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Arthritis, general [keywords]
- Rothia prosthetic knee joint infection: report and mini-review. [Journal Article, Review]
- New Microbes New Infect 2013 Oct; 1(1):2-5.
Rothia spp. are gram-positive pleomorphic bacteria that are part of the normal oral microflora. They are associated with dental and periodontal disease, although systemic infections have also been reported. We describe the case of a 75-year-old lady with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with prosthetic knee joint infection due to Rothia aeria. We discuss its identification and the evidence regarding association of dental disease with Rothia spp. joint infections based on available literature.
- Treatment of Forefoot Problems in Older People: A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Podiatric Treatment With Standardized Shoe Advice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Fam Med 2014 Sep; 12(5):432-440.
Consultations for forefoot pain are frequent in primary care, but scientific support of treatment options is scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of podiatric treatment vs standardized advice on proper shoe characteristics and fit of shoes by means of an information leaflet for people aged 50 years and older with forefoot pain in primary care.In this randomized controlled trial, 205 participants aged 50 years and older with hindering nontraumatic forefoot pain have been recruited at their general practitioner's office. Exclusion criteria were treatment of forefoot problem of less than 6 months' duration before inclusion, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetic neuropathy or having pain considered not to be musculoskeletal (eg, warts). Participants received shoe advice by means of an information leaflet or podiatric care. Foot pain, foot-related dysfunction, general health, and social participation were assessed by means of questionnaires every 3 months for 1 year. Using multilevel analysis, we analyzed results at the level of (1) outcome measures, (2) the individual, and (3) the general practitioner.No differences were found between the 2 treatment groups. Both intervention groups showed an improvement over time in foot pain and foot-related dysfunction.This study found that shoe advice provided to patients consulting their general practitioner for forefoot pain and symptom relief resulted in outcomes similar to treatment outcomes in patients consulting a podiatrist. Based on these results, primary care physicians should be cautious when referring a patient to a podiatrist; instead, they should start by providing advice on proper characteristics and fit of shoes.
- Psychiatric and cardiovascular comorbidities as causes of long-term work disability among individuals with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Rheumatol 2014 Oct 29.:1-6.
Objectives: With the ameliorating prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the role of comorbidities as causes of work disability (WD) may increase. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of psychiatric and cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities as the leading causes of long-term WD among patients with recent-onset RA. Method: Between 2000 and 2007, all incident, working-age and non-retired RA patients were identified from a Finnish nationwide register. From other registers, we identified the RA patients who were granted a permanent or temporary disability pension by 31 December 2008. The incidences of disability pensions with CV diseases (ICD-10 codes I00-I99) or psychiatric disorders (F20-F69) as the leading causes were assessed and compared with the general population. Results: We identified a cohort of 7831 patients with RA. During follow-up, 1095 patients were granted a disability pension. After adjusting for competing risks, the 9-year cumulative incidence of WD caused by RA, a psychiatric comorbidity, or a CV disease was 11.9, 1.3, and 0.5%, respectively. Compared to the general population, the age- and sex-specific standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of WD due to psychiatric comorbidities was 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.23] and due to CV disease 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.51). Conclusions: In the study cohort with recent-onset RA, the 9-year cumulative incidence of disability pensions caused by psychiatric or CV comorbidities was only 11% or 4%, respectively, of that caused by RA itself. Compared to the general population, the risk of WD due to CV disease was increased.
- Changes in sociodemographic characteristics at baseline in two Swedish cohorts of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed 1996-98 and 2006-09. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Rheumatol 2014 Oct 29.:1-6.
Objectives: To compare baseline sociodemographic characteristics in two rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohorts enrolled 10 years apart, and to examine differences with respect to the general population. Method: Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected in 320 early RA patients during 1996-98 (TIRA-1) and 467 patients in 2006-09 (TIRA-2). Multivariate logistic regression tests were performed and intercohort comparisons were related to general population data, obtained from official databases. Results: TIRA-2 patients were older than TIRA-1 (58 vs. 56 years). Women (both cohorts, 67%) were younger than men in TIRA-1 (55 vs. 59 years) and in TIRA-2 (57 vs. 61 years). Disease activity was similar but TIRA-2 women scored worse pain and worse on the HAQ. Approximately 73% were cohabiting, in both cohorts and in the general population. Education was higher in TIRA-2 than in TIRA-2 but still lower than in the general population. Women had consistently higher education than men. Education was associated with age, younger patients having higher education. In both cohorts, lower education was associated with increased disability pension and increased sick leave. Sick leave was lower in TIRA-2 than in TIRA-1 (37% vs. 50%) but disability pension was higher (16% vs. 10%). In TIRA-1, 9% of women had disability pension compared with 17% in TIRA-2. A similar decrease in sick leave and an increase in disability pension were also seen in the general population. Older age and a higher HAQ score were associated with increased sick leave and being in the TIRA-2 cohort was associated with decreased sick leave. Conclusions: TIRA-2 patients were slightly older, better educated, had lower sick leave and higher disability pension than those in TIRA-1. Similar changes were seen simultaneously in the general population. Belonging to the TIRA-2 cohort was associated with decreased sick leave, indicating that societal changes are of importance.
- Prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and other diseases in patients with psoriatic or psoriatic arthritis: a retrospective study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014 Oct 28.
Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with psoriasis have higher rates of comorbidities compared to the general population. Despite the clinical and economic burden of psoriatic disease, there have been few large-scale observational studies focused on this condition.To assess rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, infectious and other conditions in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis (PSA).The data for this retrospective study were obtained from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CRPD). Cohorts of patients with psoriasis (n = 27 672; mild, n = 22 174, severe, n = 5498) and PSA (n = 1952) were generated based on the diagnosis made by general practitioner or specialist recorded in CPRD between 2006 and 2010. Frequencies of comorbidities at baseline and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of medical conditions occurring during follow-up were calculated and compared between groups. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to compare hazard ratios (HR) of comorbidities across the same subpopulations previously described.Significant differences in the unadjusted risk of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, skin cancer and autoimmune diseases were observed between patients with differing severity of psoriasis or between PSA and psoriasis patients. The adjusted HR analyses confirmed patients with severe psoriasis had significantly higher rates of several conditions including diabetes (1.23; 95% CI: 1.01-1.51) and rheumatoid arthritis (2.88; 95% CI: 2.25-3.67) compared to patients with mild psoriasis. Patients with PSA had significantly higher adjusted rates of hypertension (1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.68), rheumatoid arthritis (6.93; 95% CI: 5.45-8.80) and ankylosing spondylitis (6.98; 95% CI: 2.37-20.58) compared to those with severe psoriasis.Patients with mild psoriasis are less affected by comorbid conditions than those with severe psoriasis, and patients with psoriasis are less affected by comorbidities than those with PSA. Given the differences observed across severities of psoriasis and between psoriasis and PSA, each patient subgroup should be taken into consideration in clinical practice and future research.
- Increased serum amyloid A and its association with autoantibodies, acute phase reactants and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Med Rep 2014 Oct 29.
Determination of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has become an important component for RA management. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between circulating levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) and disease activity in RA patients. The types of disease and the respective number of patients enrolled in the present study were as follows: RA, 88; osteoarthritis (OA), 54; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 43; and other autoimmune diseases, 30, as well as 50 healthy controls (HC). SAA levels were measured using an ELISA assay and western blot analysis was used to detect serum SAA levels. The correlations between SAA levels and disease activity score for 28 joints (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C‑reactive protein (CRP), respectively, were evaluated; in addition, the presence and absence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti‑cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti‑CCP) were detected in respect to SAA levels. The results of the present study demonstrated that serum levels of SAA in RA patients were significantly increased compared to those of the OA, SLE, others and HC patients (P<0.05). SAA levels were found to be positively correlated with DAS28, ESR and CRP levels (R2=0.6174, 0.4422 and 0.3919, respectively). In addition, anti‑CCP was not correlated with DAS28 (R2=0.0154). Furthermore, increased SAA levels were detected in patients with positive anti‑CCP compared with those in anti‑CCP negative subjects (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of the present study provided further evidence for possible roles of SAA in RA, which indicated that it may be a useful biomarker for assessing disease severity and may provide additional information about disease activity.
- Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) for Brazil: validation study. [Journal Article]
- Sao Paulo Med J 2014 Dec; 132(6):339-47.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease that causes joint damage. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate the general health status of these patients but few have specifically evaluated the hands. The objective of this study was to translate, perform cultural adaptation and assess the validity of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire for Brazil.Validation study conducted at a university hospital in Curitiba, Brazil.Firstly, the questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and back-translated into English. The Portuguese version was tested on 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and proved to be understandable and culturally adapted. After that, 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were evaluated three times. On the first occasion, two evaluators applied the questionnaire to check inter-rater reproducibility. After 15 days, one of the evaluators reassessed the patients to verify intra rater reproducibility. To check the construct validity at the first assessment, one of the evaluators also applied other similar instruments.There were strong inter and intra rater correlations in all the domains of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was higher than 0.90 for all the domains of the questionnaire, thus indicating excellent internal validity. Almost all domains of the questionnaire presented moderate or strong correlation with other instruments, thereby showing good construct validity.The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted successfully, and it showed excellent internal consistency, reproducibility and construct validity.
- Risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Rheum Dis 2014 Oct 28.
We aimed to quantify the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis without known PsA compared with the general population after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors.A population-based longitudinal cohort study from 1994 to 2010 was performed in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a primary care medical record database in the UK. Patients aged 18-89 years of age with PsA, RA or psoriasis were included. Up to 10 unexposed controls matched on practice and index date were selected for each patient with PsA. Outcomes included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents and the composite outcome (MACE). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the HRs for each outcome adjusted for traditional risk factors. A priori, we hypothesised an interaction between disease status and disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) use.Patients with PsA (N=8706), RA (N=41 752), psoriasis (N=138 424) and unexposed controls (N=81 573) were identified. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, the risk of MACE was higher in patients with PsA not prescribed a DMARD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.49), patients with RA (No DMARD: HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.50, DMARD: HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.70), patients with psoriasis not prescribed a DMARD (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.15) and patients with severe psoriasis (DMARD users: HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.73).Cardiovascular risk should be addressed with all patients affected by psoriasis, PsA or RA.
