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Aquasol E [keywords]
- Tocopherol supplementation reduces NO production and pulmonary inflammatory response to bleomycin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nitric Oxide 2013 May 10.
Bleomycin causes acute lung injury through production of reactive species and initiation of inflammation. Previous work has shown alteration to the production of reactive oxygen species results in attenuation of injury. Vitamin E, in particular, γ-tocopherol, isoform, has the potential to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This study examines the utility of dietary supplementation with tocopherols in reducing bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury. Male C57BL6/J mice were intratracheally instilled with PBS or 2 units/kg bleomycin. Animals were analyzed 3 and 8days post instillation at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Results showed successful delivery of tocopherols to the lung via dietary supplementation. Also, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to bleomycin are normalized in those mice fed tocopherol diet. Injury was not prevented but inflammation progression was altered, in particular macrophage activation and function. Inflammatory scores based on histology demonstrate limited progression of inflammation in those mice treated with bleomycin and fed tocopherol diet compared to control diet. Upregulation of enzymes and cytokines involved in pro-inflammation were limited by tocopherol supplementation. Day 3 functional changes in elastance in response to bleomycin are prevented, however, 8days post injury the effect of the tocopherol diet is lost. The effect of tocopherol supplementation upon the inflammatory process is demonstrated by a shift in the phenotype of macrophage activation. The effect of these changes on resolution and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis has yet to be elucidated.
- Vitamin E: tocopherols and tocotrienols as potential radiation countermeasures. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Radiat Res 2013 May 8.
Despite the potential devastating health consequences of intense total-body irradiation, and the decades of research, there still remains a dearth of safe and effective radiation countermeasures for emergency, radiological/nuclear contingencies that have been fully approved and sanctioned for use by the US FDA. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant, effective in scavenging free radicals generated by radiation exposure. Vitamin E analogs, collectively known as tocols, have been subject to active investigation for a long time as radioprotectors in patients undergoing radiotherapy and in the context of possible radiation accidents or terrorism scenarios. Eight major isoforms comprise the tocol group: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. A number of these agents and their derivatives are being investigated actively as radiation countermeasures using animal models, and several appear promising. Although the tocols are well recognized as potent antioxidants and are generally thought to mediate radioprotection through 'free radical quenching', recent studies have suggested several alternative mechanisms: most notably, an 'indirect effect' of tocols in eliciting specific species of radioprotective growth factors/cytokines such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The radioprotective efficacy of at least two tocols has been abrogated using a neutralizing antibody of G-CSF. Based on encouraging results of radioprotective efficacy, laboratory testing of γ-tocotrienol has moved from a small rodent model to a large nonhuman primate model for preclinical evaluation. In this brief review we identify and discuss selected tocols and their derivatives currently under development as radiation countermeasures, and attempt to describe in some detail their in vivo efficacy.
- Engineered drought-induced biosynthesis of α-tocopherol alleviates stress-induced leaf damage in tobacco. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Plant Physiol 2013 May 4.
Tocopherols are members of the vitamin E complex and essential antioxidant compounds synthesized in chloroplasts that protect photosynthetic membranes against oxidative damage triggered by most environmental stresses. Tocopherol deficiency has been shown to affect germination, retard growth and change responses to abiotic stress, suggesting that tocopherols may be involved in a number of diverse physiological processes in plants. Instead of seeking constitutive synthesis of tocopherols to improve stress tolerance, we followed an inducible approach of enhancing α-tocopherol accumulation under dehydration conditions in tobacco. Two uncharacterized stress inducible promoters isolated from Arabidopsis and the VTE2.1 gene from Solanum chilense were used in this work. VTE2.1 encodes the enzyme homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT), which catalyzes the prenylation step in tocopherol biosynthesis. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ScVTE2.1 under the control of stress-inducible promoters showed increased levels of α-tocopherol when exposed to drought conditions. The accumulation of α-tocopherol correlated with higher water content and increased photosynthetic performance and less oxidative stress damage as evidenced by reduced lipid peroxidation and delayed leaf senescence. Our results indicate that stress-induced expression of VTE2.1 can be used to increase the vitamin E content and to diminish detrimental effects of environmental stress in plants. The stress-inducible promoters introduced in this work may prove valuable to future biotechnological approaches in improving abiotic stress resistance in plants.
