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- Fatal hypersensitivity reaction to an oral spray of flurbiprofen: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pharm Ther 2013 May 13.
WHAT IS KNOWN AND
OBJECTIVE:Safety of the anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen is comparable with that of other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of the propionic acid class, which are commonly associated with gastrointestinal and renal side effects. Here we report a case of a fatal hypersensitivity reaction to an oral spray of flurbiprofen taken for sore throat.
CASE SUMMARY:A 29-year-old man came to the emergency care unit reporting sore throat with an intense burning sensation associated with fever. Pharyngotonsillitis was diagnosed, and local treatment with oral flurbiprofen spray was prescribed. Immediately after using the spray, the patient experienced a severe reaction characterized by serious dyspnoea, followed by death. The cause of death was heart failure with acute asphyxia from oedema of the glottis. The cause of death was concluded to be hypersensitivity to flurbiprofen spray. WHAT IS NEW AND
CONCLUSION:Oral propionic acid derivatives have been associated with a relatively high frequency of allergic reactions. However, allergy to flurbiprofen has rarely been documented. Scientific literature reports two relevant cases of hypersensitivity reaction to flurbiprofen: in one case, a patient presented with a maculopapular rash 48 h after having taken oral flurbiprofen followed by angio-oedema and hypotension. In another case, a single oral dose of flurbiprofen caused itching and swelling around the eyes, redness and increased lacrimation. We describe, for the first time, a fatal case of hypersensitivity reaction to flurbiprofen oral spray. Hypersensitivity reactions to flurbiprofen are infrequent; however, health professionals should be aware of potential adverse reactions, even during topical administration as oral spray.
- Intravenous Flurbiprofen Axetil Can Stabilize the Hemodynamic Instability Due to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome-Evaluation with Continuous Measurement of the Systemic Vascular Resistance Index using a FloTrac(®) Sensor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013 May 3.
OBJECTIVE:Evaluation of the stabilizing effect of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil against hemodynamic instability due to mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS) by continuous measurement of systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) using a FloTrac(®) sensor was evaluated.
DESIGN:Prospective randomized trial.
SETTING:A single-center study performed in an educational hospital.
PARTICIPANTS:Two prospective studies were carried out, each with 40 patients scheduled for elective open abdominal surgery.
INTERVENTION:Twenty patients received 50mg of flurbiprofen axetil after the recognition of MTS by the anesthesiologist (group FT). The remaining patients served as controls (groups CP and CT).
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:SVRI data was collected every 20 seconds for 1 hour after starting the laparotomy. The average SVRI prior to skin incision was taken as the baseline. Following 3 values were devised to evaluate MTS: the S-value (sum total of changes in SVRI from baseline), the T-value (period during which SVRI remained 20% or more below baseline), and the M-value (maximum change in SVRI from baseline). In group FP, decrease in SVRI was smaller than in group CP, and statistical differences in the 3 values were found. In group FT, SVRI recovered earlier than in group CT, and statistical differences were found in S-value and T-value. However, the M-value had no statistical differences.
CONCLUSIONS:Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can stabilize the hemodynamic instability due to MTS.
- NO-donating tacrine derivatives as potential butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors with vasorelaxation activity. [Journal Article]
- Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2013 Jun 1; 23(11):3162-5.
To search for potent anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) agents with multifunctional effects, 12 NO-donating tacrine-flurbiprofen hybrid compounds (2a-l) were synthesized and biologically evaluated. It was found that all the new target compounds showed selective butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activity in vitro comparable or higher than tacrine and the tacrine-flurbiprofen hybrid compounds 1a-c, and released moderate amount of NO in vitro. The kinetic study suggests that one of the most active and highest BuChE selective compounds 2d may not only compete with the substrate for the same catalytic active site (CAS) but also interact with a second binding site. Furthermore, 2d and 2l exhibited significant vascular relaxation effect, which is beneficial for the treatment of AD. All the results suggest that 2d and 2l might be promising lead compounds for further research.
- Lipid nanocarriers containing ester prodrugs of flurbiprofen preparation, physical-chemical characterization and biological studies. [Journal Article]
- J Biomed Nanotechnol 2013 Feb; 9(2):238-46.
