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Antibiotic-associated colitis [keywords]
- Upregulation of the Host SLC11A1 Gene by Clostridium difficile Toxin B Facilitates Glucosylation of Rho GTPases and Enhances Toxin Lethality. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Infect Immun 2013 May 20.
Pseudomembranous enterocolitis associated with Clostridium difficile infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients being treated with antibiotics. Two closely related large protein toxins produced by C. difficile, TcdA and TcdB, which act identically but with different efficiencies to glucosylate low molecular weight Rho GTPases, underlie the microbe's pathogenicity. Using antisense RNA encoded by a library of human ESTs, we randomly inactivated host chromosomal genes in Hela cells and isolated clones that survived exposure to ordinarily lethal doses of TcdB. This phenotypic screening and subsequent analysis identified solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1, formally NRAMP1), a divalent cation transporter crucial to host defense against certain microbes, as a enhancer of TcdB lethality. Whereas SLC11A1 normally is poorly expressed in human cells of non-myeloid lineage, TcdB increased SLC11A1 mRNA abundance in such cells through the actions of the RNA-binding protein HuR. We show that shRNA directed against SLC11A1 reduced TcdB glucosylation of small Rho GTPases, and consequently, toxin lethality. Consistent with the previously known role of SLC11A1 on cation transport, these effects were enhanced by elevation of Mn(2+) in media-and conversely were decreased by treatment with a chelator of divalent cations. Our findings reveal an unsuspected role for SLC11A1 in determining C. difficile pathogenicity, demonstrate the novel ability of a bacterial toxin to increase its cytotoxicity, establish a mechanistic basis for these effects, and suggest a possible therapeutic approach to mitigate cell killing by C. difficile toxins A and B.
- Bacterial Complications of Respiratory Tract Viral Illness: A Comprehensive Evaluation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Infect Dis 2013 May 23.
Background.Respiratory tract infection is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization among adults, and recent evidence suggests that many of these illnesses are associated with viruses. Although bacterial infection is known to complicate viral infections, the frequency and impact of mixed viral-bacterial infections has not been well studied.Methods. Adults hospitalized with respiratory illness during 3 winters underwent comprehensive viral and bacterial testing. This assessment was augmented by measuring the serum level of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker of bacterial infection. Mixed viral-bacterial infection was defined as a positive viral test result plus a positive bacterial assay result or a serum PCT level of ≥ 0.25 ng/mL on admission or day 2 of hospitalization.
Results.Of 842 hospitalizations (771 patients) evaluated, 348 (41%) had evidence of viral infection. A total of 212 hospitalizations (61%) involved patients with viral infection alone. Of the remaining 136 hospitalizations (39%) involving viral infection, results of bacterial tests were positive in 64 (18%), and PCT analysis identified bacterial infection in an additional 72 (21%). Subjects hospitalized with mixed viral-bacterial infections were older and more commonly received a diagnosis of pneumonia. Over 90% of hospitalizations in both groups involved subjects who received antibiotics. Notably, 4 of 10 deaths among subjects hospitalized with viral infection alone were secondary to complications of Clostridium difficile colitis.
Conclusions.Bacterial coinfection is associated with approximately 40% of viral respiratory tract infections requiring hospitalization. Patients with positive results of viral tests should be carefully evaluated for concomitant bacterial infection. Early empirical antibiotic therapy for patients with an unstable condition is appropriate but is not without risk.
