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Apnea, sleep, obstructive [keywords]
- Sleep Disorders in U.S. Military Personnel: A High Rate of Comorbid Insomnia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chest 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND:Sleep disturbances are among the most common symptoms of military personnel who return from deployment. The objective of our study was to determine the presence of sleep disorders in U.S. Military Personnel referred for evaluation of sleep disturbances after deployment and examine associations between sleep disorders and service-related diagnoses of depression, mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), pain and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
METHODS:Cross-sectional study of military personnel with sleep disturbances who returned from combat within 18 months. Sleep disorder rendered by clinical evaluation and polysomnogram with validated instruments to diagnose service-related illnesses.
RESULTS:Of 110 military personnel included in our analysis, 97.3% were male (mean age 33.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI of 30.0 ± 4.3) and 70.9% returned from combat within 12 months. Nearly half, 47.3% met diagnostic criteria for 2 or more service-related diagnoses. Sleep disorders were diagnosed in 88.2% and 11.8% had a normal sleep evaluation and served as controls. Overall, 62.7% met diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 63.6% for insomnia. The exclusive diagnoses of insomnia and OSA were present in 25.5% and 24.5% respectively; 38.2% had comorbid insomnia and OSA. Military personnel with comorbid insomnia and OSA were significantly more likely to meet criteria for depression (p <0.01) and PTSD (p<0.01) compared to controls and those with OSA.
CONCLUSIONS:Comorbid insomnia and OSA is a frequent diagnosis in military personnel referred for evaluation of sleep disturbances after deployment. This diagnosis, which is difficult to treat, may explain the refractory nature of many service-related diagnoses.
- A solitary tonsil can cause severe obstructive sleep apnea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013 May 13.
Hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids is the most common cause of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Bilateral tonsillectomy, most commonly performed with adenoidectomy, is the accepted treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. We report the unusual case of a child who underwent unilateral tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy at another institution and subsequently presented to us with persistent severe obstructive sleep apnea and a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The adenoids were not obstructing the choanae. The remaining tonsil was removed and the patient's sleep apnea resolved. This is the first objectively documented report of a solitary tonsil causing severe obstructive sleep apnea (using polysomnography) that resolved after removal of the remaining tonsil.
- Narcolepsy with obstructive sleep apnea in a 4-year-old korean girl: a case report. [Journal Article]
- J Korean Med Sci 2013 May; 28(5):792-4.
A 4-yr-old girl has exhibited severe snoring, restless sleep and increasing daytime sleepiness over the last 3 months. The physical examination showed that she was not obese but had kissing tonsils. Polysomnography demonstrated increased apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 5.2, and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) showed shortened mean sleep latency and one sleep-onset REM period (SOREMP). She was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. After the surgery, her sleep became much calmer, but she was still sleepy. Another sleep test showed normal AHI of 0.2, the mean sleep latency of 8 min, and two SOREMPs. Diagnosis of OSA to be effectively treated by surgery and narcolepsy without cataplexy was confirmed. Since young children exhibiting both OSA and narcolepsy can fail to be diagnosed with the latter, it's desirable to conduct MSLT when they have severe daytime sleepiness or fail to get better even with good treatment.
- Snoring in a sitting position and neck circumference are predictors of sleep apnea in Chinese patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sleep Breath 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND:Snoring is a common symptom among the adult population, and it is the most common complaint in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. Patients who snore in a sitting position while taking a nap or sleeping may have a narrower upper airway. The aim of this study was to evaluate if snoring in a sitting position is a predictor of OSA in patients.
METHOD:We prospectively enrolled 166 SS+ (with a history of snoring in a sitting position) subjects and 139 SS- (who denied having a history of snoring in a sitting position) patients. All of the participants received questionnaires as well as a standard polysomnography thereafter.
RESULT:Patients with self-reported snoring in a sitting position (with a tilt position greater than 70°, SS+ group) had a higher body mass index as well as greater neck, waist, and buttock circumference and scored higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. During the polysomnographic study, the SS+ group had a higher percentage of N1 sleep and lower percentage of N2 sleep. In addition, the SS+ group had a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as well as higher arousal index and oxygen desaturation index. The sensitivity and specificity of the SS+ group for OSA (defined as AHI ≥ 5) were 0.59 and 0.73, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 0.93. The likelihood ratio was 2.2. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of the SS+ group for moderate to severe OSA (defined as AHI ≥ 15) were 0.82 and 0.48, respectively. Both SS+ and greater neck circumference have a high likelihood ratio for diagnosing OSA.
