Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Functional characterization of 32 CYP2C9 allelic variants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Jun 11.
Genetic variations in cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) contribute to interindividual variability in the metabolism of clinically used drugs such as warfarin and tolbutamide. We functionally characterized 32 types of allelic variant CYP2C9 proteins. Recombinant CYP2C9 proteins generated using a heterologous expression system are useful for comparing functional changes in CYP2C9 variant proteins expressed from low-frequency alleles. Wild-type CYP2C9 and its 31 variants were found to be transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, and the enzymatic activity of the CYP2C9 variants was characterized using S-warfarin as a representative substrate. Among the 32 types of CYP2C9 allelic variants tested, CYP2C9.18, CYP2C9.21, CYP2C9.24, CYP2C9.26, CYP2C9.33 and CYP2C9.35 exhibited no enzyme activity, and 12 types showed significantly decreased enzyme activity. In vitro analysis of CYP2C9 variant proteins should be useful for predicting CYP2C9 phenotypes and for application to personalized drug therapy.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 11 June 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.22.
- Microdose pharmacogenetic study of (14)C-tolbutamide in healthy subjects with accelerator mass spectrometry to examine the effects of CYP2C9(∗)3 on its pharmacokinetics and metabolism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharm Sci 2013 May 29.
Microdose study enables us to understand the pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs in humans prior to the conventional clinical trials. The advantage of microdose study is that the unexpected pharmacological/toxicological effects of drugs caused by drug interactions or genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes/transporters can be avoided due to the limited dose. With a combination use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and (14)C-labaled compounds, the pharmacokinetics of both parent drug and its metabolites can be sensitively monitored. Thus, to demonstrate the usability of microdose study with AMS for the prediction of the impact of genetic polymorphisms of CYP enzyme on the pharmacokinetics of unchanged drugs and metabolites, we performed microdose pharmacogenetic study using tolbutamide as a CYP2C9 probe drug. A microdose of (14)C-tolbutamide (100μg) was administered orally to healthy volunteers with the CYP2C9(∗)1/(∗)1 or CYP2C9(∗)1/(∗)3 diplotype. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve for the (14)C-radioactivity, determined by AMS, or that for the parent drug, determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, was about 1.6 times or 1.7 times greater in the CYP2C9(∗)1/(∗)3 than in the CYP2C9(∗)1/(∗)1 group, which was comparable to the previous reports at therapeutic dose. In the plasma and urine, tolbutamide, carboxytolbutamide, and 4-hydroxytolbutamide were detected and practically no other metabolites could be found in both diplotype groups. The fraction of metabolites in plasma radioactivity was slightly lower in the CYP2C9(∗)1/(∗)3 group. Microdose study can be used for the prediction of the effects of genetic polymorphisms of enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of drugs with minimal care of their pharmacological/toxicological effects.
- Assessment of the effects of Radix Bupleuri and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri on cytochrome 450 activity by a six-drug cocktail approach. [Journal Article]
- Chin J Nat Med 2013 May; 11(3):302-8.
To assess the effects of Radix Bupleuri and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri on cytochrome 450 activity of rats.Six probe drugs (caffeine, midazolam, dextromethorphan, tolbutamide, omeprazole, chlorzoxazone) were simultaneously given to rats after different dosing of Radix Bupleuri or vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri for seven days. The plasma concentrations of the six probes were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and their corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated.The AUC and T1/2 of midazolam, dextromethorphan and chlorzoxazone decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in rats after different dosing of Radix Bupleuri or vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri for seven days. Treatment of Radix Bupleuri decreased T1/2 and AUC of omeprazole, but treatment of vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri with normal dose did not change the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole. The pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide in all vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri-treated rats showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) from that of controlled rats, however, treatment of Radix Bupleuri decreased tolbutamide T1/2. The pharmacokinetics of caffeine in all Radix Bupleuri or vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri-treated rats showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) from that of controlled rats.The Radix Bupleuri and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri have different effects on the CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Radix Bupleuri and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri have strong induction effects on the CYP2E1, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, however, have no impact on CYP1A2. The reason of different therapeutic effects of Radix Bupleuri and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri extract may be the different effects of Radix Bupleuri and vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri on the CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.
- Mortality outcomes of different sulphonylurea drugs: the results of a 14-year cohort study of type 2 diabetic patients. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Endocrinol 2013 Jul; 169(1):117-26.
