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Arthritis, chronic, one joint [keywords]
- Podagra in Cystic Fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chest 2012 Oct 1; 142(4_MeetingAbstracts):21A.
SESSION TYPE: Airway Student/Resident Case Report PostersPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PM
INTRODUCTION:Joint disease affecting adults with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) may present as episodic arthritis and/or hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA). Gout is rarely reported in adults with CF. We report an adult CF patient who presented to us with Podagra.
CASE PRESENTATION:A thirty year old white man with CF presented with severe pain in left big toe and redness for one week. He denied trauma to left foot. There was no history of fever, infectious complications. Family history was insignificant for gout. He was prescribed Indomethacin by for seven days without relief. His exam showed red and swollen left first metatarsophalyngeal joint with excruciating pain on movement. His foot x rays showed mild hallux valgus with bunion formation without evidence of erosive periostitis. His serum uric acid level came elevated at ten mg/dl. He was diagnosed with classical podagra and started on Indomethacin followed by allopurinol with complete relief of his symptoms.
DISCUSSION:Arthropathy occurs in up to 12% of patients with CF and appears to be caused by immunologic processes. Acute episodes may affect all joints, are usually asymmetric, present with swollen, hot, red, and tender joints, often cause incapacitating pain, typically last seven to ten days, and usually are not erosive. Serologic analysis to exclude other causes of arthritis should be considered such as Gout which is rare. Joint fluid analysis is usually nonspecific and may be non inflammatory. Non-steroidals and steroidals anti-inflammatory medications are used in management of CF arthritis. HPOA is characterized by chronic, proliferative long-bone periostitis, causing symmetrical bone pain and painful oligosynovitis in the large joints.Unlike arthritis, HPOA exacerbations tend to accompany pulmonary infectious exacerbations. Ourpatient had classic findings of Podagra, elevated serum urate and response to appropriate therapy. It is a hypothesis that pancreatic enzyme supplements which contain high levels of purine may be responsible for hyperuricemia in adult CF patients.
CONCLUSIONS:Surviellance of serum urate is not routinely performed but consideration should be given to adding this to investigations. Review of pancreatic enzyme intake in those with confirmed gout or extreme hyperuricemia can be considered.1) Gout and hyperuricaemia in adults with cystic fibrosis. Horsley A, Helm J, Brennan A, Bright-Thomas R, Webb K, Jones A.Manchester Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK. J R Soc Med. 2011 Jul;104 Suppl 1:S36-9.2) Cystic Fibrosis Adult Care. Consensus Conference Report. ( Chest 2004; 125: 1S-39S)3) Schidlow DV, Goldsmith DP, Palmer J, et al. Arthritis in cystic Fibrosis. Arch Dis of child 1984; 59:377-379DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Sumaira Malik, Nauman ChaudaryNo Product/Research Disclosure InformationUMC, Brandon, MS.
- Splenic manifestations of chronic autoimmune disorder: a report of five cases with histiocytic necrotizing change in four cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Histopathology 2013 Mar 22.
AIMS:Autoimmune diseases (AD) are associated with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Changes in the spleen have not been characterized completely in AD; we describe splenectomy specimens from five patients with chronic AD, highlighting the presence of necrotizing histiocytosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS:Of the patients (three males and two females; mean 40 years), four had systemic lupus erythematosus; one had rheumatoid arthritis. All had moderate splenomegaly (213-803 g, mean 421 g). Four cases exhibited necrosis with apoptosis and karyorrhectic debris occurring in the white pulp and minimal acute inflammation; one showed florid follicular hyperplasia. Splenic involvement ranged from focal to extensive. Plasma cells were negative for IgG4. Haematoxylin bodies were not identified. Stains for infectious organisms were negative. Immunohistochemical studies showed that lymphocytes surrounding the necrosis were a mixture of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; CD123-positive plasmacytoid dendritic cells were not present, and staining for kappa and lambda light chains showed no clonality. 16S rDNA PCR was performed; no amplification was seen in three of four cases tested for bacteria specific rDNA. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization studies highlighted rare positive cells in four cases.
CONCLUSIONS:Splenomegaly in AD is thought to be hyperplasic, but we present four cases showing histiocytic necrosis, a finding which should be considered part of the spectrum of AD in the spleen.
- Role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis: latest findings and interpretations. [Journal Article]
- Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2013 Apr; 5(2):77-94.
Osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been classified as a noninflammatory arthritis; however, the dichotomy between inflammatory and degenerative arthritis is becoming less clear with the recognition of a plethora of ongoing immune processes within the OA joint and synovium. Synovitis is defined as inflammation of the synovial membrane and is characteristic of classical inflammatory arthritidies. Increasingly recognized is the presence of synovitis in a significant proportion of patients with primary OA, and based on this observation, further studies have gone on to implicate joint inflammation and synovitis in the pathogenesis of OA. However, clinical OA is not one disease but a final common pathway secondary to many predisposing factors, most notably age, joint trauma, altered biomechanics, and obesity. How such biochemical and mechanical processes contribute to the progressive joint failure characteristic of OA is tightly linked to the interplay of joint damage, the immune response to perceived damage, and the subsequent state of chronic inflammation resulting in propagation and progression toward the phenotype recognized as clinical OA. This review will discuss a wide range of evolving data leading to our current hypotheses regarding the role of immune activation and inflammation in OA onset and progression. Although OA can affect any joint, most commonly the knee, hip, spine, and hands, this review will focus primarily on OA of the knee as this is the joint most well characterized by epidemiologic, imaging, and translational studies investigating the association of inflammation with OA.
- Direct and indirect comparison of the efficacy and safety of adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and golimumab in psoriatic arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pharm Ther 2013 Apr 17.
WHAT IS KNOWN AND
OBJECTIVE:Psoriatic arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the skin and joints. Anti-TNF drugs reduce the severity of the disease in the long term. This study compares the efficacy and safety of adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and golimumab in patients with psoriatic arthritis.
METHODS:Direct comparison was based on a literature search of drug comparison studies, whereas indirect treatment comparison was based on phase III clinical trials with biological agents, involving similar populations and durations, and with the same outcome. ACR50 was taken as primary outcome for comparison, whereas ACR20 and ACR70 were used as secondary outcomes. Indirect comparisons were made using infliximab as the reference drug and the Bucher method. In calculating δ (the maximum acceptable difference as a clinical criterion of equivalence), use was made of half of the absolute risk reduction obtained in the meta-analysis of the clinical trials included in the indirect comparison (ARR 32%; δ: 16%). The four anti-TNF drugs were also compared in relation to the secondary outcomes and adverse effects.
DISCUSSION:Reported direct and indirect comparisons of the four drugs did not include golimumab, and did not yield conclusive results. Four clinical trials - one for each drug studied - were identified. The estimated differences for the primary outcome, ACR50, between infliximab and the other drugs were adalimumab (ARR 4%, 95% CI -9·5 to 17·5), etanercept (ARR 4%, 95% CI -10·5 to 18·5) and golimumab (ARR 9%, 95% CI -5·4 to 23·4). Likewise, there were no relevant differences between the drugs in relation to the secondary efficacy outcomes, except for etanercept, which was less effective in ACR70 response. For adverse reactions, there were also no significant differences except for injection site, reactions which were more frequent with etanercept, with a mean difference of 26% relative to infliximab. WHAT IS NEW AND
CONCLUSION:No significant differences were found in ACR50 responses to the four drugs after 24 weeks. Injection-site reactions were more common with etanercept, but this was insufficient to invalidate the inference that clinically the four drugs can be regarded as clinically equivalent for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis.
- Standardization of an experimental model suitable for studies on the effect of exercise on arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2013 Mar; 11(1):76-82.
OBJECTIVE:To standardize an experimental model of chronic monoarthritis induced by complete Freund's adjuvant appropriate for the analysis of the effect of walking on nociception and on joint edema.
METHODS:The following factors were evaluated as to monoarthritis induction: route and site of administration, number and interval of inoculations, Mycobacterium species, and animal gender. Wistar male and female rats (200 to 250g) received two injections of complete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (1.0mg/mL; 50µL) or Mycobacterium butyricum (0.5mg/mL; 50µL) intra-articularly in the tibiotarsal or tibiofemoral joints, or an injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (Mycobacterium butyricum or tuberculosis) intradermally at the base of the tail and another intra-articularly (tibiotarsal or tibiofemoral). The animals were submitted to evaluations of articular disability and edema. Articular disability was assessed by paw elevation time (in seconds) during the one-minute walk test. Edema of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by variation of joint diameter (cm). Tibiotarsal joint edema was measured by the volume of the paw (mL).
RESULTS:Administration of complete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium butyricum increased paw elevation time and edema in both joints.
