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Apnea, sleep, obstructive [keywords]
- Optimizing Multimodal Analgesia with Intravenous Acetaminophen and Opioids in Postoperative Bariatric Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacotherapy 2014 Dec; 34(S1):14S-21S.
To evaluate the effect of therapeutic doses of intravenous acetaminophen (IV APAP) on postoperative opioid use following bariatric surgery.Retrospective review of medical records.A 654-bed academic hospital.Records for 104 patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG; 44 patients) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB; 60 patients) were reviewed. Patients received IV APAP 1 g every 6 hours postoperatively (22 LSG patients and 30 LRYGB patients) or no IV APAP (22 LSG patients and 30 LRYGB patients).Baseline demographic features were similar for both groups. Patients receiving IV APAP required fewer intravenous morphine equivalents than patients treated with opioids alone. Reductions in morphine equivalents with IV APAP were 21 mg (LSG), 33 mg (LRYGB), and 28 mg (all patients) (p<0.001 for all comparisons). IV APAP was associated with a shorter hospital length of stay (LOS) for the LRYGB (mean difference 1.47 days; p=0.039) and combined groups (mean difference 0.95 days; p=0.025). Patients who received IV APAP had earlier return of bowel sounds and flatus. IV APAP did not reduce mean pain scores in any group.Patients undergoing bariatric surgery who received IV APAP during the 24-hour postoperative period consumed fewer intravenous morphine equivalents and had similar pain scores as patients who were treated with opioids alone. Use of IV APAP reduced the hospital LOS and resulted in earlier return of bowel sounds and passage of flatus.
- Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Physiol 2014.:468.
The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation.
- Severity of Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension Improved after Adenotonsillectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Dec 17.
To report improvements in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension after adenotonsillectomy.Case series with planned data collection.Tertiary referral center.Fifty consecutive patients (36 boys and 14 girls; median age, 7.0 years) who underwent plasma knife-assisted total tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for OSA between January 2010 and March 2013 were assessed with the body mass index z score, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), systolic blood pressure (BP), and diastolic BP at baseline and at ≥6 months postoperatively. Changes in these parameters were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests with the bootstrap approach.The median follow-up period was 9.6 months. Postoperatively, the median AHI significantly reduced from 9.8 to 1.6 (P < .001). Although the median systolic BP and diastolic BP insignificantly changed in the overall group, both were significantly reduced in children with preoperative hypertension (systolic: from 119.0 to 113.0 [P = .038]; diastolic: from 79.0 to 68.0 [P = .005]). Accordingly, the hypertension rate significantly reduced from 34% to 14% (P = .006). However, the change in OSA severity was not well correlated with the change in hypertension severity. In multiple logistic regression analysis with forward selection, a combination of preoperative hypertension and severe OSA was a significant predictor of postoperative hypertension (relative risk, 15.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.7-64.3; P < .001).The decreased hypertension rate indicates that a reduction of the AHI is not all that matters after adenotonsillectomy in childhood OSA. However, patients with preoperative severe OSA and hypertension need careful management of their elevated BP despite surgical treatment.
- Excessive daytime sleepiness and obstructive sleep apnea in Thai epileptic patients. [Journal Article]
- J Med Assoc Thai 2014 Feb.:S175-80.
Sleepiness is a common complaint in epilepsy. Also obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly detected and would affect the epilepsy prognosis. We aimed to determine the frequency and predictors of sleepiness and OSA in epileptic patients.This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire (ESS) and Sleep Apnea scale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ) to identify excessive daytime sleepiness and OSA in our consecutive epileptic patients in Neurology out-patient clinic.Overall 113 patients (male 55%) answered a personal survey and completed ESS and SA-SDQ. Mean age was 47 years (range 15-93). Average body mass index (BMI) was 24. Excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS 10) was demonstrated in 37%, and the prevalence of OSA diagnosed by using SA-SDQ was 20% (male 18%, female 22%). OSA were identified 68% among individuals whose BMI of more than 25, which was significant higherfi-equency than in the nomnnal BMI group (32%). The predictors of having OSA were older age and higher BMI. Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was also higher in the OSA group than in non-OSA group.Excessive daytime sleepiness was identified around one third ofour epileptic individutals. Twenty percent had met the questionnaire criteria of having OSA. Overweight was the most important and modifiable risk factor ofOSA.
- An overlooked cause of resistant hypertension: upper airway resistance syndrome - preliminary results. [Journal Article]
- Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2014 Nov; 69(11):731-4.