- Role of cysteine‑rich angiogenic inducer 61 in fibroblast‑like synovial cell proliferation and invasion in rheumatoid arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Med Rep 2014 Oct 27.
Cysteine‑rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) is a novel molecule that has been shown to be increased in the synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study was conducted in order to investigate the role of Cyr61 in the pathogenesis of RA. A human genome‑wide gene assay was used to screen gene expression in synovial tissues obtained from four patients with RA and three patients with osteoarthritis (OA). To examine the role of Cyr61 in the phenotype of RA‑fibroblast‑like synovial (FLS) cells, Cyr61 expression in RA‑FLS cells was knocked down using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Normal FLS cells transduced with lentiviral vectors encoding Cyr61 cDNA were used to further explore the effects of this molecule on FLS cell apoptosis, proliferation and invasion. The study found that the Cyr61 gene was highly expressed in the synovial cells from patients with RA compared with those from patients with OA. Downregulation of Cyr61 by siRNA led to impaired cell proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, it decreased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑3 and MMP‑13, and induced apoptosis in RA‑FLS cells. Conversely, overexpression of Cyr61 in normal FLS cells led to opposite effects. In conclusion, these results indicate that Cyr61 is capable of promoting RA‑FLS cell proliferation and invasion via the suppression of apoptosis and the regulation of MMP expression. Therefore, Cyr61 may be a good target molecule for the treatment and prevention of RA.
- Randomised controlled trial of Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors Against Combination Intensive Therapy with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in established rheumatoid arthritis: the TACIT trial and associated systematic reviews. [Journal Article]
- Health Technol Assess 2014 Oct; 18(66):1-164.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is initially treated with methotrexate and other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Active RA patients who fail such treatments can receive tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis), which are effective but expensive.We assessed whether or not combination DMARDs (cDMARDs) give equivalent clinical benefits at lower costs in RA patients eligible for TNFis.An open-label, 12-month, pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, two-arm trial [Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors Against Combination Intensive Therapy (TACIT)] compared these treatment strategies. We then systematically reviewed all comparable published trials.The TACIT trial involved 24 English rheumatology clinics.Active RA patients eligible for TNFis.The TACIT trial compared cDMARDs with TNFis plus methotrexate or another DMARD; 6-month non-responders received (a) TNFis if in the cDMARD group; and (b) a second TNFi if in the TNFi group.The Heath Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) was the primary outcome measure. The European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), joint damage, Disease Activity Score for 28 Joints (DAS28), withdrawals and adverse effects were secondary outcome measures. Economic evaluation linked costs, HAQ changes and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).In total, 432 patients were screened; 104 started on cDMARDs and 101 started on TNFis. The initial demographic and disease assessments were similar between the groups. In total, 16 patients were lost to follow-up (nine in the cDMARD group, seven in the TNFi group) and 42 discontinued their intervention but were followed up (23 in the cDMARD group and 19 in the TNFi group). Intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation methods used for missing data showed greater 12-month HAQ score reductions with initial cDMARDs than with initial TNFis [adjusted linear regression coefficient 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.003 to 0.31; p = 0.046]. Increases in 12-month EQ-5D scores were greater with initial cDMARDs (adjusted linear regression coefficient -0.11, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.03; p = 0.009) whereas 6-month changes in HAQ and EQ-5D scores and 6- and 12-month changes in joint damage were similar between the initial cDMARD group and the initial TNFi group. Longitudinal analyses (adjusted general estimating equations) showed that the DAS28 was lower in the initial TNFi group in the first 6 months (coefficient -0.63, 95% CI -0.93 to -0.34; p < 0.001) but there were no differences between the groups in months 6-12. In total, 36 patients in the initial cDMARD group and 44 in the initial TNFi group achieved DAS28 remission. The onset of remission did not differ between groups (p = 0.085 on log-rank test). In total, 10 patients in the initial cDMARD group and 18 in the initial TNFi group experienced serious adverse events; stopping therapy because of toxicity occurred in 10 and six patients respectively. Economic evaluation showed that the cDMARD group had similar or better QALY outcomes than TNFi with significantly lower costs at 6 and 12 months. In the systematic reviews we identified 32 trials (including 20-1049 patients) on early RA and 19 trials (including 40-982 patients) on established RA that compared (1) cDMARDs with DMARD monotherapy; (2) TNFis/methotrexate with methotrexate monotherapy; and (3) cDMARDs with TNFis/methotrexate. They showed that cDMARDs and TNFis had similar efficacies and toxicities.Active RA patients who have failed methotrexate and another DMARD achieve equivalent clinical benefits at a lower cost from starting cDMARDs or from starting TNFis (reserving TNFis for non-responders). Only a minority of patients achieve sustained remission with cDMARDs or TNFis; new strategies are needed to maximise the frequency of remission.Current Control Trials ISRCTN37438295.This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 18, No. 66. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.