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Arthritis, general [keywords]
- Rudolf Virchow's Medical School Dissertation on Rheumatism and the Cornea: Overlooked Tribute to the Cornea in Biomedical Research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cornea 2014 Dec 18.
To critique Rudolf Virchow's medical school dissertation on rheumatism and the cornea and to determine whether it might have anticipated his remarkable career in medicine.Review of the English translation of Rudolf Virchow's de Rheumate Praesertim Corneae written in 1843.The dissertation was more than 7000 words long. Virchow considered rheumatism as an irritant disorder not induced by acid as traditionally thought but by albumin. He concluded that inflammation was secondary to a primary irritant and that the "seat" of rheumatism was "gelatinous" (connective) tissues, which included the cornea. He divided kerato-rheumatism into different varieties. The prognosis of keratitis was variable, and would eventually lapse into "scrofulosis, syphilis, or arthritis of the cornea."Virchow's dissertation characterizes rheumatism in terms of chemical and tissue interactions that make little sense in the context of today's knowledge of rheumatic disease and keratitis. Ironically, many of these concepts were made obsolete by the cellular model of disease that Virchow championed. Virchow decided to pursue the study of rheumatism through the cornea because he thought that the cornea was an ideal tissue to study disease. This discernment was passed on to his students whose seminal contributions to general pathology were based on research with the cornea. It is debatable whether Virchow's insight into the importance of the cornea in biomedical research at such an early stage of his career could have predicted his monumental contributions to medicine.
- Effect of cervus and cucumis peptides on osteoblast activity and fracture healing in osteoporotic bone. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014.:958908.
Osteoporosis is associated with delayed and/or reduced fracture healing. As cervus and cucumis are the traditional Chinese treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, we investigated the effect of supplementation of these peptides (CCP) on bone fracture healing in ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic rats in vitro and in vivo. CCP enhanced osteoblast proliferation and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, and expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and osteopontin. In vivo, female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ovariectomy and the right femora were fractured and fixed by intramedullary nailing 3 months later. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of either CCP (1.67 mg/kg) or physiological saline every day for 30 days. Fracture healing and callus formation were evaluated by radiography, micro-CT, biomechanical testing, and histology. At 12 weeks after fracture, calluses in CCP-treated bones showed significantly higher torsional strength and greater stiffness than control-treated bones. Bones in CCP-treated rats reunified and were thoroughly remodeled, while two saline-treated rats showed no bone union and incomplete remodeling. Taken together, these results indicate that use of CCP after fracture in osteoporotic rats accelerates mineralization and osteogenesis and improves fracture healing.
- Perceived need to take medication is associated with medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [Journal Article]
- Patient Prefer Adherence 2014.:1635-45.
This is the first cross-sectional study that aims to examine associations between beliefs about medication and non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, taking potential psychological confounders into account.Eligible patients (diagnosed with RA for ≥1 year or ≥18 years, using greater than or equal to one disease-modifying antirheumatic drug) were included by their rheumatologist during regular outpatient visits between September 2009 and September 2010. Included patients received questionnaires. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire was used to measure the perceived need to take medication (necessity beliefs), the concerns about taking medication (concern beliefs), general medication beliefs, and attitudes toward taking medication. Medication non-adherence (no/yes) was measured using the Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR). Associations between beliefs and non-adherence, and the influence of demographical, clinical, and psychological factors (symptoms of anxiety/depression, illness cognitions, self-efficacy) were assessed using logistic regression.A total of 580 of the 820 eligible patients willing to participate were included in the analyses (68% female, mean age 63 years, 30% non-adherent to their medication). Weaker necessity beliefs (OR [odds ratio]: 0.8, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.8-0.9) and an unfavorable balance between necessity and concern beliefs (OR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) were associated with CQR non-adherence. Also, having an indifferent attitude toward medication (no/yes) was associated with CQR non-adherence (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.1-25.8), but the prevalence of patients with an indifferent attitude toward medication was low. The associations were barely confounded by demographical, clinical, and psychological factors.Increasing necessity beliefs about medication in clinical practice might be worthwhile in improving medication adherence in RA patients.
