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- Role of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase in catalyzing nitrotyrosine formation in murine liver. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Free Radic Biol Med 2008 Sep 1; 45(5):611-8.
The only known function of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide. Our objective was to determine if SOD1 catalyzes murine liver protein nitration induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver and plasma samples were collected from young adult SOD1 knockout mice (SOD1-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice at 5 or 6 h after an ip injection of saline, APAP, or LPS. Hepatic nitrotyrosine formation was induced by APAP and LPS only in the WT mice. The diminished hepatic protein nitration in the SOD1-/- mice was not directly related to plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Similar genotype differences were seen in liver homogenates treated with a bolus of peroxynitrite. Adding only the holo-, and not the apo-, SOD1 enzyme into the liver homogenates enhanced the reaction in an activity-dependent fashion and nearly eliminated the genotype difference at the high doses. Mass spectrometry showed four more nitrotyrosine residues in bovine serum albumin and 10 more nitrated protein candidates in the SOD1-/- liver homogenates by peroxynitrite with added SOD1. In conclusion, the diminished hepatic protein nitration mediated by APAP or LPS in the SOD1-/- mice is due to the lack of SOD1 activity per se.
- Paracetamol hepatotoxicity in metallothionein-null mice. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Toxicology 1998 Feb 6; 125(2-3):131-40.
The role of metallothionein (MT) in protecting the liver against paracetamol (PCT) toxicity was investigated in vivo and in vitro in mice lacking expression of MT-1 and MT-2 genes (MT -/-). In the fed, glycogen replete state, hepatotoxicity (PCT 300 mg/kg i.p.) at 6 h was significantly greater in MT -/- than MT +/+ mice. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 5- and 13-fold greater respectively than in MT +/+ mice. Liver glycogen, glucose and zinc levels were significantly lower in MT -/- mice at this time. In contrast, hepatotoxicity (PCT 135 mg/kg i.p.) at 6 h was similar in both MT +/+ and MT -/- mice fasted 24 h, despite a doubling in liver MT in MT +/+ mice. No differences were found between MT -/- and MT +/+ mice in cytochrome P450 activity. Liver glutathione levels were the same in both groups of mice prior to fasting and were decreased to a similar extent (55-65%) following PCT treatment. Investigation of lower PCT doses (< or = 120 mg/kg) in fasted mice over 24 h demonstrated a greater susceptibility in female MT -/- mice with plasma LD, 2.4-fold and ALT, 7.5-fold greater than in MT +/+ mice at 120 mg/kg PCT. In male MT -/- mice, there was only a trend towards greater susceptibility at 110 mg/kg PCT compared to male MT +/+ mice, and at 120 mg/kg, both male genotypes were equally affected. Investigations with cultured hepatocytes supported the in vivo findings in that there was a trend towards greater toxicity (PCT at 1 and 5 mM for 24 h) in hepatocytes from fed MT -/- mice, with the difference diminished in association with greater hepatotoxicity in hepatocytes from fasted mice. Use of dexamethasone (Dex) to increase MT in the MT +/+ mouse hepatocytes protected from PCT toxicity. Zn alone was not protective. Zn plus Dex offered no protection despite higher MT levels. Generation of apo-MT with Dex may offer more protection than Zn-MT. In conclusion, MT -/- mice were more susceptible than MT +/+ mice to PCT toxicity in the fed state, but the increased susceptibility was much smaller, but still significant, when the effects of glycogen were minimised by fasting.