Available data about mortality of type 2 diabetic patients treated with different sulphonylureas are scarce and contradictory.We evaluated the associations between all-cause and cause-specific mortality and treatments with different sulphonylureas in a retrospective cohort of type 2 diabetic patients from a diabetes clinic.ALL 1277 PATIENTS TREATED WITH SULPHONYLUREAS DURING 19961997 WERE ENROLLED: 159 patients were treated with tolbutamide, 977 glibenclamide and 141 gliclazide. The baseline data (centralised laboratory parameters, anthropometric data and presence of chronic complications) were abstracted from the clinical records. Information on vital status was collected from demographic files after 14-year follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated with Cox (all-cause mortality) or Fine and Gray models (cause-specific mortality), including several potential confounders.FIVE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SIX PATIENTS DIED DURING THE FOLLOW-UP: 262 from cardiovascular causes, 158 from cancer and 136 from other causes. When compared with the glibenclamide users, the gliclazide and tolbutamide users showed a significantly lower cancer mortality (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.16-0.55, and HR=0.48; 95% CI 0.29-0.79 respectively). These results were strongly confirmed in the 555 patients on sulphonylurea monotherapy. None of the patients who were treated with gliclazide monotherapy died from cancer during the follow-up, and the patients on tolbutamide treatment exhibited a lower cancer mortality than the glibenclamide users (HR=0.40; 95% CI 0.22-0.71). Data did not change after stratification for the duration of sulphonylurea treatment from diabetes diagnosis to the study enrolment.Cancer mortality was markedly reduced in the patients on gliclazide and tolbutamide treatment. These results suggest additional benefits for these drugs beyond their blood glucose-lowering effect and strongly advocate for further investigation.
- GW9508 inhibits insulin secretion by activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat pancreatic β-cells. [Journal Article]
- J Mol Endocrinol 2013; 51(1):69-77.
GW9508 is an agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) that is expressed in pancreatic β-cells and is reported to regulate insulin secretion. However, the effects of GW9508 on pancreatic β-cells in primary culture have not been well investigated. This study measured the acute effects of GW9508 on insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets in primary culture, and the insulin secretion-related events such as the changes in membrane potential, ATP-sensitive potassium currents (KATP currents), and intracellular Ca(2)(+) concentrations ([Ca(2)(+)]i) of rat islet β-cells were also recorded. GW9508 (10-40 μM) did not influence basal insulin levels at 2 mM glucose, but it (above 20 μM) significantly inhibited 5 and 15 mM glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). GW9508 did not inhibit insulin secretion stimulated by tolbutamide, the closer of KATP channels. GW9508 activated KATP channels and blocked the membrane depolarization and the increase in [Ca(2)(+)]i that were stimulated by glucose. GW9508 itself stimulated a transient increase in [Ca(2)(+)]i, which was fully blocked by depletion of intracellular Ca(2)(+) stores with thapsigargin or by inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) activity with U73122. GW9508-induced activation of KATP channels was only partly inhibited by U73122 treatment. In conclusion, although it stimulates a transient release of Ca(2)(+) from intracellular Ca(2)(+) stores via activation of PLC, GW9508 inhibits GSIS by activating KATP channels probably in a distal step to GPR40 activation in rat β-cells.
- Post-hypoxic recovery of respiratory rhythm generation is gender dependent. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e60695.
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC) is a critical neuronal network for the generation of breathing. Lesioning the preBötC abolishes respiration, while when isolated in vitro, the preBötC continues to generate respiratory rhythmic activity. Although several factors influence rhythmogenesis from this network, little is known about how gender may affect preBötC function. This study examines the influence of gender on respiratory activity and in vitro rhythmogenesis from the preBötC. Recordings of respiratory activity from neonatal mice (P10-13) show that sustained post-hypoxic depression occurs with greater frequency in males compared to females. Moreover, extracellular population recordings from the preBötC in neonatal brainstem slices (P10-13) reveal that the time to the first inspiratory burst following reoxygenation (TTFB) is significantly delayed in male rhythmogenesis when compared to the female rhythms. Altering activity of ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP) with either the agonist, diazoxide, or the antagonist, tolbutamide, eliminates differences in TTFB. By contrast, glucose supplementation improves post-hypoxic recovery of female but not male rhythmogenesis. We conclude that post-hypoxic recovery of respiration is gender dependent, which is, in part, centrally manifested at the level of the preBötC. Moreover, these findings provide potential insight into the basis of increased male vulnerability in a variety of conditions such as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
- Detection of K(ATP) channels subunits in human term placental explants and evaluation of their implication in human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) release. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Placenta 2013 Jun; 34(6):467-73.
ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) have been identified in a variety of tissues. Nevertheless, the presence and role of such metabolism-sensitive K+ channels still remain to be unraveled in the reproductive system.The study evaluates the presence of KATP channel subunits in human term placental explants by immunohistochemistry, proximity ligation assay, Western blot and RT-PCR techniques. The potential involvement of KATP channels in human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) release has been assessed radioimmunologically from human term placental explants incubated in the presence of different KATP channel modulators.Immunolocalization of the KATP channel subunits documented both the Kir6.2 and SUR2 subunits in the syncytiotrophoblast of human term placenta. Their colocalization was demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and their presence was further confirmed by immunoblotting and RT-PCR. Kir6.1 subunit was immunolocalized in blood vessels media. SUR1 was not expressed at the mRNA level. Incubation of human term placental explants in the presence of increasing concentrations of modulators of KATP channels such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, pinacidil or diazoxide did not affect the measured hCG and hPL secretory rates.Our study reports, for the first time, the presence of the KATP channel subunits Kir6.2 and SUR2 in the human term syncytiotrophoblast. However, under the present experimental conditions, the activation or inhibition of these putative KATP channels by different pharmacological agents did not affect the hPL and hCG secretory rate of human term placental explants.The present findings suggest that the human term syncytiotrophoblast might be endowed with KATP channels. Further studies should clarify their implication in the syncytiotrophoblast ionic homeostasis and hormone regulation.