- Fostering autonomous motivation, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in rheumatoid arthritis: protocol and rationale for a randomised control trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2014 Dec 19; 15(1):445.
People with rheumatoid arthritis are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease than the general population. Sustained physical activity increases cardio-respiratory fitness and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, little is known about how we can effectively promote long-term participation in physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The literature consistently calls for physical activity interventions, and their implementation, to be theoretically-grounded.This paper documents the protocol of a randomised control trial that investigates whether a Self-determination Theory-based intervention fosters the adoption and maintenance of physical activity (3, 6 and 12 months) sufficient to provide sustained cardiovascular and personal well-being benefits in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be determined. The trial is registered as Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04121489.Results from this trial will provide guidance regarding key social environmental factors that can be manipulated to support motivational processes conducive to positive health behaviour change and optimal functioning in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
- Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment in autoimmune diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Proteomics Clin Appl 2014 Dec 19.
Autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease, which constitutes the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among such patients. Although such effects are partly explained by a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, many studies indicate that such factors do not fully explain the enhanced CV risk in these patients. In addition, risk stratification algorithms based upon traditional CV risk factors are not as predictive in autoimmune diseases as in the general population. For these reasons, the timely and accurate assessment of CV risk in these high-risk populations still remains an unmet clinical need. An enhanced contribution of different inflammatory components of the immune response, as well as autoimmune elements (e.g. autoantibodies, autoantigens and cellular response) have been proposed to underlie the incremental CV risk observed in these populations. Recent advances in proteomic tools have contributed to the discovery of proteins involved in CV diseases, including some that may be suitable to be used as biological markers. In this review we summarize the main markers in the field of CV diseases associated with autoimmunity, as well as the recent advances in proteomic technology and their application for biomarker discovery in autoimmune disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Lack of evidence of viral reactivation in HBsAg-negative HBcAb-positive and HCV patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for psoriasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Gastroenterol 2014 Dec 19; 14(1):214.
Background and aimHBV and HCV reactivation have been widely reported in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy (IT); however, few data are available on the risk of reactivation in patients with psoriasis receiving IT. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in patients with psoriasis and to evaluate the effects of IT during the course of the infection.MethodsThe study included psoriatic patients who attended an Italian tertiary referral hospital from 2009 to 2012. A total of 224 patients were enrolled. We evaluated: HBV and HCV markers, type of IT and the occurrence of viral reactivation. The observational period ranged from the beginning of IT to the last visit, with a mean follow-up period of 54 months.ResultsTwo hundred and twenty patients (135 males and 89 females; mean age 59 years; range 18¿86 years) with psoriasis, with or without psoriatic arthritis, receiving conventional IT and/or biological drugs were tested for markers of infection. We identified 23/224 patients (10.2%) with isolated positivity for HBcAb positivity, 36/224 (16%) with positivity for HBsAb/HBcAb, and 15/224 (6.6%) with positivity for HCV-Ab. No patient was HBsAg positive, none of them underwent pre-emptive therapy with lamivudine or other antiviral drugs and no one showed episodes of viral reactivation.ConclusionsThe prevalence of HBsAg in patients with psoriasis is lower than that observed in the general population. The prevalence of isolated positivity for HBcAb and of combined positivity for HBcAb and HBsAb is 10.2% and 16%, respectively. The prevalence of HCV infection (HCV-RNA+) is 4%. In patients with psoriasis and HCV-Ab or HBcAb positivity, the IT seems to be safe, regardless of the type of drugs.
- Cardiovascular Disease-related Hospital Admissions of Patients with Inflammatory Arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Rheumatol 2014 Dec 15.
Patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), suggesting a high rate of CVD-related hospitalizations, but data on this topic are limited. Our study addressed hospital admissions for CVD in a primary care-based population of patients with IA and controls.All newly diagnosed patients with IA between 2001 and 2010 were selected from electronic medical records of the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research Primary Care database, representing a national network of general practices. Two control patients matched for age, sex, and practice were selected for each patient with IA. Hospital admission data for all patients was retrieved from the Dutch Hospital Data.There were 2615 patients with IA and 5555 controls included in our study. CVD-related hospital admissions were observed more frequently among patients with IA as compared with control patients: 48% versus 36% (p < 0.001) in a followup period of 4 years. Patients with IA were more often hospitalized because of ischemic heart disease (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.2) and for daycare admission because of cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.9).Increased hospital admission rates confirm the higher CVD burden among patients with IA compared with controls, and underscore the need for proper CVD risk management in patients with IA.
