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Aromatic hydrocarbon poisoning [keywords]
- Trying times for generic medicines in the USA. [Comparative Study, Editorial]
- Lancet 2013 Mar 30; 381(9872):1072.
- A life-threatening dichlorophen poisoning case: clinical features and kinetics study. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2013 Mar; 51(3):178-81.
Human dichlorophen poisoning is rare. We aim to report a case of dichlorophen poisoning resulting in complete recovery despite life-threatening multiorgan failure and huge serum dichlorophen concentrations.Description of features and management in one dichlorophen-poisoned patient. After liquid-liquid extraction, dichlorophen concentrations in the urine and the serum were measured using liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HESI-MS/MS).A 74-year-old female self-ingested an anti-moss dichlorophen solution (360 g/L) in a suicidal attempt. She rapidly developed caustic esophageal and gastric mucosal injuries, confusion, profuse diarrhea, and electrolyte disturbances. Initial elevation in serum aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase concentrations resolved over 6 days. Serum dichlorophen concentration measured was 708.1 μg/L on admission, and its elimination was prolonged (serum apparent elimination half-life: 35.5 h), peaking in urine on day 2. Mild elevation in serum creatine phosphokinase concentration (peaking 48 h post-ingestion) and acute renal failure (requiring hemodialysis on day 8) occurred. The final outcome was favorable with supportive management.Dichlorophen ingestion results in life-threatening multiorgan dysfunction including rapid onset of caustic digestive lesions, diarrhea, liver enzyme disturbances, as well as acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis. Recovery can be complete if prompt supportive management is provided.
- A case of 25I-NBOMe (25-I) intoxication: a new potent 5-HT2A agonist designer drug. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2013 Mar; 51(3):174-7.
CONTEXT:Abuse of synthetic stimulant compounds resulting in significant toxicity is being increasingly reported by poison centers. Toxicologic assessment is complicated by inconsistent manufacturing processes and limited laboratory testing. We describe a case of self-reported exposure to 25-I (25I-NBOMe), a novel phenethylamine derivative, with subsequent quantification in serum. CASE DETAILS: An 18-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with severe agitation and hallucinations after jumping out of a moving car. He was tachycardiac (150-160 bpm) and hypertensive (150-170 mm Hg systolic and 110 mg Hg diastolic), and required physical restraints and treatment with intravenous lorazepam administration. His symptoms gradually improved and vital signs returned to normal over 48 h, though he continued to have episodes of aggressiveness. An assay was developed by our analytical toxicology laboratory for 25-I, and serum obtained during ED evaluation and treatment was found to contain 0.76 ng/ml of 25-I. Case discussion. For 25I-NBOMe, 25-I is a common abbreviation for 25I-NBOMe, which is a (n-benzyl) phenethylamine in the 2C "family."Initially synthesized for research, cases of self-reported use of 25-I have recently appeared in the literature, some of which contain qualitative urine confirmation. There are no commercially available quantitative assays, and no previous reports have published serum concentrations. 25-I is a potent new synthetic drug with apparent significant behavioral toxicity that can be detected and quantified in serum.
- [Ocular toxicity of drugs]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Rev Prat 2013 Jan; 63(1):63-7.
Numerous systemic medications have a potential ocular toxicity leading to permanent visual loss. Physiopathologic mechanisms associated with these toxic effects are yet unclear and, besides discontinuation of the drug, when possible, there is no current validated treatment once visual loss is present. Prevention lies on an awareness of potential risks of both the patient and the practitioner, a constant evaluation of the risk/benefice ratio of any treatment and, for some drugs, regular visual evaluations according to now more standardized protocols. In that respect, a tight link between the ophthalmologist and the referring practitioner is critical. Among oculotoxic drugs, anti-malarial treatment represents the most commonly prescribed. A better recognition of clinical characteristics of ocular toxicity along with progress in functional and structural evaluation of the visual system has modified follow-up protocols to obtain the earliest detection but a better knowledge in toxic mechanisms is still necessary.
- Exploitation of the antioxidant potential of Geranium macrorrhizum (Geraniaceae): hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Prod Commun 2012 Dec; 7(12):1609-14.
