted research grant by MSD Belgium.EudraCT number 2009-009429-26, protocol number 997 (P06034).
- Dynamic testosterone responses to near-physiological LH pulses are determined by the time pattern of prior intravenous LH infusion. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012 Sep 15; 303(6):E720-8.
The long-lived glycoprotein hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), downregulates testosterone (T) biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo in animals and humans. The degree to which short-lived pulses of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) do so, particularly at physiological concentrations, is not known. We test the hypothesis that continuous LH infusion compared with bolus injections of LH every 1 h or every 2 h overnight downregulates T secretory responses to a subsequent fixed template of three consecutive intravenous pulses of a physiological amount of recombinant human (rh) LH (triple stimulus). Nineteen healthy men ages 18-49 yr each underwent four separate randomly ordered overnight gonadotropin-releasing hormone-receptor antagonist treatments with superimposed intravenous infusions of saline or rhLH (1-h pulses, 2-h pulses, or continuously). Each 12-h infusion protocol was followed by the triple rhLH-pulse stimulus the next morning. During the triple stimulus, basal (nonpulsatile) as well as total (basal plus pulsatile) T secretion was higher after overnight 2- and 1-h rhLH pulses than after continuous rhLH or saline delivery. Approximate entropy, a probabilistic measure of feedforward-induced irregularity of T concentration time series, was higher after 1-h rhLH pulses than after continuous rhLH. Analytical estimation of pulsatile rhLH-T dose-response measures revealed higher T secretory sensitivity and greater rhLH potency (lower EC₅₀) after exposure to 1-h than 2-h rhLH pulses. Collectively, these data indicate that in vivo dynamics of LH-stimulated T secretion under standardized conditions in men depend on the prior time mode of LH delivery in the bloodstream.
- Drug tolerability in assisted reproduction techniques: a longitudinal study. [Journal Article]
- Syst Biol Reprod Med 2012 Oct; 58(5):245-54.
A longitudinal, observational prospective panel cohort study of 61 patients lasting one year was undertaken. Explanatory variables included sociodemographic factors along with factors related to the underlying pathology as well as the protocol used and the type of treatment received. These variables were analyzed both individually and in combination to account for confounding effects and model interactions. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was constructed for each adverse effect. Associations were calculated as odds ratios (OR). Confounding variables related to drug tolerability were identified. Follitropin-alpha and cetrorelix exhibited the poorest safety profile. With respect to local adverse drug reactions (ADEs), the results obtained in our study point to statistically significant tolerability improvements for menotropin when administered in insemination. For gastrointestinal ADEs, ganirelix was the drug that showed the highest tolerability in in vitro treatments whereas follitropin-alpha showed the lowest tolerability in insemination treatments. Diverse factors related to assisted reproduction techniques (ART) influence the incidence of adverse effects. Each drug has a different safety profile with possible interactions depending on the type of assisted reproduction therapy used.
- Luteal phase GnRHa trigger in random start fertility preservation cycles. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Assist Reprod Genet 2012 Jun; 29(6):503-5.