- GmTMT2a from soybean elevates the α-tocopherol content in corn and Arabidopsis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transgenic Res 2013 May 4.
Tocochromanol, or vitamin E, plays a crucial role in human and animal nutrition and is synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. γ-Tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), one of the key enzymes in the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway in plants, converts γ, δ-tocopherols into α-, β-tocopherols. Tocopherol content was investigated in 15 soybean cultivars and GmTMT2 was isolated from five varieties based on tocopherol content. GmTMT2a was expressed in E. coli and the purified protein effectively converted γ-tocopherol into α-tocopherol in vitro. Overexpression of GmTMT2a enhanced α-tocopherol content 4-6-fold in transgenic Arabidopsis, and α-tocopherol content increased 3-4.5-fold in transgenic maize seed, which correlated with the accumulation of GmTMT2a. Transgenic corn that is α-tocopherol-rich may be beneficial for animal health and growth.
- Nutritional evaluation and health promoting activities of nuts and seeds cultivated in Greece. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Food Sci Nutr 2013 May 3.
Abstract Available data suggest that genetic as well as environmental factors may influence nuts and seeds nutrients content. In this context nuts and seeds cultivated in Greece were studied. Macronutrients content was in agreement with that from other areas. Total phenolics content was in the range of 43.0 ± 2.1-1512.7 ± 60.7 mg GAE/100 g for chestnut and walnut, respectively. Thirteen to 22 individual phenolics were identified in the studied species. Oleanolic acid was in the range of 0.10-9.03 mg/100 g. Pumpkin seeds contained the higher squalene content (71.6 mg/100 g). β-Sitosterol predominated in all samples except pumpkin seeds. Tocopherols ranged from 8.9 mg/100 g (chestnut) to 29.3 mg/100 g (almond). Nuts and seeds hydrophilic extracts at quantities corresponding to the estimated daily consumption by the Greeks succeeded in inhibiting LDL oxidation in vitro by increasing lag time 1.1-14.1 times. One serving of nuts or seeds may cover a significant fraction of health promoting microconstituents daily intake.
- Combination of saponification and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Chromatogr A 2013 Mar 25.
A simple sample preparation technique coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. The sample preparation procedure involved a small-scale hydrolysis of 0.5g cereal sample by saponification, followed by the extraction and concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols from saponified extract using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance were optimized to achieve the highest extraction efficiency and the performance of the developed DLLME method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed over the range assayed (0.031-4.0μg/mL) with regression coefficients greater than 0.9989 for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. Limits of detection and enrichment factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.11μg/mL and 50 to 73, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8.9% and the recoveries were around 85.5-116.6% for all tocopherols and tocotrienols. The developed DLLME method was successfully applied to cereals: rice, barley, oat, wheat, corn and millet. This new sample preparation approach represents an inexpensive, rapid, simple and precise sample cleanup and concentration method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals.
- LED illumination affects bioactive compounds in romaine baby leaf lettuce. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sci Food Agric 2013 Apr 12.
BACKGROUND:The effect of light quality on phytochemicals in romaine baby leaf lettuce 'Thumper' was investigated in (I) a closed environment and (II, III) a greenhouse (16 h, 21/17 °C): (I) basal (638, 455, 660, 735 nm) LEDs supplemented with UV (380 nm), green (510 nm), yellow (595 nm) or orange (622 nm) LEDs (PPFD of ∼175 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ); (II) high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (90 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ) supplemented with blue (455, 470nm) or green (505, 530nm) LEDs (30 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ); (III) at 3 days before harvesting, HPS lamps (90 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ) supplemented with red (638 nm) LEDs (210 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ).