In this study we evaluated in vitro (radical scavenging) and in vivo (hepatoprotective effect) antioxidant activities and antimicrobial properties of the extracts of the above- and underground parts of Geranium macrorrhizum L. (Geraniaceae), an ethnopharmacologically renowned plant species. The antioxidant activity and total phenol and flavonoid contents of four different solvent extracts were evaluated by seven different methods. The methanol extracts, administered i.p. to rats (120-480 mg/kg), were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in a CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity model. The same extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and two fungal species. The administered methanol extracts with the highest antioxidant potential showed a significant dose-dependent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced liver damage in both decreasing the levels of liver transaminases and bilirubin and in reducing the extent of morphological malformations of the liver. The leaf methanol extract displayed a very strong antibacterial activity, especially against Staphylococcus aureus, with low minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. These results justify the frequent use of this plant species in folk medicine. Besides the known astringent effect, one can expect that the observed antimicrobial activity against several human pathogens contributes to the wound healing properties of this plant.
- Tachypnea in an elderly woman with complaints of lower back pain. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- JAAPA 2013 Feb; 26(2):33-6.
- [Urticaria multiforme is a variation of urticaria, which imitates erythema multiforme]. [Case Reports, English Abstract]
- Ugeskr Laeger 2013 Feb 11; 175(7):436-7.
A 21-month-old boy developed urticaria multiforme during the course of a presumed pneumonia, which was treated with imacillin. At admission to hospital he was initially considered to have erythema multiforme, but the correct diagnosis was soon established as urticaria multiforme. He had a good response to antihistamines. The diagnostic differences between urticaria multiforme and erythema multiforme are presented in this case report.
- The low doses effect of experimental zearalenone (ZEN) intoxication on the presence of Ca2+ in selected ovarian cells from pre-pubertal bitches. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pol J Vet Sci 2012; 15(4):711-20.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 42-day ZEN intoxication on the presence of Ca2+ in selected ovarian cells from beagle bitches, using the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method. Samples were collected from 30 clinically healthy, pre-pubertal, genetically homogeneous animals. The bitches were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: experimental group I--50 microg ZEN/kg BW (100% NOAEL) administered once daily per os; experimental group II--75 microg ZEN/kg BW (150% NOAEL) administered once dailyper os; control group--placebo containing no ZEN administered per os. An electron microscopic analysis revealed that cells died due to apoptosis, depending on the ZEN dose and the type of cells exposed to intoxication. Lower ZEN doses led to apoptosis-like changes in the cells. Cell death was a consequence of excess Ca2+ accumulation in the mitochondria, followed by cell dysfunction and a decrease in or the absence of mitochondrial metabolic activity in oocytes, follicle cells and interstitial cells in experimental bitches.
- The effect of low-dose experimental zearalenone intoxication on the immunoexpression of estrogen receptors in the ovaries of pre-pubertal bitches. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pol J Vet Sci 2012; 15(4):685-91.
Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin that often contaminates plant material used in the production of feeds for companion animals. Small daily doses of ingested zearalenone--a competitive substrate modulating the activity of enzymes participating in estrogen biosynthesis at the pre-receptor level--can induce subclinical symptoms of hyperestrogenism in bitches. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low zearalenone doses on the presence of estrogen receptors in the ovaries of pre-pubertal Beagle bitches. The bitches were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: experimental group I--50 microg zearalenone/kg body weight administered once daily per os; experimental group II--75 microg zearalenone/kg body weight administered once daily per os; control group--placebo containing no ZEN administered per os. The animals were ovariorectomized at the end of the experiment, at 112 days of age. Estrogen receptors were detected in ovarian specimens by immunohistochemical methods. The results revealed an absence of estrogen receptors alpha in all groups. In both experimental groups a decrease in the positive response of estrogen receptors beta in specified structures of ovaries was observed. Very low alpha-zearalenol levels probably attested to the slowing down (hypostimulation) of the biotransformation process. Overall, zearalenone intoxication led to hyperestrogenism during a specific developmental stage of pre-pubertal bitches. As regards hormesis, the threshold dose of zearalenone (adaptive capability) was exceeded in the ovaries of experimental group II animals. The results obtained in both experimental groups suggest that long-term exposure to low-dose zearalenone intoxication decreased the degree of estrogen receptors beta staining in particular structures of ovaries in the experimental bitches, which initiated epigenetic modification mechanisms that inhibited ovarian development.
- A case of DRESS syndrome induced by the antituberculosis drugs, prothionamide, and para-aminosalycilic acid. [Case Reports, Letter, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013 Feb; 110(2):118-9.