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Appendicitis Acute [keywords]
- Transition Toward Laparoscopic Appendicectomy at an UK Center Over a 7-Year Period. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2014 Apr 12.
Acute appendicitis remains the most common indication for emergency abdominal surgery in the United Kingdom. Although laparoscopic appendicectomy has demonstrable advantages over open appendicectomy, uptake has not been universal. The aims of this study were to describe trends in laparoscopic appendicectomy in a District General Hospital in Scotland.Retrospective review of appendix histopathology records within NHS Fife between 2003 and 2010. Note review of cases of acute appendicitis managed with laparoscopic appendicectomy was performed. Perioperative variables in perforated and nonperforated appendicitis were compared. A multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with developing complications was performed.Between 2003 and 2010, 237 laparoscopic appendicectomies were performed. The rate of laparoscopic appendicectomy increased from 2.5% in 2003 to 78% in 2010. In 50% of cases, the trainee surgeon was the primary operator. Complications occurred in 9.6% and the mortality rate was 0.4%. No factors on multivariate logistic regression predicted development of complications.We describe a change in practice towards laparoscopic appendicectomy for the treatment of acute appendicitis over a 7-year period. Furthermore, laparoscopic appendicectomy is associated with acceptable morbidity rates.
- What Are the Most Clinically Useful Cutoffs for the Alvarado and Pediatric Appendicitis Scores? A Systematic Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Emerg Med 2014 Apr 11.
The objective of this study is to systematically review the accuracy of the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score and to identify optimal cutoffs for low- and high-risk populations.We performed a systematic review of the literature and identified 26 studies of the accuracy of the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score. Data were abstracted in parallel, and only prospective, cohort studies that avoided verification bias were included. We calculated summary likelihood ratios for low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups, using all possible cutoffs based on available data, even if not reported in the original study.The pretest probability of appendicitis was approximately 33% in studies of children and approximately 66% in studies of adults. Likelihood ratios at different cutoffs for the Alvarado score in adults were as follows: 0.03 (<4 points), 0.42 (4 to 6 points), and 3.4 (≥7 points); and 0.01 (<5 points), 0.98 (5 to 8 points), and 6.7 (≥9 points). Likelihood ratios for the Alvarado score in children were as follows: 0.02 (<4 points), 0.27 (4 to 6 points), and 4.2 (≥7 points); and 0.04 (<5 points), 1.2 (5 to 8 points), and 8.5 (≥9 points). For the Pediatric Appendicitis Score, likelihood ratios were 0.13 (<4 points), 0.70 (4 to 7 points), and 8.1 (≥8 points).For children with a pretest probability of acute appendicitis of 60% or less, an Alvarado score below 4 rules out the diagnosis; this is also true for a score less than 5 if the pretest probability is up to approximately 40%. In adults with a pretest probability greater than or equal to 60%, an Alvarado score of 8 or higher rules in the diagnosis, whereas one of 9 or higher rules in the diagnosis at pretest probabilities greater than or equal to 40%. The Pediatric Appendicitis Score did not identify clinically useful low- or high-risk groups at typical pretest probabilities.
- Initial experience with same day discharge after laparoscopic appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Surg Res 2014 Mar 12.
Although many laparoscopic procedures are performed on an outpatient basis, patients who have undergone a laparoscopic appendectomy have typically stayed at least overnight. Recently, data in both the pediatric and adult literature suggest that same day discharge (SDD) for acute nonperforated appendicitis is safe and associated with high patient and parent satisfaction. We have recently begun attempting SDD for nonperforated appendicitis, and this study is an analysis of our initial experience.A retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis at our institution from January 2012 to July 2013 was performed. Demographics, length of stay, hospital course, and outcomes were measured. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Comparative analysis was performed using a t-test.A total of 588 laparoscopic appendectomies for nonperforated appendicitis were performed over an 18-mo period. Approximately 28% (n = 128) were discharged on the day of surgery. Of the remaining patients, 12.9% (n = 59) stayed overnight for medical reasons, 0.4% (n = 2) stayed for social reasons, 3.9% (n = 18) stayed because the operation ended late in the evening, and 82.8% (n = 381) stayed because of clinical care habits. Compared with patients who stayed overnight, there was no statistically significant difference in readmission rates (0.7% versus 1.9%, P = 0.6%), follow-up before scheduled appointment (5.4% versus 5.4%, P = 1.0), and complication rate (0.7% versus 2.6%, P = 0.3). Patients whose operation ended later in the day had a longer hospital stay. We observed a trend toward more SDDs, the further we got from the initiation of our protocol.SDD is safe for children undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis. The two main barriers to SDD were time of day for the operation and provider habit, both of which improved as more practitioners felt comfortable with the concept. SDD requires extensive education within the hospital system, and we have initiated an aggressive prospective protocol to improve the results.