- Bone Lineage Proteins in the Entheses of the Midfoot in Patients with Spondyloarthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Rheumatol 2014 Dec 15.
Patients with juvenile-onset spondyloarthritis (SpA) may develop ankylosis of the midfoot resembling the spinal changes seen in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study of the histopathology of the feet of patients with tarsitis could help us understand the pathogenesis of bone formation in affected structures in the SpA. The objective of our study was to describe the histopathologic characteristics of the midfoot in patients with tarsitis associated with SpA.We obtained synovial sheaths, entheses, and bone samples from 20 patients with SpA with midfoot pain/tenderness and swelling. Tissue samples underwent H&E staining; immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, and CD20 cell identification; and immunofluorescence for bone lineage proteins, including osteocalcin, osteopontin, parathyroid hormone-related protein, bone sialoprotein, and alkaline phosphatase.Slight edema and hyalinization were found in some tendon sheaths, and few inflammatory cells were detected in the entheses. In bones, we found some changes suggesting osteoproliferation, including endochondral and intramembranous ossification, but no inflammatory cells. In entheses showing bone proliferation, we detected osteocalcin and osteopontin in cells with a fibroblastmesenchymal phenotype, suggesting the induction of entheseal cells toward an osteoblast phenotype.Osteoproliferation and abnormal expression of bone lineage proteins, but no inflammatory infiltration, characterize midfoot involvement in patients with SpA. In this sense, tarsitis (or ankylosing tarsitis) resembles the involvement of the spine in patients with AS. Ossification may be in part explained by the differentiation of mesenchymal entheseal cells toward the osteoblastic lineage.
- Syndrome of remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema: A case series. [Journal Article]
- J Postgrad Med 2015 Jan-Mar; 61(1):38-41.
Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting Edema (RS3PE) is a rare clinical entity that is easily missed due to lack of knowledge. It was formerly considered as a subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but is now regarded as a distinct disease/syndrome. The diagnosis of RS3PE is not easy, as it is always hindered by the lack of definite diagnostic criteria and presence of other much common rheumatological disorders that mimic it. We report a series of seven cases that attended our clinic in the last year, which highlight the salient features of the disease. The disease was found to have a heterogeneous presentation. Immunogenetic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and possible etiological factors and associations with the neoplasm are described, as also other peculiar presentations. Finally, a comparison with other common rheumatological disorders is made to alert the clinician about this rare, but easily treatable disease.
- Comorbidity profiles in association with vitiligo: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014 Dec 16.
The previous literature has demonstrated the association of autoimmune and atopic diseases with vitiligo, but there has been no large-scale nationwide study conducted to confirm this.The present study was conducted to clarify the comorbid profiles in vitiligo patients and thereby better understand their clinical scenarios and underlying pathogenesis.This was a retrospective population-based study conducted from 1996 to 2011 via the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The differences in the prevalence of multiple autoimmune and atopic diseases between case subjects and controls were analysed by multiple logistic regression method.A total of 14883 vitiligo patients and 59532 controls were enroled. The prevalence of vitiligo was 0.064% and the peak of onset age was 40-59 years old. The non-stratified analysis evidenced a significant association between vitiligo and several comorbid diseases, including alopecia areata, Hashimoto thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, Graves' disease, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and atopic dermatitis. Vitiligo patients also had higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities than controls. In the age- and gender-stratified analysis, increased risks of systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome were observed only in subjects aged 60-79. The association of vitiligo with myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis was identified only in the subgroup aged 20-39 and in females aged 60-79 respectively.Our study not only confirmed the significant association of vitiligo with multiple autoimmune and atopic diseases in Taiwan but also disclosed several unique findings, including the much lower prevalence of vitiligo, delayed onset of vitiligo by three decades, different associated comorbidity profiles comparing to westerners and the age- and gender-specific approach for the vitiligo-associated comorbidities.