RESULTS:(I) Supplemental UV or orange light enhanced phenolic compounds, supplemental UV or green light enhanced α-carotene, and supplemental green light enhanced anthocyanins. All supplemental LED colours had a negative effect on tocopherol and ascorbic acid levels. (II) HPS lighting supplemented with different LEDs was not efficient, since the increase in some compounds did not compensate the decrease in major tested phytochemicals. (III) Short-term irradiation with supplemental 638 nm LEDs before harvesting in the greenhouse did not have a significant effect on phytochemical contents, apart from enhancing tocopherols.
CONCLUSION:Wavelength control using LED technology affects the production of secondary metabolites, as the metabolism of many nutrients is light-dependent. The narrow-bandwidth supplemental light effects were diminished by broader-spectrum HPS light or natural daylight in the greenhouse. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
- Metabolic profiling for studying chemotype variations in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal fruits using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phytochemistry 2013 Apr 8.
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most valued Indian medicinal plant with several pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Metabolic profiling was performed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy on the fruits obtained from four chemotypes of W. somnifera. A combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS identified 82 chemically diverse metabolites consisting of organic acids, fatty acids, aliphatic and aromatic amino acids, polyols, sugars, sterols, tocopherols, phenolic acids and withanamides in the fruits of W. somnifera. The range of metabolites identified by GC-MS and NMR of W. somnifera fruits showed various known and unknown metabolites. The primary and secondary metabolites observed in this study represent MVA, DOXP, shikimic acid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic metabolic pathways. Squalene and tocopherol have been rated as the most potent naturally occurring compounds with antioxidant properties. These compounds have been identified by us for the first time in the fruits of W. somnifera. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) on GC-MS and NMR data revealed clear distinctions in the primary and secondary metabolites among the chemotypes. The variation in the metabolite concentration among different chemotypes of the fruits of W. somnifera suggest that specific chemovars can be used to obtain substantial amounts of bioactive ingredients for use as potential pharmacological and nutraceuticals agents.
- Carotenoids and tocopherols in yellow and red raspberries. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Food Chem 2013 Aug 15; 139(1-4):744-52.
The composition of carotenoids, chlorophyll derivatives and tocopherols in raspberries of different varieties, including yellow and red varieties, over different ripening stages has been studied. The profile of pigments in ripening raspberries changes drastically, with a dramatic decrease of β-carotene and chlorophyll derivatives, the xanthophyll lutein has also decreased but not to the same extent. In contrast esterified lutein increased and is present in ripe raspberries esterified with saturated fatty acids with C8-C16 chains. Ripe raspberries contain considerable amounts of free lutein, esterified lutein, and tocopherols (up to 20, 49 and 366 mg/kg dry weight, respectively). The different samples analysed show different contents of carotenoids and tocopherols. Whether the differences arise from the variety or other factors such as the environmental conditions needs to be ascertained but isoprenoids should not be neglected when considering raspberry antioxidant and nutraceutical composition.
- Shikimate and phenylalanine biosynthesis in the green lineage. [Journal Article]
- Front Plant Sci 2013.:62.
The shikimate pathway provides carbon skeletons for the aromatic amino acids l-tryptophan, l-phenylalanine, and l-tyrosine. It is a high flux bearing pathway and it has been estimated that greater than 30% of all fixed carbon is directed through this pathway. These combined pathways have been subjected to considerable research attention due to the fact that mammals are unable to synthesize these amino acids and the fact that one of the enzymes of the shikimate pathway is a very effective herbicide target. However, in addition to these characteristics these pathways additionally provide important precursors for a wide range of important secondary metabolites including chlorogenic acid, alkaloids, glucosinolates, auxin, tannins, suberin, lignin and lignan, tocopherols, and betalains. Here we review the shikimate pathway of the green lineage and compare and contrast its evolution and ubiquity with that of the more specialized phenylpropanoid metabolism which this essential pathway fuels.