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Apnea, sleep, obstructive [keywords]
- Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease: the importance of obesity and gender. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sleep Breath 2014 Aug 31.
It is claimed that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) increases in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of GERD in patients with OSAS and primary snoring and identify OSAS-related risk factors associated with GERD.In this prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study, in total 1,104 patients were recruited for polysomnography: 147 subjects were in non-OSAS (primary snoring) and 957 patients were in OSAS group. All patients completed a validated GERD questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric characteristics, and medical history were recorded.The prevalence of GERD was similar in OSAS (38.9 %) and non-OSAS (32.0 %) groups (p = 0.064). There was no difference in terms of major gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms (heartburn/acid regurgitation) between non-OSAS and mild, moderate, and severe OSAS groups. The prevalence of GERD was increased in female OSAS patients (46.6 %) compared to males (35.7 %) (p = 0.002). In OSAS patients with GERD, body mass index was greater (34.0 ± 7.0 vs. 33.1 ± 6.8, p = 0.049), waist (115.5 ± 13.9 vs. 113.1 ± 13.4, p = 0.007) and hip (117.9 ± 13.7 vs. 114.2 ± 12.8, p < 0.0001) circumferences were larger, and Epworth sleepiness scores were higher (10.3 ± 6.0 vs. 8.8 ± 5.6, p < 0.0001) than OSAS patients without GERD. Multivariate analysis showed that GERD was significantly associated with female gender, hip circumference, and daytime sleepiness.In this large cohort, the prevalence of GERD was significantly increased in those with primary snoring and OSAS compared to the general population, but severity of OSAS did not influence GERD prevalence. The present results suggest that OSAS was not likely a causative factor but female gender, obesity, and sleepiness were related with prevalence of GERD in OSAS patients.
- Anesthetic Dilemmas for Dynamic Evaluation of the Pediatric Upper Airway. [REVIEW]
- Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2014 Aug 28.
Sleep cine magnetic resonance imaging and drug-induced sleep endoscopy are currently used to examine the patterns of dynamic airway collapse in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Providing anesthesia that mimics physiologic sleep in these children is a challenge but is critical for accurate interpretation of the airway evaluation. Anesthetic agents might negatively affect the upper airway evaluation. The anesthetic technique in these patients must be tailored to improve patient safety and obtain optimal study. This review focuses on the periprocedural challenges and anesthetic management of children presenting for dynamic evaluation of the upper airway.
- Three-dimensional upper-airway changes with maxillomandibular advancement for obstructive sleep apnea treatment. [Journal Article]
- Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2014 Sep; 146(3):385-93.
Airway size increases are associated with maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery and improvement or elimination of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The 3-dimensional morphologic, volumetric, height, cross-sectional surface area, and diameter changes of the upper airway in patients with OSA after MMA, however, are not well understood.Patients with moderate or severe OSA who underwent MMA surgery were evaluated by preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans and polysomnograms. The upper airway space was also divided into retropalatal and retroglossal spaces and was analyzed for volumetric, height, cross-sectional surface area, transverse, and anteroposterior diameter changes.Ten consecutive OSA patients with an average preoperative apnea/hypopnea index of 46 and treated with MMA surgery were included in this study. There were 8 men and 2 women, with an average age of 46 years and an average body mass index of 28. There was an average of a 2.5-fold increase in the total volume of the upper airway space. The retropalatal space increased by 3.5-fold. The retroglossal space increased by 1.5-fold. The greatest change in a cross-sectional area occurred in the transverse axis in both the retroglossal and retropalatal spaces. The average apnea/hypopnea index was 4 postoperatively.MMA surgery results in a significant increase in the volume and a morphologic airway change from a round to an elliptical f shape in the upper airway space in patients with OSA. The combination of these actions reduces the collapsibility of the upper airway space, hence improving or resolving the OSA.
- Long-term Effects of Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity on Sleep at School-age. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014 Aug 29.
Rationale: Apnea of prematurity is a common condition that is usually treated with caffeine, an adenosine receptor blocker that has powerful influences on the central nervous system. However, little is known about the long-term effects of caffeine on sleep in the developing brain. Objectives: We hypothesized that neonatal caffeine use resulted in long-term abnormalities in sleep architecture and breathing during sleep. Methods: 201 ex-preterm children aged 5-12 years who participated as neonates in a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of caffeine versus placebo underwent actigraphy, polysomnography and parental sleep questionnaires. Co-primary outcomes were total sleep time on actigraphy and apnea hypopnea index on polysomnography. Results: There were no significant differences in primary outcomes between the caffeine group vs placebo [adjusted mean difference of -6.7 (95%CI -15.3,2.0) minutes, P=0.13 for actigraphic total sleep time; and adjusted rate ratio (caffeine/placebo) for apnea hypopnea index of 0.89 (95%CI 0.55,1.43), P=0.63]. Polysomnographic total recording time and total sleep time were longer in the caffeine group, but there was no difference in sleep efficiency between groups. The percentage of children with obstructive sleep apnea (8.2% of caffeine group vs 11.0% of placebo, p=0.22) or elevated periodic limb movements of sleep (17.5% in caffeine group vs 11% in placebo group) was high but did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: Therapeutic neonatal caffeine administration has no long-term effects on sleep duration or sleep apnea during childhood. Ex-preterm infants, regardless of caffeine status, are at risk for obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movements in later childhood. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT01020357.