- [Antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ter Arkh 2013; 85(2):85-8.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is considered to mean at least 3 shapeless stool episodes within 2 or more consecutive days when using antibacterial agents. Due to the fact that antibiotics are used most commonly to treat many diseases, AAD is one of the topical problems for different clinical specialists. There has recently been increased interest in this condition due to its higher morbidity and mortality rates and the emergence of novel treatment-resistant virulent strains of Clostridium difficile 027 and 078/126. The paper discusses the possible risk of developing AAD depending on the class of the antibiotic used, as well as the mechanisms of its development. Infectious diarrhea most frequently results from bacterial overgrowth due to that the obligate intestinal microflora is suppressed by antibacterial drugs. C. difficile, Clostridium perfringers, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Candida spp. are etiological factors in the development of this diarrhea. The severest intestinal lesions include pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) caused by C. difficile. The clinical and endoscopic picture and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of PMC are described. Therapy for this menacing condition is traditionally based on the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the new drug fidaxomycin whose superiority over vancomycin has been demonstrated by a recurrence criterion. The paper discusses in detail other treatment options, including the use of probiotics.
- Protective effect of bifidobacteria in an experimental model of Clostridium difficile associated colitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dairy Res 2013 Apr 23.:1-7.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium strains to prevent the effects associated with Clostridium difficile infection in a hamster model of enterocolitis. After clindamycin treatment (30 mg/kg), animals were infected intragastrically with C. difficile (5×108 CFU per animal). Seven days prior to antibiotic administration, probiotic treatment was started by administering bacterial suspensions of bifidobacteria in drinking water. Strains CIDCA 531, CIDCA 5310, CIDCA 5316, CIDCA 5320, CIDCA 5323 and CIDCA 5325 were used. Treatment was continued during all the experimental period. Development of diarrhoea, enterocolitis and mortality were evaluated. All the infected animals belonging to the placebo group developed enterocolitis (5/5) and only two dead (2/5) whereas in the group administered with Bifidobacterium bifidum strain CIDCA 5310 the ratio of animals with enterocolitis or dead decreased significantly (1/5 and 0/5 respectively). Biological activity of caecum contents was evaluated in vitro on Vero cells. Animals treated with strain CIDCA 5310 presented lower biological activity than those belonging to the placebo group. The present study shows the potential of selected strains of bifidobacteria to antagonise, in vivo, the virulence of C. difficile.
- The microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease: Insights from animal models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaerobe 2013 Apr 17.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is thought to result from a dysregulated immune response to intestinal microbial flora in individuals with genetic predisposition(s). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in human IBD have identified more than 150 associated loci, some of which are key players in innate immunity and bacterial handling, reflecting the importance of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis. In fact, the presence of a microbial flora is not only crucial to the development of a normal murine immune system but also critical for the development of disease in the majority of animal models of IBD. Although animal models do not perfectly recapitulate human IBD, they have led to the discovery of important concepts in IBD pathogenesis, such as the central role of microbiota in disease development and perpetuation. Many genetically susceptible models do not develop colitis when raised in a germ-free or Helicobacter-free environment. In fact, disease in most models can be attenuated or completely abolished with antibiotic treatment. Moreover, an interplay between intestinal microbiota and mucosal immune activation is suggested by the presence of serum antibodies against the Cbir1 flagellin, an immunodominant antigen that activates TLR5, in certain models of spontaneous colitis as well as in human patients. Furthermore, T cells reactive to Cbir1 are able to induce disease in recipient mice upon adoptive cell transfer, demonstrating the pro-inflammatory properties of certain bacterial products. In fact, it has been shown that transfer of certain intestinal bacteria from a specific genetically altered mouse model with spontaneous colitis can induce disease in wild-type mice upon co-housing or direct feeding. These observations demonstrate the pathogenic potential of intestinal microbiota in IBD. However, intestinal bacteria are not always maladaptive in mucosal homeostasis. Both Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium species promote the number and function of a certain regulatory T cell subset in the colon leading to protection against murine colitis. In fact, normal development of regulatory cells and epithelial cell integrity are abolished in the absence of an intestinal flora, suggestive of the need for certain microbial components to induce beneficial anti-inflammatory mechanisms. All in all, altered immune responses to microbes play a crucial role in IBD pathogenesis. However, certain components of the microbiota are also likely critical for normal development of regulatory mechanisms that contribute to mucosal homeostasis. Findings in animal models highlight the concept that IBD is a disease that results from the interplay of genetics and microbial/environmental factors.
