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- Spontaneous perforation of Meckel's diverticulum Case report and review of literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Ital Chir 2013.
AIMS:Meckel's diverticulum is a congenital anomaly found in approximately 2% of the general population. The complications caused by Meckel's diverticulum include intussusception, volvulus in adolescents and acute bleeding in adults 3. This is an interesting and unusual case of spontaneous perforation of Meckel's diverticulum, in a Caucasian woman.
METHODS:A 46-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted because of severe abdominal pain and diarrhoea. A CT (Fig. 1) scan of the abdomen and pelvis was obtained, which demonstrated free air and a moderate amount of free fluid in the pelvis tracking up the gutters. The patient was consented and taken to theatre for diagnostic laparoscopy. A normal appendix was identified during laparoscopic examination of the abdomen. An inflammatory mass was seen with turbid fluid collection in the pelvic area on laparoscopy. The inflammatory mass turned out to be a perforated Meckel's diverticulum (Fig. 2). Wedge resection of the perforated Meckel's diverticulum was performed with endoGIA stapler fired at the base of diverticulum. Histopathology showed heterotopic gastric mucosa within the diverticulum and evidence of acute inflammation with perforation. The patient was followed up for two years and is symptom-free.
DISCUSSION:The total lifetime rate of complications is widely accepted at 4%, with a male-to female ratio ranging from 1.8:1 to 3:1 4,5. Hemorrhage is the most common presentation in children and is reported in over 50% of cases 10. In adults, hemorrhage occurs often but only in 11.8% is present 5. 90% of bleeding diverticula contain heterotropic mucosa, most often gastric mucosa 13. In one study, 11% of children with complicated Meckel's diverticulum (MD) were initially diagnosed with appendicitis.8
CONCLUSIONS:The diagnosis of ruptured MD was ultimately made by laparoscopy. This case demonstrates that a healthy degree of suspicion for complicated MD should be present when dealing with a questionable diagnosis of appendicitis. Laparoscopy has a definite role in patients with symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum, especially when the diagnosis is in doubt and it has proved definitive in facilitating diagnosis. KEY WORDS: Gastric mucosa, Heterotropic mucosa, Merkel's diverticulum.
- [Surgical treatment of acute appendicitis]. [Journal Article]
- Rev Prat 2013 Apr; 63(4):538-9.
- [Indications for medical treatment of acute appendicitis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Prat 2013 Apr; 63(4):535-7, 540-1.
The acute appendicitis (AA) is an infection of the vermiform appendix and conservative antibiotic treatment is regularly mentioned since 50 years. Its success depends on the susceptibility of bacteria to empiric antibiotic therapy. The main bias of the studies comparing conservative antibiotic treatment versus appendectomy is that AA can not be proven histologically during medical treatment. However, after antibiotic conservative, 12-23% of patients are operated early after revaluation, and 11 to 15% in the first year for a total of 25% to 40% failure of conservative antibiotic treatment when proposed in first intention. In case of complicated appendicitis, severe infection and peritonitis, surgical treatment should be carried out urgently and remains the gold standard.
- [Acute appendicitis diagnosis in adults]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Prat 2013 Apr; 63(4):529-34.
Since the development of the new imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography, the attitude over acute appendicitis syndrome has drastically evolved, and the rate of negative appendectomies has noticeably decreased. These techniques allow, not only to improve the performance of the diagnosis of appendicitis, but also to assess the severity and the complications prior to surgery. Furthermore they are useful for establishing alternative diagnoses of the many diseases that may mimic acute appendicitis.
- [Guidelines for diagnosis of acute appendicitis in childhood]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Prat 2013 Apr; 63(4):524-9.
Facing a child with suspected acute appendicitis it is important to remind that a child is not a smaller adult. The main risk is to over-diagnose acute appendicitis in elder children and to misdiagnose it in preschool children and infants because it is less frequent, with early complications, and/or confusing symptoms in these age groups. Careful anamnesis and examination of the whole child--not only the belly--are mandatory. Biological findings of bacterial infection and US findings suggesting acute appendicitis are helpful. In doubtful cases the best help is offered by observation of the patient, symptoms and signs worsening necessarily in case of an acute appendicitis.
- [Treatment of acute appendicitis: history and evolution of practices]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Prat 2013 Apr; 63(4):522-3.
Since the princeps description of the appendectomy by Mac Burney in 1891, the treatment of appendicitis is still based on the resection of the appendix. The better quality of the pre-operative imaging leads to a significant decreased of unnecessary appendectomies during the last 30 years. The laparoscopic approach did not make a real change and is not the gold standard except in obese patient or young female. The question of an exclusive medical treatment is still a matter of debate, but it remains not recommended.
- A descriptive cost analysis study of cases of right iliac fossa pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Surg 2013 May 13.