- Long-term outcome of patients with acute non-specific abdominal pain compared to acute appendicitis: prospective symptom audit after two decades. [Journal Article]
- Acta Chir Belg 2014 Jan-Feb; 114(1):46-51.
Non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP) and acute appendicitis (AA) are the two most frequent diagnoses of acute abdomen in the emergency wards. The long-term morbidity, mortality and quality of life of the patients with NSAP compared to AA are unknown.The study group consisted of 186 patients with acute NSAP compared to 147 patients with AA initially treated during 1985-1986. Medical history, social background, quality of life and abdominal symptoms were assessed with standardized questionnaires in both groups during 2006-2009. The patients who continued to have abdominal symptoms were invited to a check-up visit.During 1985-6, the NSAP group had more previous abdominal symptoms and operations than the AA group. Some 29% of patients with NSAP and 11% of patients with AA had still abdominal symptoms at long-term check-up (p < 0.0001). Chronic abdominal pain (38 vs 17) and peptic ulcer disease (18 vs 2) occurred more often in the NSAP group than in the controls, respectively (p = 0.001). After five years of follow-up, 11 patients in the NSAP group and 6 patients in the AA group had died (ns). During the twenty years of follow-up, mortality was higher (46/22, 25/15%) in the patients with NSAP than in controls (p = 0.013). Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in both groups (18 NSAP vs 5 AA, p = 0.017). The quality of life scores were comparable in both study groups.Over 70% of NSAP- and almost 90% of AA-patients were free of symptoms after 20 years of follow-up. Mortality was higher and various alimentary track diseases were more frequent in patients with NSAP than in AA.
- Unusual findings in appendectomy specimens of adults: retrospective analyses of 1466 patients and a review of literature. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Feb; 16(2):e12931.
Diseases and tumors of the appendix vermiformis are very rare, except acute appendicitis.This retrospective study was conducted to document the unusual findings in appendectomy specimens.Data of 1466 adult patients were gathered retrospectively. Appendectomy was performed in 1169 and in 297 patients following a diagnosis of acute appendicitis and during other abdominal operations, respectively. The data of 57 (3.88 %) patients who were pathologically reported to have unusual appendix findings were retrospectively collected. The records were analyzed according to patients' age, gender, clinical presentations, operative reports, pathological reports and follow up.Unusual pathologic examination findings were detected in the appendectomy specimens of 57 patients with a mean age of 48.34 ± 19. Twenty-nine patients (50.8 %) were male and 28 (49.2 %) were female. Normal appendix tissues were observed in specimens of 26 (45.6 %) patients and inflamed appendix in 31 (54.3 %). The most common unusual finding was parasitic diseases of the intestine. Pathological diagnosis of malignancy and benign features were reported in specimens of 14 and 43 patients, respectively. Macroscopic evaluation of appendectomy specimens during surgery might result in negligence of the presence of unusual pathology.Even if the macroscopic appearance of the specimen is normal or acute appendicitis, we suggest routine histopathological examination.
- Mucocele of appendix secondary to mucinous cystadenoma. [Journal Article]
- J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2014 Mar.:S14-5.
Mucocele of appendix is a rare disorder characterised by obstructive dilatation of the appendicular lumen by mucinous secretions. More commonly it is caused by mucinous cystadenoma and rarely by mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Patients are often asymptomatic and may sometimes present with acute appendicitis. It is known to be associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei as a result of rupture of mucocele. A pre-operative diagnosis is necessary to plan careful resection. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are useful tools for the diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele. We report a case of appendiceal mucocele due to mucinous cystadenoma with surgical and histopathological confirmation.
- Acute appendicitis: position paper, WSES, 2013. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Surg 2014; 9(1):26.
Appendectomy is one of the most frequently performed operative procedures in general surgery departments of every size and category. Laparoscopic Appendectomy - LA - as compared to Open Appendectomy - OA - was very controversial at first but has found increasing acceptance all over the World, although the percentage of its acceptance is different in the various single National setting. Various meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews have compared LA with OA and different technical details. Furthermore, new surgical methods have recently emerged, namely, the single-port/incision laparoscopic appendectomy and NOTES technique. Their distribution among the hospitals, however, is unclear. Using laparoscopic mini-instruments with trocars of 2-3.5 mm diameter is proposed as a reliable alternative due to less postoperative pain and improved aesthetics. How to proceed in case of an inconspicuous appendix during a procedure planned as an appendectomy remains controversial despite existing study results. But the main question still is: operate or not operate an acute appendicitis, in the meaning of an attempt of a conservative antibiotic therapy. Therefore, we have done a literature survey on the performance of appendectomies and their technical details as well as the management of the intraoperative finding of an inconspicuous appendix in order to write down - under the light of the latest evidence - a position paper.