Upper airway resistance syndrome is a sleep-disordered breathing syndrome that is characterized by repetitive arousals resulting in sympathetic overactivity. We aimed to determine whether upper airway resistance syndrome was associated with poorly controlled hypertension.A total of 40 patients with resistant hypertension were enrolled in the study. All of the patients underwent polysomnographic examinations and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to exclude white coat syndrome and to monitor treatment efficiency. Among 14 upper airway resistance syndrome patients, 2 patients had surgically correctable upper airway pathologies, while 12 patients were given positive airway pressure therapy.All patients underwent polysomnographic examinations; 22 patients (55%) were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea and 14 patients (35%) were diagnosed with upper airway resistance syndrome, according to American Sleep Disorders Association criteria. The patients with upper airway resistance syndrome were younger and had a lower body mass index compared with other patients, while there were no difference between the blood pressure levels and the number of antihypertensive drugs. The arousal index was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure level (p = 0.034; rs = 0.746), while the Epworth score and AHI were independent of disease severity (p = 0.435, rs = 0.323 and p = 0.819, rs = -0.097, respectively). Eight patients were treated with positive airway pressure treatment and blood pressure control was achieved in all of them, whereas no pressure reduction was observed in four untreated patients.We conclude that upper airway resistance syndrome is a possible secondary cause of resistant hypertension and that its proper treatment could result in dramatic blood pressure control.
- A 14-Year-Old Girl with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Facial Twitching. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2014 May 11.
We report a 16-year-old pubescent pediatric patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and short stature whose apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly reduced following the use of an orthodontic oral appliance that advances the mandible ventrally. The mandible was advanced 64% of the maximal mandibular protrusive position with use of the appliance over a 3-year period. The patient's AHI without the appliance in place decreased from 101.6/h at baseline to 11/h after treatment. Moreover, the patient's height increased 14 cm during treatment, resulting in height close to the average height for his age. Cephalometric analysis revealed an improvement in his retrognathic mandible and proclination of the upper front teeth. In conclusion, an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance played an important role not only in improving the patient's OSAS but also in normalizing his physical growth during puberty.
- Sleep Medicine Pearl: A 42-Year-Old Female with Well-Controlled Atrial Fibrillation and Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2014 Nov 13.
- Postoperative CPAP Use Impacts Long-term Weight Loss Following Bariatric surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2014 Nov 2.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among bariatric surgery candidates. After surgical weight loss, OSA frequently persists and untreated OSA can lead to weight gain. Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence is unclear and poor adherence may worsen weight loss outcomes. We sought to determine the impact of CPAP use on long-term weight-loss outcomes in a cohort of bariatric patients.Long-term observational study of bariatric surgery patients with OSA. Patients were evaluated with polysomnography preoperatively and one-year postoperatively. The cohort was again evaluated a mean of 7.2 years later to determine the relationship between long-term CPAP use and subsequent regain of weight.Twenty-four consecutive patients (aged 48.5±9.4 years at time of surgery; 73% female) were included in the initial assessment, and long-term outcome data were available on 22 subjects. Persistent OSA was documented in 21 of 22 subjects (95%) one year postoperatively. Final evaluation occurred 7.2±2.3 years following surgery. Weight (213.3±39.1 to 235.3±47.1 lb, p = 0.10) and BMI (32.5±5.4 to 37.3±8.2 kg/m2, p = 0.03) increased in most (n = 19, 86.4%) from postoperative to final evaluation. CPAP use declined from 83.3% (preoperatively) to 38.1% (one year) and to 23.8% (final evaluation). BMI increased among those not using CPAP at long-term follow-up compared to those with continued CPAP use (6.8% v -1.8%, p = 0.05).In our cohort of bariatric patients with OSA, long-term adherence to CPAP therapy was poor, and non-adherence was associated with weight gain. Ongoing follow-up of OSA in this population may help to preserve initial achievements after surgical weight loss.
- Sleep Disorders in Adult Sickle Cell Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2014 Nov 2.
While sleep apnea has been studied in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), little is known about sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep disordered breathing and its polysomnographic characteristics in adult patients with sickle cell disease.The analysis cohort included 32 consecutive adult SCD patients who underwent a comprehensive sleep evaluation and overnight polysomnography in an accredited sleep center after reporting symptoms suggesting disordered sleep or an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥10. Epworth score, sleep parameters, comorbid conditions, and narcotic use were reviewed and compared in patients with and without sleep disordered breathing. SCD complication rates in the two groups also were compared.In adult SCD patients who underwent overnight polysomnography, we report a high prevalence (44%) of sleep disordered breathing. Disease severity was mild to moderate (mean apnea hypopnea index = 17 /h (95% CI: 10-24 /h). Concomitant sleep disorders, including insomnia complaints (57%) and delayed sleep-phase syndrome (57%), also were common in this population. In this limited cohort, we did not find increased SCD complications associated with sleep disordered breathing in adult patients with sickle cell disease.A high burden of sleep disordered breathing and other sleep-related complaints were identified in the adult sickle cell population. Our results provide important information on this unique population.