Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Appendicitis Acute [keywords]
- Accuracy and radiation dose reduction of a limited abdominopelvic CT in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Abdom Imaging 2014 Oct 21.
To determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of a limited abdominopelvic CT from the bottom of T10 to the top of the pubic symphysis in patients with suspected acute appendicitis.We performed a HIPAA compliant and IRB-approved retrospective study of adult patients who underwent CT abdomen/pelvis for suspected appendicitis. The Z-axis length and whole body effective doses of the original full scan and theoretical limited scan from the bottom of T10 to the top of the pubic symphysis were recorded. Images were reviewed to determine if the appendix or entire cecum would be visualized and if any cases of appendicitis or alternative diagnoses would be missed with the limited scan.235 patients (89 male, mean age 44.6 years) were included. The limited scan resulted in a mean Z-axis length reduction of 5.1 cm superiorly, 6.1 cm inferiorly, and a total reduction of 11.2 cm (24%). The mean whole body effective dose was 11.8 and 9.1 mSv for the original and limited scans, respectively (23% reduction). The entire appendix or cecum was visualized in all cases. Appendicitis was present in 24 cases and an alternative diagnosis was made in 75. No cases of appendicitis or alternative diagnoses were missed using the limited scan.A limited range CT from the bottom of T10 to the top of the pubic symphysis is as accurate as full abdominopelvic CT in evaluating patients with suspected acute appendicitis and results in approximately 23% dose reduction.
- [Treatment with antibiotics for uncomplicated acute appendicitis: strategy and its value]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2014 Oct 18; 46(5):715-9.
To establish the characteristics of uncomplicated acute appendicitis (UAA) and assess the efficacy of antibiotics by comparison with emergency appendicectomy for treatment.A retrospective clinical analysis was made on 742 cases of acute appendicitis. Several characteristics of UAA were identified. Following these rules 46 UAA patients were enrolled to receive antibiotic treatment for at least 48 h.follow-up was carried out for 6 months.Statistical analysis indicated that high level white blood cell count (>20×10(9)/L,P=0.000, OR=2.717), local or diffuse muscle guarding (P=0.031, OR=1.649), intraluminal stercolith (P=0.000, OR=2.939) and periappendiceal fluid (P=0.005, OR=3.273) were independent risk factors of complicated acute appendicitis. With none of these factors we enrolled 46 UAA patients. Of the 46 patients, 44(95.65%) were treated successfully with antibiotics. 2(4.35%) patients were unexpectedly identified to have complicated appendicitis at surgery. Recurrent appendicitis occurred in 5(11.36%) patients after 6 months. There was no difference in duration of pain and duration of hospital stay between antibiotic treatment group and appendicectomy group.Although antibiotic treatment may fail in some UAA cases, and there is a risk of recurrence, antibiotic treatment still appears to be a safe first-line therapy for UAA patients.
- Kikuchi- fujimoto disease of mesenteric lymph nodes mimicking acute appendicitis. [Journal Article]
- JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2013 Oct-Dec; 52(192):627-30.
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenopathy of unknown aetiology, is a rare, benign and self-limiting cause of lymphadenopathy often involving the cervical nodes, and rarely presenting with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. We present a 26-year-old Caucasian male, who presented with right iliac fossa pain and low grade pyrexia, mimicking acute appendicitis. He underwent a laparatomy and an extended right hemi-colectomy for a caecal mass. Histology of the specimen showed lymph nodes with extensive areas of necrosis, with abnormal architecture suggesting Kikuchi-Fujimoto lymphadenopathy. This was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In this context maintenance of a high index of suspicion of this condition can avoid major surgical interventions. We describe the management of our case of Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease involving the mesenteric nodes and provide an up to date review of the pertinent literature on this subject.abdominal mass; Kikuchi- Fujimoto disease; mesenteric lymphadenopathy; necrotising lymphadenitis.
- The utility of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in diagnosing acute appendicitis and staging its severity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diagn Interv Radiol 2014 Aug 28.
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging to diagnose acute appendicitis.Abdominal ultrasonography (US) and ARFI imaging were performed in 53 patients that presented with right lower quadrant pain, and the results were compared with those obtained in 52 healthy subjects. Qualitative evaluation of the patients was conducted by Virtual Touch™ tissue imaging (VTI), while quantitative evaluation was performed by Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTQ) measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV). The severity of appendix inflammation was observed and rated using ARFI imaging in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Alvarado scores were determined for all patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain. All patients diagnosed with appendicitis received appendectomies. The sensitivity and specificity of ARFI imaging relative to US was determined upon confirming the diagnosis of acute appendicitis via histopathological analysis.The Alvarado score had a sensitivity and specificity of 70.8% and 20%, respectively, in detecting acute appendicitis. Abdominal US had 83.3% sensitivity and 80% specificity, while ARFI imaging had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity, in diagnosing acute appendicitis. The median SWV value was 1.11 m/s (range, 0.6-1.56 m/s) for healthy appendix and 3.07 m/s (range, 1.37-4.78 m/s) for acute appendicitis.ARFI imaging may be useful in guiding the clinical management of acute appendicitis, by helping its diagnosis and determining the severity of appendix inflammation.