In this paper, the preparation, chemical-physical, technological and in vitro characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) carrying R-flurbiprofen ester prodrugs, were analyzed for a potential pharmaceutical application. R-flurbiprofen was chosen as a model drug because it has been found to play an effective role in counteracting secretases involved in neurodegenerative diseases, although it does not cross the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). In this study, two R-flurbiprofen ester prodrugs (ethyl and hexyl) were successfully synthesized and entrapped into non-pegylated and pegylated NLC. The obtained systems showed average diameters in the colloidal size range, negative zeta potential values and a good loading capacity. Drug release studies in physiological media on all drug-loaded samples showed a controlled drug release both at at pH 7.4 (containing esterase or not) and in human plasma of each ester prodrug, with a complete hydrolysis to R-flurbiprofen in media containing esterase. Empty and ethyl prodrug-loaded NLC were also demonstrated to have no cytotoxicity on human neuroblastoma (LAN5) cells, while hexyl prodrug-loaded NLC caused a reduction of cell viability probably due to a better capability of prodrug-loaded NLC to cross the cell membrane than the free compounds. These data were confirmed by microscopical observation, in which only the cells treated with hexyl prodrug-loaded NLC showed morphological changes. Outcoming data suggest that NLC could be potential carriers for parenteral administration of ethyl ester of R-flurbiprofen in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.
- Development of flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution using sucrose. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Apr 19.
Objective:A novel flurbiprofen-loaded nanoemulsion which gave uniform emulsion droplets with a narrow size distribution was previously reported to be prepared using membrane emulsification method. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticle with a narrow size distribution and improved bioavailability. Method: The nanoparticle was prepared by solidifying nanoemulsion using sucrose as a carrier via spray drying method. Its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, DSC and PXRD. Furthermore, dissolution and bioavailability in rats were evaluated compared to a flurbiprofen-loaded commercial product.
Results:The flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles with flurbiprofen/sucrose/surfactant mixture (1/20/2, weight ratio) gave good solidification and no stickiness. They associated with about 70 000-fold improved drug solubility and had a mean size of about 300 nm with a narrow size distribution. Flurbiprofen was present in a changed amorphous state in these nanoparticles. Moreover, the nanoparticles gave significantly shorter Tmax, and higher AUC and Cmax of the drug compared to the commercial product (p < 0.05). In particular, they showed about nine-fold higher AUC of the drug than did the commercial product
Conclusion:These flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles prepared with sucrose by the membrane emulsification and spray drying method would be a potential candidate for orally delivering poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen with enhanced bioavailability.
- Anandamide deficiency and heightened neuropathic pain in aged mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuropharmacology 2013 Apr 15.:204-215.
Damaging of peripheral nerves may result in chronic neuropathic pain for which the likelihood is increased in the elderly. We assessed in mice if age-dependent alterations of endocannabinoids contributed to the heightened vulnerability to neuropathic pain at old age. We assessed nociception, endocannabinoids and the therapeutic efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in young and aged mice in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. R-flurbiprofen was used because it is able to reduce neuropathic pain in young mice in part by increasing anandamide. Aged mice developed stronger nociceptive hypersensitivity after sciatic nerve injury than young mice. This was associated with low anandamide levels in the dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, thalamus and cortex, which further decreased after nerve injury. In aged mice, R-flurbiprofen had only weak antinociceptive efficacy and it failed to restore normal anandamide levels after nerve injury. In terms of the mechanisms, we found that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which degrades anandamide, was upregulated after nerve injury at both ages, so that this upregulation likely did not account for the age-dependent differences. However, enzymes contributing to oxidative metabolism of anandamide, namely cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyp2D6, were increased in the brain of aged mice, possibly enhancing the oxidative breakdown of anandamide. This may overwhelm the capacity of R-flurbiprofen to restore anandamide homeostasis and may contribute to the heightened risk for neuropathic pain at old age.
- Metabolism and pathways for denitration of organic nitrates in the human liver. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Apr 17.