CONCLUSION:In the present study, the symptoms of self-reported snoring in a sitting position and greater neck circumference can be useful clinical predictors of OSA in Chinese patients.
- Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Panminerva Med 2013 Jun; 55(2):191-5.
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway collapse during sleep that is highlighted by a reduction in, or complete cessation of, airflow despite documented on going inspiratory efforts. Due to the lack of adequate alveolar ventilation that results from the upper airway narrowing, oxygen saturation may drop and partial pressure of CO2 may occasionally increase. The events are mostly terminated by arousals. Clinical consequences are excessive daytime sleepiness related to the sleep disruption. Minimal diagnostic criteria have been defined for OSAHS. Patients should have excessive daytime sleepiness that can not be better explained by other factors, or experience two or more of the following symptoms, again that are not better explained by other factors: choking or gasping during sleep; recurrent awakenings from sleep; un-refreshing sleep; daytime fatigue; and impaired concentration. All patients should have more than five obstructed breathing events per hour during sleep. An obstructive apnea or hypopnoea can be defined as an event that lasts for ≥10 s and is characterized by an absence or a decrease from baseline in the amplitude of a valid measure of breathing during sleep that either reaches >50% with an oxygen desaturation of 3% or an arousal (alternatively a 30% reduction with 4% desaturation). The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recommends these definitions. The Task Force of the AASM also states that there are common pathogenic mechanisms for obstructive apnea syndrome, central apnea syndrome, sleep hypoventilation syndrome and Cheyne-Stokes breathing. It was more preferable to discuss each of these separately; although, they could be placed under the common denominator of "sleep-disordered breathing syndrome". The definition of OSAHS using two components, daytime symptoms and breathing pattern disturbances during sleep, may suggest that there is a tight correlation between the two. However, unfortunately this is not the case. The breathing pattern abnormalities, mostly described by an Apnea/Hypopnoea Index (AHI), only weakly correlate with quantified measures of sleepiness, such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). This probably means that interindividual sensitivity, with some individuals coping better with sleep fragmentation than others, does compromise the relationship between the AHI and daytime sleepiness scores. In addition, epidemiological studies show a broad range of sleepiness in the general population. Obviously, epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of OSAHS are all biased by the lack of a uniform definition. The prevalence of an AHI of >5 events·h-1 in a general population (without taking into account symptoms of sleepiness) has previously been estimated to be 24% in a male population. When symptoms of sleepiness were also taken into account, the prevalence decreased to 4% in males and 2% in females.
- The value of video polysomnography in the assessment of intermittent obstructive sleep apnea. [Journal Article]
- Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 May 15; 187(10):e18-20.
- The use of sub-mental ultrasonography for identifying patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e62848.
This study aimed to explore the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and pharyngeal parameters using sub-mental ultrasonography (US), and investigate the accuracy of US for identifying severe OSA patients.One hundred and five consecutive referrals for suspected OSA were enrolled. The diameters of the retro-glossal (RG) and retro-palatal (RP) regions were measured via sub-mental US upon expiration during tidal breathing, forced inspiration, and Müller maneuver (MM). Independent factors associated with severe OSA identified from two-thirds of randomly-selected patients (model-development group) were used to construct a model for predicting severe OSA. The accuracy of the model was validated in the remaining one-third of patients (validation group).Fifty severe OSA patients, 30 with mild-moderate OSA, and 25 without OSA were enrolled. Compared to non-OSA and mild-moderate OSA patients, those with severe OSA had narrower RP diameter in all three maneuvers. Using the prediction model constructed with changes of RP diameters at MM and neck circumference, the independent predictors of severe OSA in the model-development group had 100% sensitivity and 65% specificity.Sub-mental US can accurately discriminate the severity of OSA and be used to identify patients with severe OSA.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00674076.
- C-reactive protein and carotid intima-media thickness in children with sleep disordered breathing. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2013; 9(5):493-8.