CONCLUSIONS:These data allow standardization of an animal model of chronic monoarthritis adequate for analysis of the effects of exercise on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
- Outcome of reactive arthritis after an extensive Finnish waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak: a 1-year prospective follow-up study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Rheumatol 2013 Apr 5.
The purpose of the study was to assess the 1-year outcome of definitive reactive arthritis (ReA) after a waterborne outbreak. A cohort of 21 patients (15 females and 6 males, median age 54 years) with ReA related to an extensive waterborne outbreak in Finland was clinically followed-up by rheumatologists with visits at baseline, at 1 month and 3, 6 and 12 months. Although the outcome was in general favourable, 1/3 of the patients had chronic course; 7 (33 %) of the 21 patients needed disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and even 8 (38 %) of them used glucocorticoids at 12 months. Four (19 %) were using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nine (43 %) other analgesics. Many patients had articular pain and impaired physical function still at 12 months, even though inflammatory parameters and the number of swollen joints were low. Only one patient (5 %) was human leucocyte antigen-B27-positive. She had the most severe ReA and also additional infectious arthritis caused by Salmonella serotype enteritidis leading to osteonecrosis of her hip joint with subsequent need for arthroplasty. ReA as observed in our study was overall fairly mild, but in many individuals, postinfectious arthralgia and DMARD use continued at least up to 1 year.
- Saturnine gout, redux: a review. [Journal Article]
- Am J Med 2013 May; 126(5):450.e1-8.
Illicitly distilled beverages (colloquially referred to as moonshine) account for approximately one third of alcohol consumption worldwide. Moonshine is often produced in makeshift distilling units composed of old, repurposed parts, whose component elements can leach into the distillate. Consequently, the resultant beverages may inadvertently contain harmful toxins, one of which is the metal lead. One manifestation of chronic lead toxicity-from moonshine or other forms of chronic lead poisoning-is the rheumatologic entity known as saturnine gout. With the increasing prevalence of gout over the past few decades, physicians should be aware of the association of moonshine consumption or lead toxicity with gouty arthritis. In this article, we present an overview of saturnine gout, beginning with a discussion of lead poisoning in antiquity and tracing its path to modern times. The contribution of lead to human disease and the clinical features of saturnine gout are outlined. After describing the role of lead in renal insufficiency and purine metabolism, we conclude with a discussion of specific strategies to manage this clinically important form of secondary gout.
- Methotrexate for ankylosing spondylitis. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD004524.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause, characterized by sacroiliitis and spondylitis. Methotrexate (MTX), a widely used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), is effective for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and so might work for AS. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2006.To evaluate the benefits and harms of MTX for treating AS.We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 6, 2012), MEDLINE (2005 to June 25, 2012), EMBASE (2005 to June 25, 2012), Ovid MEDLINE Scopus, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the reference sections of retrieved articles. Trials published in any language were acceptable.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (qRCTs) examining the benefits and harms of MTX versus placebo, other medication, or no medication for treatment of AS.Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements through discussions with a third review author. In the absence of significant heterogeneity, we combined results for continuous data using mean difference or standardized mean difference values. We calculated the risk ratio for dichotomous data.We identified three RCTs (no additional new studies), which included 116 participants. Of these three trials, one was a 12-month trial that compared naproxen plus MTX with naproxen alone. Also, there were two 24-week trials that compared different doses of MTX with placebo. We included the outcomes of response, physical function, pain, spinal mobility, peripheral joints/entheses pain, swelling and tenderness, changes in spine radiographs, and patient and physician global assessment. We judged only one trial to be at low risk of bias. Across these three trials, we did not identify any statistically signiﬁcant differences favoring MTX treatment over no MTX treatment apart from one exception. The response rate in one trial showed a statistically significant absolute benefit of 36% and a number to treat for benefit (NNT) of three in the MTX group compared to the placebo group (RR 3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79). This response rate was based on a composite index that included assessments of morning stiffness, physical well-being, Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), health assessment questionnaire for spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S), and physician and patient global assessment. We did not identify any outcome that showed a statistically significant difference between the MTX treated and no MTX treatment groups when endpoint results were compared. Furthermore, no serious side effects were reported in any of the included trials.There is not enough evidence to support any benefit of MTX in the treatment of AS. High-quality RCTs of larger sample sizes are needed to clarify the effect(s) of MTX on AS.
- Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia in rheumatoid arthritis. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD000332.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disorder that mainly affects the small joints of the hands and feet. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been used to treat anemia, one of the extra-articular manifestations of RA. Although anemia is less of a problem now because of the reduction in inflammation due to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), it could still be an issue in countries where DMARDs are not yet accessible.We assessed the clinical benefits and harms of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia in rheumatoid arthritis.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (issue 7 2012), Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (1948 to 7 August 2012), OVID EMBASE (1980 to 7 August 2012), LILACS (1982 to 7 August 2012), the Clinical Trials Search Portal of the World Health Organization, reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles. We did not apply any language restrictions.We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients aged 16 years or over, with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis affected by anemia. We considered health-related quality of life, fatigue and safety as the primary outcomes.Two authors independently performed trial selection, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. We estimated difference in means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. We estimated risk ratios with 95% CIs for binary outcomes.We included three RCTs with a total of 133 participants. All trials compared human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO), for different durations (8, 12 and 52 weeks), versus placebo. All RCTs assessed health-related quality of life. All trials had high or unclear risk of bias for most domains, and were sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. Two trials administered EPO by a subcutaneous route while the other used an intravenous route.We decided not to pool results from trials, due to inconsistencies in the reporting of results.Health-related quality of life: subcutaneous EPO - one trial with 70 patients at 52 weeks showed a statistically significant difference in improvement of patient global assessment (median and interquartile range 3.5 (1.0 to 6.0) compared with placebo 4.5 (2.0 to 7.5) (P = 0.027) on a VAS scale (0 to 10)). The other shorter term trials (12 weeks with subcutaneous EPO and eight weeks with intravenous administration) did not find statistically significant differences between treatment and control groups in health-related quality of life outcomes.Change in hemoglobin: both trials of subcutaneous EPO showed a statistically significant difference in increasing hemoglobin levels; (i) at 52 weeks (one trial, 70 patients), intervention hemoglobin level (median 134, interquartile range 110 to 158 g/litre) compared with the placebo group level (median 112, interquartile range; 86 to 128 g/litre) (P = 0.0001); (ii) at 12 weeks (one trial, 24 patients) compared with placebo (difference in means 8.00, 95% CI 7.43 to 8.57). Intravenous EPO at eight weeks showed no statistically significant difference in increasing hematocrit level for EPO versus placebo (difference in means 4.69, 95% CI -0.17 to 9.55; P = 0.06).Information on withdrawals due to adverse events was not reported in two trials, and one trial found no serious adverse events leading to withdrawals. None of the trials reported withdrawals due to high blood pressure, or to lack of efficacy or to fatigue.We found conflicting evidence for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to increase quality of life and hemoglobin level by treating anemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, this conclusion is based on randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias, and relies on trials assessing human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO). The safety profile of EPO is unclear. Future trials assessing erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia in rheumatoid arthritis should be conducted by independent researchers and reported according to the CONSORT statements. Trials should be based on Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT) and The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) approaches for combining both clinician and patient perspectives.
- Opioid Receptors and Their Ligands in the Musculoskeletal System and Relevance for Pain Control. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2013 Feb 20.
Interest in opioid drugs like morphine, as the oldest and most potent pain-killing agents known, has been maintained through the years. One of the most frequent chronic pain sensations people experience is associated with pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a major health problem, and an adequate management requires understanding of both peripheral and central components, with more attention drawn to the former. Intense experimental and clinical research activities resulted in important knowledge as to the mechanisms and functions of the endogenous opioid system located in the periphery. This review described the occurrence and distribution of endogenous opioids and their receptors in the musculoskeletal system, and their role in pain control in musculoskeletal disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Using different techniques, including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy or radioimmunoassay, expression of enkephalins, dynorphin, β-endorphin, and endomorphins was demonstrated in the musculoskeletal tissues for animals and human. Localization of opioid peptides was found in synovial membrane, periosteum, bone and bone marrow, loose connective tissue, the paratenon and musculotendinous junction of the achilles tendon. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated expression of µ, δ and κ opioid receptor protein in musculoskeletal tissues using radioligand binding assays, autoradiography, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Opioid receptor gene expression was reported based on polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization techniques. Combining morphological and quantitative approaches, important evidence that the musculoskeletal apparatus is equipped with a peripheral opioid system is provided. Demonstration of the occurrence of an endogenous opioid system in bone and joint tissues represents an essential step for defining novel pharmacological approaches to attain peripheral control of pain in musculoskeletal disorders.