- Acute appendicitis complicated by mass formation occurring simultaneously with serologically proven dengue fever: a case report. [Journal Article]
- J Med Case Rep 2014; 8(1):116.
Acute abdomen and acute appendicitis are unusual clinical presentations that occur in dengue infection-caused illness. Lymphoid hyperplasia and mesenteric adenitis are possible explanations, although vasculitis in the pathology of dengue infection has not been reported. Authors of previous case reports have described mimicking of acute appendicitis discovered upon surgical treatment. Dengue virus has not been proven to cause acute appendicitis.We report a case of an 8-year-old Sinhalese boy who developed acute appendicitis during the acute phase of serologically confirmed dengue fever. Although abdominal pain, vomiting and right-sided tenderness were present at the time of admission, a diagnosis of acute appendicitis was considered only 18 hours later, when abdominal guarding and a well-defined mass in the right iliac fossa were detected clinically and ultrasonographically. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics was successful.In areas where dengue is endemic, awareness of dengue viral infection as a non-surgical cause of acute abdomen, as well as its ability to mimic acute appendicitis, is important because unnecessary surgery-related morbidity can be decreased. However, delaying or missing the diagnosis of acute appendicitis can result in serious complications. This message is particularly relevant to clinicians, especially pediatricians and surgeons, who encounter large numbers of patients during dengue epidemics and run the risk of missing the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Likewise, delaying or missing the diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever can lead to dengue shock syndrome and even death. This case highlights the need for careful evaluation of each patient who presents with acute abdomen and dengue infection.
- Impact of the alvarado score on the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: comparing clinical judgment, alvarado score, and a new modified score in suspected appendicitis: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Endosc 2014 Apr 5.
The Alvarado score is a clinical scoring system used in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. This study aimed to compare the reliability of the Alvarado score and clinical judgment and to refine the score to make it easier to use.In this prospective, randomized study, patients presenting at the authors' outpatient department with suspected appendicitis during a 1-year period were assigned in weekly alternation to either group A or group B. The group A patients were treated on the basis of their Alvarado score, and the group B patients underwent treatment based on clinical judgment. The correctness of the methods was assessed by evaluation of the final histology. Statistical comparison of the data was performed using SPSS 20.The study investigated 269 patients (131 in group A and 138 in group B). The groups were homogeneous in terms of mean age, gender, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score. The number of negative appendectomies was 12 (9.16 %) in group A versus 5 (3.6 %) in group B (p = 0.063). The clinical judgment had better specificity and sensitivity than the Alvarado score. For that reason, the specificity of the Alvarado score was refined using statistical methods, with weighting of certain clinical data and inclusion of new ones (e.g., ultrasound investigation). Consequently, the area under the curve by receiver operating characteristic analysis gradually increased, and the Alvarado score became more accurate.The study findings showed clinical judgment to be more reliable in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis than the Alvarado score, but the score is a useful diagnostic aid, especially for young colleagues. The use of the new scoring system has become easier. It includes fewer criteria as well as an important and sensitive predictor: the ultrasound investigation.
- Clinical correlation needed: What do emergency physicians do after an equivocal ultrasound for pediatric acute appendicitis? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Ultrasound 2014 Apr 3.
Although follow-up CT is recommended for pediatric appendicitis if initial ultrasound (US) is equivocal, many physicians observe the patient at home. There are limited data to understand currently how common or safe this practice is. Our objectives are to assess prevalence of acute appendicitis and outcomes in patients with equivocal US with and without follow-up CT and to identify variables associated with ordering a follow-up CT.Retrospective analysis of the prevalence of appendicitis and outcomes of patients 1-18 years old with an equivocal US at a pediatric emergency department from 2003 to 2008. Recursive partitioning analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify variables associated with ordering follow-up CT.Fifty-five percent (340/620) of children with equivocal US did not receive CT, none of whom returned with a missed appendicitis. The prevalence of appendicitis in children with equivocal US was 12.5% (78/620). In children with follow-up CT, the prevalence was 22.1% (62/280); in those without follow-up CT, the prevalence was 4.7% (16/340). Recursive partitioning identified age >11 years, leukocytosis >15,000 cells/ml, and secondary signs predisposing toward acute appendicitis on US as significant predictors of CT.We view our study as a fundamental part of the incremental progress to understand how best to use US and CT imaging to diagnose pediatric appendicitis while minimizing ionizing radiation. Children at low risk for appendicitis with equivocal US are amenable to observation and reassessment prior to reimaging with US or CT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2014.