Obesity is a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) are predictive of cardiovascular morbidity in adults, and CRP levels are associated with over-weight. Increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors. We evaluated the effect of SDB on CRP levels and IMT in lean and obese children not selected for snoring.101 children (age 5-15 years) attending a weight clinic or scheduled for routine visit. IMT was measured with quantitative B-mode ultrasound scans. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured overnight: AHI < 1 defined controls, AHI ≥ 1 to < 5 = mild SDB, and AHI ≥ 5 = obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).AHI was significantly associated with Hs-CRP concentration (r = 0.32, p = 0.002) in all 101 children irrespective of age and sex. Body mass index (BMI) was higher in OSA children than controls (25.5 ± 7.0 vs 22.1 ± 6.9, p = 0.05). Obese children had 3.3 times more probability of having OSA (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-9.3, p = 0.02) than lean children. Hs-CRP values were significantly higher in children with OSA than in children without (p = 0.011), but not when BMI z-score was added as covariate. IMT was not associated with AHI or SDB.The results of this study suggest an association between OSA and Hs-CRP concentrations (mainly mediated by overweight and obesity), but not between OSA and subclinical atherosclerosis. There is scope for prevention in childhood before OSA syndrome causes the irreversible damage to arteries observed in adult patients. CITATION: Iannuzzi A; Licenziati MR; De Michele F; Verga MC; Santoriello C; Di Buono L; Renis M; Lembo L; D'Agostino B; Cappetta D; Polverino M; Polverino F. C-reactive protein and carotid intima-media thickness in children with sleep disordered breathing. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):493-498.
- Effects of Armodafinil on Simulated Driving and Self-Report Measures in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients prior to Treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2013; 9(5):445-54.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. This driving risk can be reduced (≥ 50%) by treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However residual excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) can persist for some patients who regularly use CPAP. The current study was designed to assess the effect of armodafinil on simulated driving performance and subsequent CPAP treatment compliance in newly diagnosed OSA patients with EDS during a 2-week "waiting period" prior to initiation of CPAP.Sixty-nine newly diagnosed OSA patients, awaiting CPAP therapy, were randomized (1:1) to placebo or armodafinil (150 mg/day) treatment. Simulated driving tests and self-report measures were completed at baseline, after 2 weeks of drug treatment, and following 6 weeks of CPAP treatment. CPAP compliance was evaluated at the end of 6 weeks of CPAP.Compared to placebo, armodafinil improved simulated driving safety performance in OSA patients awaiting CPAP therapy (p = 0.03). Improvement was seen in lane position deviation (p = 0.002) and number of lane excursions (p = 0.02). Improvement was also observed on measures of sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and sleep related quality of life. Following 6 weeks of CPAP, there was also significant improvement observed on multiple measures of simulated driving performance. CPAP compliance did not differ between armodafinil-treated and placebo-treated patients (p = 0.80).Armodafinil was found to improve simulated driving performance in OSA patients with EDS prior to initiation of CPAP. Treatment with armodafinil showed no effect on subsequent CPAP compliance. CITATION: Kay GG; Feldman N. Effects of armodafinil on simulated driving and self-report measures in obstructive sleep apnea patients prior to treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):445-454.
- Impact of zaleplon on continuous positive airway pressure therapy compliance. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2013; 9(5):439-44.
To determine whether pretreatment with zaleplon immediately before CPAP titration improves 1-month CPAP adherence in subjects newly diagnosed with OSA.Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of zaleplon 10 mg or matching placebo at the start of CPAP titration during laboratory-based, split-night polysomnography (PSG). Baseline sleep symptoms were assessed with the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). CPAP usage and change in symptom questionnaire responses were assessed at 1-month follow-up.One hundred thirty-four newly diagnosed OSA patients undergoing their initial split-night PSG (49.8 ± 11.3 years old with an apnea-hypopnea index of 16.5 (7, 32) [median (interquartile range)] were randomized to zaleplon (n = 73) or placebo (n = 63). Complete follow-up data were available in 83 subjects (44 zaleplon group; 39 placebo group). CPAP was used for 6.5 (5, 7) h/day with zaleplon versus 6.5 (5, 8) h/ day with placebo (p = 0.64). Improvements in FOSQ and ESS scores did not differ between the two groups.A single dose of zaleplon at the start of a split-night CPAP titration does not result in superior CPAP adherence or improvement in symptoms at 1-month compared to placebo. Our data show that zaleplon is safe and is associated with shorter sleep latency during CPAP titration, but it does not translate into improved short-term CPAP adherence. CITATION: Park JG; Olson EJ; Morgenthaler TI. Impact of zaleplon on continuous positive airway pressure therapy compliance. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):439-444.