Appendicitis Acute [keywords]
- The use of platelet indices, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width in emergency non-traumatic abdominal surgery: a systematic review. [Journal Article, Review]
- Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2016; 26(2):178-93.
Platelet indices (PI) - plateletcrit, mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) - are a group of derived platelet parameters obtained as a part of the automatic complete blood count. Emerging evidence suggests that PIs may have diagnostic and prognostic value in certain diseases. This study aimed to summarize the current scientific knowledge on the potential role of PIs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients having emergency, non-traumatic abdominal surgery. In December 2015, we searched Medline/PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar to identify all articles on PIs. Overall, considerable evidence suggests that PIs are altered with acute appendicitis. Although the role of PI in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen remains uncertain, low MPV might be useful in acute appendicitis and acute mesenteric ischemia, with high MPV predicting poor prognosis in acute mesenteric ischemia. The current lack of consistency and technical standards in studies involving PIs should be regarded as a serious limitation to comparing these studies. Further large, multicentre prospective studies concurrently collecting data from different ethnicities and genders are needed before they can be used in routine clinical practice.
- Current Role of Ultrasound in Small Bowel Imaging. [Journal Article]
- Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2016 Aug; 37(4):301-12.
Bowel ultrasound is cheap, relatively quick, allows dynamic evaluation of the bowel, has no radiation burden, is well tolerated by patients, and allows repeat imaging. Bowel ultrasound requires a systematic assessment of the entire bowel using high-frequency probes. In addition, hydrosonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be performed. We present the normal sonographic appearances of large and small bowel and the sonographic appearances of acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, intestinal tuberculosis, small bowel ileus and obstruction, small bowel ischemia, and malignant tumors.
- Jejunal perforation due to ingested buffalo bone mimicking acute appendicitis. [Journal Article]
- BMC Res Notes 2016; 9(1):321.
Foreign body ingestion is seen quite frequently in clinical practice, intestinal perforation due to this is rare. The foreign body often mimics another cause of acute abdomen and requires an emergency surgical intervention. The majority of patients do not recall ingesting sharp foreign bodies.We report an interesting case of a fifty five year-old man who presented with pain in the right iliac fossa with localised tenderness which was clinically diagnosed as acute appendicitis. During the operation, the presence of purulent collection and the inflamed bowel with flakes raised suspicion of bowel perforation. The assessment of the proximal small bowel revealed two small perforations in the jejunum. A hard, bony and sharp object was extracted and the perforations were closed. Post-operative recovery was uneventful. Detailed food history was taken following the recovery of the patient from surgery. It revealed the history ingestion of home prepared buffalo meat. The extracted object was identified as 'buffalo bone' by the patient and the care taker of the patient. The jejunum was perforated by the ingested buffalo bone causing local peritonitis in right iliac fossa.Intestinal perforation by ingested foreign bodies should be suspected in acute abdomen. It requires a high degree of suspicion and awareness on the part of the clinician.
- Perforated sub-hepatic appendix; rare presentation of a common disease. [Journal Article]
- J Pak Med Assoc 2016 Jun; 66(6):765-7.
An elderly gentleman presented to our emergency with a 10-day history of right upper quadrant pain and nausea with associated tenderness on examination. His white cell counts were raised with predominant neutrophils with ultrasound evidence of a heterogeneous sub-hepatic collection, not associated with fever, diarrhoea or vomiting. He had a similar episode 3 weeks ago, which resolved with antibiotics. Initially thought to be a perforated acute appendicitis or a liver abscess a CT scan was done to further substantiate our finding. This to the contrary revealed a perforated sub hepatic appendix. Patient was treated conservatively with IV fluids and antibiotics and the sub hepatic collection was aspirated under ultrasound guidance. He responded well to treatment and made an uneventful recovery.
- A comparison between modified Alvarado score and RIPASA score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Updates Surg 2016 Jun 23.
Acute appendicitis is a common but elusive surgical condition and remains a diagnostic dilemma. It has many clinical mimickers and diagnosis is primarily made on clinical grounds, leading to the evolution of clinical scoring systems for pin pointing the right diagnosis. The modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems are two important scoring systems, for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We prospectively compared the two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis in 50 patients presenting with right iliac fossa pain. The RIPASA score correctly classified 88 % of patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis compared with 48.0 % with modified Alvarado score, indicating that RIPASA score is more superior to Modified Alvarado score in our clinical settings.
- [Primary omental torsion in preschool girls case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rozhl Chir 2016; 95(5):200-2.
Primary omental torsion is a rare finding in cases of suspected acute abdomen. It is more common in children. Secondary omental torsion is typical for adults.The authors describe two cases where pain in the right upper abdominal quadrant was caused by primary torsion of the omental corner due to increased intraabdominal pressure: after a strong cough in one girl and after a workout in the other. Primary omental torsion usually mimics acute appendicitis with clinical findings in the right lower abdominal quadrant, especially in obese children. However, our two cases describe normosthenic girls with pain in the right upper abdominal quadrant up to the mesogastrium.Primary torsion of the omentum is a very rare cause of acute abdomen, which is also confirmed by its incidence in our group of patients where only two cases were seen during a 15-year period, which corresponds to 0.17% of all appendectomies performed in our department. This value is comparable to data reported in the literature.acute abdomen omental torsion tenderness in right upper abdomen.