Liver first-pass metabolism differs considerably among organic nitrates but little information exists on the mechanism of denitration of these compounds in hepatic tissue. The metabolism of nitrooxybutyl-esters of flurbiprofen and ferulic-acid, a class of organic nitrates with potential therapeutic implication in variety of different conditions, was investigated in comparison with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in human liver by a multiple approach, using a spontaneous metabolism-independent NO donor (NOC-5) as a reference tool. Nitrooxybutyl-esters were rapidly and quantitatively metabolized to their respective parent compounds and the organic nitrate moiety nitrooxybutyl-alcohol (NOBA). Differently from GTN which was rapidly and completely metabolized to nitrite, NOBA was slowly metabolized to nitrate. In contrast to the spontaneous NO donor NOC-5, NOBA and GTN did not generate detectable NO and failed to suppress the activity of cytochromeP450; an enzyme known to be inhibited by NO. The direct identification of NOBA following liver metabolism targets this compound as the functional organic nitrate metabolite of nitrooxybutyl-esters. Moreover the investigation of the pathways for denitration of NOBA and GTN suggests that organic nitrates are not primarily metabolized to NO in the liver but to different extents of nitrite or nitrate depending from their different chemical structure. It follows that cytochromeP450-dependent metabolism of concomitant drugs is not likely to be affected by oral co-administration of organic nitrates. However the first-pass may differently affect the pharmacological profile of organic nitrates in connection with the different extent of denitration and the distinct bioactive species generated and exported from the liver (nitrate or nitrite).
- Stereoselective Glucuronidation of Ornidazole in Humans: Predominant Contribution of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases 1A9 and 2B7. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Metab Dispos 2013 Apr 9.
Ornidazole [R,S-1-chloro-3-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol] is a chiral 5-nitroimidazole class antimicrobial agent. This study aimed to investigate the principal metabolic pathway of ornidazole in humans and identify the major enzymes involved. A total of 19 metabolites were identified in human urine collected from patients with hepatobiliary diseases after an intravenous drip infusion of 500 mg of racemic ornidazole. Stereoselective glucuronidation, followed by renal excretion, was the principal metabolic pathway of ornidazole in humans, accounting for 37.3% of the administered dose. Screening assays with 12 available human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) demonstrated that UGT1A9 was the predominant UGT isoform involved in R-ornidazole glucuronidation, whereas S-ornidazole glucuronidation was almost exclusively catalyzed by UGT2B7. Chemical inhibition study with niflumic acid and flurbiprofen supported these findings. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in human liver microsomes (HLMs), human kidney microsomes (HKMs), UGT1A9 and 2B7. The Km values for UGT1A9 (15.6 ± 1.6 mM for R-ornidazole) and 2B7 (3.8 ± 0.9 mM for S-ornidazole) were quite similar to those determined in HLMs and HKMs (20.1 ± 1.4 and 17.7 ± 4.0 mM for R-ornidazole; 6.6 ± 1.3 and 3.2 ± 0.4 mM for S-ornidazole). The in vitro intrinsic clearance (CLint) ratios of S- and R-ornidazole were approximately 4.3 in HLMs and 6.5 in HKMs, respectively. The hepatic and renal clearances were estimated based on the well-stirred model. Overall, stereoselective glucuronidation was the principal metabolic pathway of ornidazole in humans. Furthermore, UGT1A9 and 2B7 were the predominant UGT isoforms responsible for R- and S-ornidazole glucuronidation in humans, respectively.
- Flurbiprofen microgranules for relief of sore throat: a randomised, double-blind trial. [Journal Article]
- Br J Gen Pract 2013 Feb; 63(607):149-55.
Many people with sore throat seek, and are often inappropriately prescribed, antibiotics.The objective of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules versus placebo. These microgranules are a possible alternative treatment for patients with sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI).Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study conducted at eight primary care sites in Australia.Participants with sore throat of onset within the past 4 days received either flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules or non-medicated placebo microgranules. Throat soreness, difficulty in swallowing, sore throat pain intensity, sore throat relief, oral temperature, and treatment benefits were all assessed at regular intervals.Of 373 patients from eight centres, 186 received flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules and 187 received placebo microgranules (intent-to-treat population). Throat soreness was significantly reduced over the first 2 hours after the first dose. Reductions in difficulty in swallowing were observed at all time points from 5 to 360 minutes after the first dose, after taking flurbiprofen microgranules versus placebo. Sore throat relief was also evident at 1 minute and lasted for at least 6 hours. The multiple-dose efficacy results showed reduction of difficulty in swallowing at the end of days 1-3 and sore throat relief at the end of day 1.Microgranules containing flurbiprofen 8.75 mg provided fast and effective relief from sore throat due to URTI and represent an alternative treatment option to antibiotic therapy.