- [To the Editors, regarding feces transplantation]. [Comment, Letter]
- Orv Hetil 2013 Mar 17; 154(11):434-5.
- Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):418-21.
We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease.
- Altered Gut Microbiota Promotes Colitis-Associated Cancer in IL-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase M-Deficient Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013 May; 19(6):1266-1277.
BACKGROUND::Microbial sensing by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and its negative regulation have an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-related cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of negative regulation of Toll-like receptors signaling and gut microbiota in the development of colitis-associated cancer in mouse model.
METHODS::Colitis-associated cancer was induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate in wild-type and in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M)-deficient mice with or without antibiotic (ATB) treatment. Local cytokine production was analyzed by multiplex cytokine assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Changes in microbiota composition during tumorigenesis were analyzed by pyrosequencing, and β-glucuronidase activity was measured in intestinal content by fluorescence assay.
RESULTS::ATB treatment of wild-type mice reduced the incidence and severity of tumors. Compared with nontreated mice, ATB-treated mice had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T cells in colon, altered gut microbiota composition, and decreased β-glucuronidase activity. However, the β-glucuronidase activity was not as low as in germ-free mice. IRAK-M-deficient mice not only developed invasive tumors, but ATB-induced decrease in β-glucuronidase activity did not rescue them from severe carcinogenesis phenotype. Furthermore, IRAK-M-deficient mice had significantly increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the tumor tissue.
CONCLUSIONS::We conclude that gut microbiota promotes tumorigenesis by increasing the exposure of gut epithelium to carcinogens and that IRAK-M-negative regulation is essential for colon cancer resistance even in conditions of altered microbiota. Therefore, gut microbiota and its metabolic activity could be potential targets for colitis-associated cancer therapy.
- Intracolonic Vancomycin for Severe Clostridium difficile Colitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2013 Apr 5.
Background:Clostridium difficile colitis is associated with increased age, antibiotic usage, and hospitalization. Severe C. difficile colitis refractory to medical therapy may require surgical intervention including subtotal colectomy. We initiated an adjuvant intracolonic vancomycin (ICV) enema protocol for inpatients with severe C. difficile colitis and compared the response to this therapy in patients from the community and nursing homes.
Methods:A single-hospital, retrospective chart review was done on 47 consecutive patients with C. difficile colitis treated with ICV (1 g/500 mL normal saline q6h) from January 2007 through October 2009. The proportions of patients with the outcomes of response to the ICV protocol, need for subtotal colectomy, and death were described. Associations of patient characteristics with these outcomes were examined with bivariate tests and multivariable logistic models with adjustment for age, hypoalbuminemia, acidosis, and nursing-home status.
Results:Thirty-three of 47 patients (70%) with severe C. difficile colitis responded to adjunct ICV with complete resolution without surgery. Incomplete responders who had surgery were more likely to survive than those patients who did not undergo subtotal colectomy (p<0.01). Seven of nine patients who underwent surgery survived >90 d, and overall, 37 of 47 patients (79%) survived after ICV therapy. Nursing-home residence, acidosis, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated with the non-resolution of colitis in bivariate analyses (all p<0.01), whereas nursing-home residence and hypoalbuminemia showed non-significant trends toward association with death (p=0.07 and p=0.06, respectively). Multivariate logistic-regression models showed significant associations of acidosis with an incomplete response to ICV (p=0.02), of older age with death (p=0.04), and of hypoalbuminemia with both an incomplete response to ICV and death (both p=0.04). No complications were attributable to ICV.
Conclusion:Complete resolution without surgery was achieved in 70% in this series of patients with severe C. difficile colitis who received adjunct ICV therapy. A clinical trial will be needed to determine whether ICV as compared with standard therapy alone can reduce the need for surgery with non-inferior or superior outcomes.
- Faecal transplantation for recurrent C difficile diarrhoea. [News]
- Lancet Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 13(3):200-1.