- [Sleep apnea syndrome: SAS]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nihon Rinsho 2014 Aug; 72(8):1440-7.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. OSA is the frequent underlying disease of secondary hypertension and resistant hypertension. In 2003, the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recognized sleep apnea as a common and identifiable cause of hypertension and suggested blood pressure screening among patients with OSA. OSA increases both daytime and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressures through the activation of various neurohumoral factors including the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Randomized, controlled trials have evaluated the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to reduce BP among persons with OSA. The benefits of OSA treatment are related to implications for hypertension management.
- Obesity and Perceived Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Related Conditions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fam Community Health 2014 October/December; 37(4):258-270.
This study examined risk factors and perceived severity of obstructive sleep apnea-related conditions among college students based on weight categories. Data collected from 1399 college students were analyzed using multinomial and binary logistic regressions. Overweight and obese participants were more likely to snore and report familial risk for cardiovascular disease compared with their normal weight counterparts. Relative to normal weight participants, obese participants perceived snoring (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10), irritability (OR = 1.16), and high blood pressure (OR = 1.21) as more severe; they perceived erectile dysfunction (OR = 0.89) and cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.71) as less severe. Efforts are needed to identify obstructive sleep apnea risk and create systems for weight loss interventions, screening, and diagnosis.
- Global Brain Blood-Oxygen Level Responses to Autonomic Challenges in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e105261.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr), and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs) and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs) healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip), but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05). OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error) at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex-specific brain injury in the syndrome.
- Observation following Tonsillectomy May Be Inadequate Due to Silent Death. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Aug 27.
The focus on the first 24 hours of care for respiratory events following tonsillectomy may be misplaced and a broader focus is warranted. Nocturnal hypoxemia, an elevated apnea-hypopnea index, or obstructive sleep apnea contributes to an increased sensitivity to narcotics and postoperative complications. Narcotic pain management depresses respiration through an increase in the frequency of central sleep apnea, decreased minute ventilation, increased hypercarbia pressure, and a decrease in the hypoxic ventilator response. Residual pain gives some margin of safety as it stimulates respiration. Children dying following tonsillectomy do so silently during sleep, often without arousing the attention of caregivers or nursing personnel in close proximity. Perioperative education of caregivers, use of the least morbid surgical technique, and the control of pain rather than its elimination are prudent steps in the management of tonsillectomy patients.
- Correlation between REM AHI and Quality-of-Life Scores in Children with Sleep-Disordered Breathing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Aug 27.
Prior research has demonstrated poor correlation between the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) on full-night polysomnogram (PSG) and quality-of-life (QOL) scores. We aim to examine the association between rapid eye movement (REM) AHI and QOL scores in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).Prospective trial.Two tertiary children's hospitals.Children between 3 and 16 years of age with suspected SDB who were undergoing PSG were eligible. Children with craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Subjects' caregivers completed the Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18 (OSA-18), a validated QOL survey. Power analysis determined a group size of 34.One hundred twenty-seven patients were enrolled. The mean (SD) age was 6.3 (3.3) years. Most subjects (52%) were black and 26% were obese. The mean (SD) obstructive AHI of the subject population was 5.4 (11.9), while the mean (SD) REM AHI was 13.1 (23.7). The mean total OSA-18 score was 65.2, indicating a moderate impact of SDB on QOL. Neither the obstructive AHI (P = .73) nor the REM AHI (P = .49) correlated with total OSA-18 scores. However, lower nadir oxygen saturation was associated with significantly poorer QOL (P = .02). The sleep disturbance OSA-18 subset score significantly correlated with both the obstructive AHI (r (2) = 0.22; P = .01) and the REM AHI (r (2) = 0.22; P = .01); the remaining 4 subset scores did not correlate with either factor.Neither obstructive AHI nor REM AHI correlates with total OSA-18 QOL scores. With the exception of nadir oxygen saturation, PSG parameters do not reflect the burden of SDB on QOL in children.
- Atrial Fibrillation Is Associated With Increased Mean Platelet Volume and Apnea Hypopnea Index in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Angiology 2014 Aug 26.
This study investigated whether there is a relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF), mean platelet volume (MPV), and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) in patients who have obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We enrolled patients who had OSAS with either AF or normal sinus rhythm (NSR). We divided 90 patients (aged 50-80 years) into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 40 patients with OSAS having AF and group 2 of 50 patients with OSAS having NSR. Mean platelet volume was higher in patients with AF than in those with NSR (9.8 ± 0.6 vs 8.4 ± 0.6 fL; P < .001). The MPV and AHI were substantial variables associated with AF (odds ratio [OR] = 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-5.26; P < .004 and OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.26-3.32; P = .02). Elevated MPV value of ≥9.4 fL is associated with AF (70% sensitivity and 63% specificity). More research is needed to establish the clinical relevance of this association.