- [Appendicitis in neonatal (AN) patients with secondary necrotizing enterocolitis (ECN) due to sepsis in the uterus: a case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Gac Med Mex 2016 May-Jun; 152(3):419-23.
Nowadays appendicitis is the leading cause of acute surgical abdomen. It occurs mainly between the first and third decade of life and is very rare in the neonatal period. The pathophysiology and clinical manifestations differ from the typical signs and symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose, which is in mostly cases at the time of surgery, and 74% of them appear with perforation and peritonitis. During the first day there were no complications; however, antibiotic therapy was initiated due to the risk of sepsis. On the next day there were changes in vital signs, fresh blood by nasogastric probe, acute abdomen data, cyanosis, and decreased tone.A newborn male of 34.3 weeks gestation using the Capurro method, Apgar score 8/9, obtained by emergency caesarean section, in which the maternal abdominal cavity was with copious purulent material and perforated appendix with generalized peritonitis. Surgery was determinate, where they found necrotic ileum and appendix with five perforations in total, so resection and ileostomy was performed. Intubation and dopamine support were required, but removed within a short time, beginning oral alimentation.
- Importance of Clinical Decision Making by Experienced Pediatric Surgeons When Children Are Suspected of Having Acute Appendicitis: The Reality in a High-Volume Pediatric Emergency Department. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Emerg Care 2016 Jun 21.
The aim of the present study was to compare the pediatric appendicitis score (PAS), the Alvarado score (AS), white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, procalcitonin level, and ultrasound (US) data, with the appendectomy decisions of pediatric surgeons diagnosing acute appendicitis (AA) in a real-life setting; this was a top-level, high-volume pediatric emergency department (PED) in a developing country.The study was conducted prospectively between January 2012 and June 2013 in the PED of the Tepecik Teaching and Research Hospital in Izmir, Turkey. The study was observational in nature; no attempt was made to influence indications for exploration or the timing thereof. Children aged 4 to 18 years presenting to the PED on suspicion of AA were included. The WBC, ANC, CRP level, and procalcitonin level were measured, and US was performed on all patients on admission. The PAS and AS were calculated. An operative decision was made by each pediatric surgeon who had the results of laboratory and radiological tests. The criterion standard for AA was histopathological assessment.Upon receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis, the areas under the ROCs (AUROCs) of the WBC, ANC, CRP level, procalcitonin level, US positivity, PAS, AS, and decisions of pediatric surgeons supported by laboratory and US data were 0.734, 0.741, 0.671, 0.675, 0.670, 0.831, 0.794, and 0.910, respectively. When US data were employed only in cases with PASs 4 to 7, the sensitivity increased but specificity decreased. The sensitivity and specificity of pediatric surgical decisions were 100% and 82.50%, respectively. The difference between the PAS AUROC and the pediatric surgeon decision-making AUROC was significant (P = 0.0393; 95% confidence interval, 0.0470-0.226).Good pediatric surgical decision making supported by laboratory and US data for those suspected of AA may be the most effective diagnostic tool in a high-volume PED in a developing country.
- Incidental finding of silent appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with small cell lung adenocarcinoma. [CASE REPORTS]
- Hell J Nucl Med 2016 Jun 22.
We report the incidental diagnosis of acute asymptomatic appendicitis on a fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) performed for staging of a non small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was asymptomatic and laboratory tests were normal. The case illustrates: a) the possibility to diagnose appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT and b) the possibility of silent acute appendicitis, although this is a rare occurrence.
- Serum, Saliva, and Urine Irisin with and Without Acute Appendicitis and Abdominal Pain. [Journal Article]
- Biochem Insights 2016.:11-7.
A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls. Moreover, immunoreactivity to IRI was investigated in appendix tissues and blood cells. Samples were collected on admission (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3) postoperatively from patients with suspected AA and from patients with AP corresponding to T1-T3, whereas control subject blood was once corresponding to T1. IRI was measured in serum, saliva, and urine by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas in appendix tissue and blood cells, IRI was detected by immunohistohcemistry. Appendix tissue and blood cells (except for erythrocytes) are new sources of IRI. Basal saliva, urine, and serum levels were higher in children with AA compared with postoperative levels (T2) that start to decline after surgery. This is in line with the finding that IRI levels are higher in children with AA when compared with those with AP or control subject levels, most likely due to a large infiltration of neutrophil cells in AA that release its IRI into body fluids. Measurement of IRI in children with AA parallels the increase or decrease in the neutrophil count. This new finding shows that the measurement of IRI and neutrophil count can together improve the diagnosis of AA, and it can distinguish it from AP. IRI can be a candidate marker for the diagnosis of AA and offers an additional parameter to neutrophil count. The promising receiving operating curve results indicate the following sensitivities and specificities, respectively, for IRI: serum 90% and 55%, saliva 90% and 60%, and urine 90% and 50%. Serum neutrophil count gave a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 90%. This promising result now needs to be confirmed in a larger group of patients.