Patients with suspected appendicitis comprise a large proportion of general surgical workload. The resulting healthcare burden is significant when one considers that investigations, observation and surgical procedures are often needed. As no previous study has examined the cost of managing patients with suspected appendicitis, we performed a cost analysis study of management of cases of right iliac fossa (RIF) pain in University Hospital Limerick. Patients who were admitted with right iliac fossa pain from 1(st) April 2011 to 4(th) May 2011 were identified prospectively. After discharge, patients' medical records were reviewed. Costing data collected comprised details on length of stay, number and type of radiological investigations, number and type of blood investigations, medications administered and operations performed. Costs for radiological investigations were obtained from casemix data. Blood investigation costs were obtained from relevant laboratories. Medication costs were obtained from the pharmacy department. Operation costs were based on the cost of equipment combined with cost relating to operating theatre time and recovery unit time. Due to unavailability of data on Irish public hospital bed-day cost, a private hospital provided cost details on this aspect. 94 patients (M= 33, F=61) were admitted with RIF pain during this time period. 62 underwent surgery. There were 53 appendicectomies performed with 42 (79%) positive for appendicitis on histological analysis. Blood test, radiology, pharmacy, operative and bed-day costs were €1,857, €6,252, €3,517, €184,191 and €152,706 respectively. The total estimated cost was €348,525 (€3,708 average per patient). There is a high cost associated with managing suspected appendicitis in Ireland. Strategies to reduce cost include reducing unnecessary admission and unnecessary operations. Reducing LOS may be another potentially valuable cost saving method. It is imperative that resources are channelled into the provision of accurate costing structures.
- [Serum microRNA-21 usefulness in inflammatory pathology of the colon.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2013 May 13.
BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs are 20-22 nucleotide molecular structures with post-transcriptional activity that are involved in the immune response, as well as in the inflammatory pathways of different cells and tissues.
AIMS:We present herein a prospective study in which serum microRNA-21 expression was determined in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis as a model of bowel inflammation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:A prospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis was conducted. Serum microRNA-21 was analyzed through the PCR of blood samples taken from the patients prior to surgery. MicroRNA-21 values were compared with the analytic variables (leukocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, prothrombin activity, glucose, urea, and creatinine) and the anatomopathologic variables (normal appendix, phlegmonous, gangrenous, and perforated acute appendicitis).
RESULTS:A total of 60 patients with acute appendicitis diagnosis were consecutively included in the study from June to October 2009. Sixty-six percent of the patients were men (40 men and 20 women), with a mean age of 26.2±14.8 years. The mean absolute level of microRNA-21 was 24.8±0.93, whereas the mean microRNA-21 gene expression was 1.04±0.28. No correlation between the analytic and anatomopathologic parameters evaluated was observed (P=.47).
CONCLUSIONS:It is necessary to continue to search for the most appropriate microRNAs, so that their determination in serum can lead to greater precision in establishing the diagnosis and outcome of inflammatory disorders of the bowel.
- Rare case of an abdominal mass presenting as acute abdomen: Torsion of the vermiform appendix. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Int 2013 Apr; 55(2):e14-6.
Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rarely observed acute abdominal emergency. The clinical manifestations are similar to acute appendicitis. It should be included in the differential diagnosis if a patient presents with intermittent abdominal pain and an acute abdominal emergency. Here, we describe a 4-year-old male patient with a mass located in the right lower abdominal quadrant, whose clinical findings were consistent with an acute abdomen. The gangrenous appendix was found in the pelvic cavity and its stump was twisted clockwise. A 1.5-cm fecalith was detected in the appendix lumen and appendectomy was performed.
- The cost effectiveness of early management of acute appendicitis underlies the importance of curative surgical services to a primary healthcare programme. [Journal Article]
- Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2013 May; 95(4):280-4.
Appendicitis in the developing world is a cause of significant preventable morbidity. This prospective study from a regional hospital in South Africa constructs a robust cost model that demonstrates the cost effectiveness of an efficient curative surgical service in a primary healthcare-orientated system.A prospective audit of all patients with acute appendicitis admitted to Edendale Hospital was undertaken from September 2010 to September 2011. A microcosting approach was used to construct a cost model based on the estimated cost of operative and perioperative interventions together with the associated hospital stay. For cost analysis, patients were divided into the following cohorts: uncomplicated appendicitis, complicated appendicitis with localised intra-abdominal sepsis, complicated appendicitis with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis, with and without intensive care unit admission.Two hundred patients were operated on for acute appendicitis. Of these, 36% (71/200) had uncomplicated appendicitis and 57% (114/200) had perforation. Pathologies other than appendicitis were present in 8% (15/200) and these patients were excluded. Of the perforated appendices, 45% (51/114) had intra-abdominal contamination that was localised while 55% (63/114) generalised sepsis. The mean cost for each patient was: 6,578 ZAR (£566) for uncomplicated appendicitis; 14,791 ZAR (£1,272) for perforation with localised intra-abdominal sepsis and 34,773 ZAR (£2,990) for perforation with generalised intra-abdominal sepsis without intensive care admission. With intensive care admission it was 77,816 ZAR (£6,692). The total cost of managing acute appendicitis was 4,272,871 ZAR (£367,467). Almost 90% of this total cost was owing to advanced disease with abdominal sepsis and therefore potentially preventable.Early uncomplicated appendicitis treated appropriately carries little morbidity and is relatively inexpensive to treat. As the pathology progresses, the cost rises exponentially. An efficient curative surgical service must be regarded as a cost effective component of a primary healthcare orientated system.