- Development and validation of a simple LC method for the determination of phenacetin, coumarin, tolbutamide, chlorzoxazone, testosterone and their metabolites as markers of cytochromes 1A2, 2A6, 2C11, 2E1 and 3A2 in rat microsomal medium. [In Vitro, Journal Article]
- Pharmazie 2013 Jan; 68(1):19-26.
Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for the oxidative metabolism of most pharmaceutical compounds. A "cocktail" approach which employs simultaneous administration of a mixture of substrates of CYP enzymes was often used to assess the metabolic activity of multiple P450 forms in one experiment. Phenacetin, coumarin, tolbutamide, chlorzoxazone and testosterone are commonly used as probe substrates to evaluate cytochrome P450 function. An analytical strategy to simultaneously extract and analyze the five probe substrates and their major metabolites by HPLC-DAD was developed. The incubation was done with all the substrates in one step. The ten analytes were extracted simultaneously by solid-phase extraction (SPE) from rat liver microsomes. A C18 analytical column and mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.02% aqueous phosphoric acid were used for the chromatographic separation with DAD detection. Limits of quantification varied between 0.02378 and 0.2361 microg/mL which contributed to quantify all these drugs and metabolites with UV detection. The method is applicable for the modeling and description of pharmacological interactions on rat cytochromes P450 or can be used for in vitro evaluation of cytochromes 1A2, 2A6, 2C11, 2E1 and 3A2.
- Drug cocktail interaction study on the effect of the orally administered lavender oil preparation silexan on cytochrome P450 enzymes in healthy volunteers. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Drug Metab Dispos 2013 May; 41(5):987-93.
This cocktail study evaluated the interaction potential of the oral lavender oil preparation silexan with major P450 (cytochrome P450) enzymes.Sixteen healthy male or female Caucasians completed this double-blind, randomized, 2-fold crossover study. Silexan (160 mg) or placebo were administered once daily for 11 days. Additionally, on day 11 of both study periods, 150 mg caffeine (CYP1A2), 125 mg tolbutamide (CYP2C9), 20 mg omeprazole (CYP2C19), 30 mg dextromethorphan-HBr (CYP2D6), and 2 mg midazolam (CYP3A4) were administered orally. Formal interaction was excluded if the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the silexan over placebo ratios for phenotyping metrics (primary: AUC(0-t)) was within a 0.70-1.43 range.According to the AUC(0-t) comparisons, silexan had no relevant effect on CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 activity. Secondary phenotyping metrics confirmed this result. Mean ratios for all omeprazole-derived metrics were close to unity. The 90% CI for the AUC(0-t) ratio of omeprazole but not for omeprazole/5-OH-omeprazole plasma ratio 3 hours post-dose or omeprazole/5-OH-omeprazole AUC(0-t) ratio (secondary CYP2C19 metrics) was above the predefined threshold of 1.43, probably caused by the inherent high variability of omeprazole pharmacokinetics. Silexan and the phenotyping drugs were well tolerated. Repeated silexan (160 mg/day) administration has no clinically relevant inhibitory or inducing effects on the CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 enzymes in vivo.
- Non insulin producing cell line, MIA PaCa-2 is rendered insulin producing in vitro via mesenchymal epithelial transition. [Journal Article]
- J Cell Biochem 2013 Jul; 114(7):1642-52.
We used non-insulin producing pancreatic carcinoma cell line, MIA PaCa-2 and have modulated its culture conditions by using 1% matrigel as extracellular matrix, N2, B27 growth supplements and serum free conditions. Expression of markers was analyzed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and in vitro functional assay for insulin and C-peptide release was assessed using insulin and C-peptide ELISA, respectively. The cells grown under this altered culture conditions have exhibited a transition in the morphology from mesenchymal to epithelial with extensive piling up of cells. A reduction in doubling time from 40 to 18 h, upregulation of beta islet specific markers like pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx-1), C-peptide, insulin, and disappearance of markers like vimentin were observed. On the functional level, the altered morphology bearing cells released high levels of insulin in response to 10 µM tolbutamide (an activator of insulin pathway) and reduced insulin secretion in response to 50 µM nifedipine (inhibitor of the pathway). On the contrary, the original cells (mesenchymal morphology) had failed to release any insulin in response to varying concentrations of glucose and also the activators and inhibitors of the insulin pathway. This investigation thus provides a basis for using this basic developmental biology phenomenon mesenchymal to epithelial transition as a strategy to generate a large number of functional islets from stem cells of mesenchymal origin. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 1642-1652, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.