- Limits and advantages of abdominal ultrasonography in children with acute appendicitis syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Afr J Paediatr Surg 2014 Oct-Dec; 11(4):293-6.
Graded compression ultrasonography (US) has become the most popular technique used in suspected appendicitis and in our prospective study, we have evaluated its contribution to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis during the period 2010-2013.Four hundred and eighty children underwent urgent abdominal suspected of having acute appendicitis. Patients were divided into operated groups; (220 patients) and non-operated (260 patients) the final diagnosis was established on histopathological findings in the first group and on the phone interview in the second one. US was the sole imaging modality in all the non-operated patients and in 203 out of 220 operated ones. Seven children in the operated group underwent CT, while a second US was performed in 10 patients.Acute appendicitis was confirmed in 188 operated patients while no one in the non-operated group returned to the hospital or was operated for appendicitis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 79%, 78%, 95%, 39% and 79%, respectively. Negative appendectomy and perforation rates were 14% and 8%. Seventeen children in the operated group required a second diagnostic imaging: 7 CTs and 10 USs. All the seven CTs were consistent with appendicitis and 6 out of 10 USs showed ecographic signs of appendicitis.Our results support routine US in all the children with suspected appendicitis because it helps in reducing negative appendectomy and perforation rate. Moreover, a negative US does not justify a subsequent and immediate CT because clinical re-evaluation and a second US can clarify the diagnosis.
- Acute neonatal appendicitis: A diagnosis to consider in abdominal sepsis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2014 Oct 15.
Appendicitis in the neonatal period is extremely rare. Its low incidence together with non-specific clinical symptoms often mean the diagnosis is delayed, leading to increased rates of peritonitis and mortality. We report the case of a 33-week premature infant, small for gestational age (1180 g at birth), clinically stable and receiving exclusive enteral feeding, who presented clinical manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis at 14 days of life. Acute phase reactants were elevated and abdominal radiography showed pneumoperitoneum. Laparotomy revealed acute perforated appendicitis without intestinal involvement and purulent fluid in the peritoneum, for which appendectomy was performed. Neonatal acute appendicitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal sepsis since early diagnosis and treatment significantly reduce associated morbidity and mortality.
- Simple Acute Appendicitis versus Non-Perforated Gangrenous Appendicitis: Is There a Difference in the Rate of Post-Operative Infectious Complications? [Journal Article]
- Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2014 Oct; 15(5):517-20.
Abstract Background: According to the 2002 Surgical Infection Society Guidelines on Antimicrobial Therapy for Intra-abdominal Infections, antimicrobial therapy is not recommended beyond 24 hours for the treatment of postoperative acute or gangrenous appendicitis without perforation. However, clinicians commonly consider gangrenous appendicitis to pose a greater risk of post-operative infectious complications, such as surgical site infections and intra-abdominal abscesses. This study examines the relative risk of post-operative infection between patients with simple and gangrenous appendicitis.A retrospective review of patients with either non-perforated gangrenous or simple appendicitis from 2010 to 2012 was performed at a large urban teaching hospital.The rate of post-operative intra-abdominal abscess formation, which was diagnosed on patient readmission to the hospital, was significantly greater in patients with non-perforated gangrenous appendicitis in comparison to those with simple non-perforated appendicitis. Also, patients with non-perforated gangrenous appendicitis received extended courses of post-operative antibiotics, despite SIS recommendations.The role of peri-operative antibiotics for non-perforated gangrenous appendicitis merits further study.
- [Amyand's hernia: a report of two cases and review of the bibliography]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Cir Cir 2014 Mar-Apr; 82(2):195-9.
Presence of the vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia sac is an uncommon finding (1%), exceptionally rare if it's inflamed (0.13%). Clinically simulating incarcerated inguinal hernia and proper preoperative diagnosis is exceptional. We present two unusual cases of Amyand's hernia, and review of the bibliography.1. Male patient 78 year old with an incarcerated right inguinal hernia which was performed preoperatively the diagnosis of Amyand's hernia by abdominal Computed Tomography. Clinical case 2. Female patient 82 year old with symptoms of an incarcerated right femoral hernia that finally showed an Amyand's hernia through a right inguinal hernia.Amyand's hernia is a rare entity whose preoperative diagnosis is uncommon, that it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases with clinical signs of incarcerated right inguinal hernia.
- [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Cir Cir 2014 Mar-Apr; 82(2):183-7.
Churg-Strauss is a rare, idiopathic, hypereosinophilic disease characterized by blood, tissue, and systemic vasculitis in patients with a history of asthma or allergic rhinitis. Gastrointestinal manifestations of Churg Strauss appear in a 31-45% of the patients according to some series of studies, abdominal pain being the most frequent symptom followed by diarrhea and bleeding.Male patient with a history of asthma who presents abdominal pain apparently due to acute appendicitis. During the hospital stay the study protocol is complemented, confirmating the diagnosis of Churg Strauss syndrome with intestinal manifestations.Churg Strauss syndrome is a rare vasculitis that may present with intestinal manifestations so it is important to take into consideration the differential diagnosis. There are few cases in the literature associated with this syndrome and acute abdomen, all of them on the poor prognosis of this association.