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Arthritis, general [keywords]
- Bone Mineral Density of the Femur in Autopsy Retrieved Total Knee Arthroplasties. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Arthroplasty 2014 Mar 15.
Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, can vary depending on bone rotation and fat content of soft tissues. We performed DEXA measurements, under controlled positioning, on 24 autopsy-retrieved femora from patients who had fully functional and asymptomatic successful TKA to determine periprosthetic BMD changes and compared results to 24 normal cadaveric femora. In TKA specimens, BMD was affected by gender, preoperative diagnosis, and zone under analysis. The lowest mean BMD was in the anterior femoral condylar zone. Males had higher mean BMD at all zones while patients with preoperative diagnosis of osteoarthritis had higher BMD in the posterior condylar zone. The mean BMD in the anterior femoral condylar zone in TKA specimens was significantly lower than in normal specimens without arthroplasties, most likely due to stress shielding.
- Psoriasis and Vascular Risk: an Update. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Apr 16.
Psoriasis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by topical skin lesions as well as an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is also increasing evidence that patients with psoriasis are more prone to several CVD risk factors (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking), non-cardiac vascular diseases (carotid, peripheral artery and chronic kidney disease) and metabolic co-morbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obstructive sleep apnea) compared with the general population. The associations are even greater in patients with severe psoriasis and those with psoriatic arthritis. Insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and obesity induced by several adipokines and inflammatory cytokines are proposed as the common mechanisms linking psoriasis with CVD, vascular risk factors and metabolic diseases. The present narrative review considers the associations between psoriasis (and psoriatic arthritis) with CVD, vascular risk factors and metabolic diseases. Drugs that reduce CVD risk and improve metabolic parameters may also beneficially affect psoriasis severity and prognosis. Furthermore, anti-psoriatic drugs can exert different effects on CVD risk and metabolic co-morbidities. Therefore, physicians should be aware of these associations in order to adequately monitor and treat psoriatic patients.
- Are Panoramic Radiographs Predictive of Temporomandibular Joint Synovitis in Children With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013 Nov 28.
To identify specific panoramic radiographic findings associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovitis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).This was a retrospective study of children with JIA evaluated at Boston Children's Hospital. Patients were included if they had a confirmed diagnosis of JIA, a panoramic radiograph, and a contemporaneous TMJ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study with contrast. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to document demographic, panoramic (accentuated antegonial notch, short ramus and condyle unit [RCU] length, and abnormal condyle morphology: decreased condyle anteroposterior or superoinferior dimension) and MRI findings. The outcome variable was the presence or absence of TMJ synovitis on MRI. Descriptive and bivariate statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify associations (significant at P ≤ .05).Thirty patients (21 girls) with a mean age of 11.1 years (range, 5 to 16 yr) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 15 patients had MRI scans positive for synovitis (bilateral in 18 joints in 9 patients and unilateral in 6 joints in 6 patients). The remaining 15 patients did not have evidence of synovitis on MRI. In the synovitis group, 18 of 24 joints (75%) showed abnormal panoramic findings (abnormal condyle morphology in 18 joints, accentuated antegonial notch in 9 joints, or short RCU length in 5 joints). In the nonsynovitis group, 15 of 36 joints (42%) showed abnormal panoramic findings (abnormal condyle morphology in 12 joints, accentuated antegonial notch in 6 joints, or short RCU length in 4 joints). Abnormal condyle morphology and accentuated antegonial notching on panoramic radiographs were found to be significantly correlated with synovitis (P = .0005 and .044, respectively). In a logistic regression model, abnormal condyle morphology was significantly associated with an increase in likelihood of TMJ synovitis versus those joints with normal condyle morphology (P = .007). Joints with abnormal condyle morphology and accentuated antegonial notching were 7.5 times as likely to have synovitis (P = .009) versus those joints without abnormal panoramic findings.Results of this preliminary study indicate that in this sample of children with JIA, the combination of abnormal condyle morphology and accentuated antegonial notching on a panoramic radiograph correlates with TMJ synovitis on MRI.
- Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults: A 2012 Update. [Journal Article]
- Prev Chronic Dis 2014.:E62.
The objective of this research was to update earlier estimates of prevalence rates of single chronic conditions and multiple (>2) chronic conditions (MCC) among the noninstitutionalized, civilian US adult population. Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to generate estimates of MCC for US adults and by select demographic characteristics. Approximately half (117 million) of US adults have at least one of the 10 chronic conditions examined (ie, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, hepatitis, weak or failing kidneys, current asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). Furthermore, 1 in 4 adults has MCC.
- Adipokines, Metabolic Syndrome and Rheumatic Diseases. [REVIEW]
- J Immunol Res 2014.:343746.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases.
- Disease prevalence based on older people's self-reports increased, but patient-general practitioner agreement remained stable, 1992-2009. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Epidemiol 2014 Apr 13.
Previous studies revealed increases in the prevalence of chronic diseases in older people in most countries. This study investigated if a changed inclination to report diseases underlies these increases, by comparing the agreement between self-reports and general practitioner (GP) records of chronic diseases between 1992-1993 and 2008-2009.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on data from two waves of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Data from older adults aged 60-85 years came from 1992-1993 (N=1,896) and from the same age group in 2008-2009 (N=1,086). We compared respondent (R) and GP records of lung disease, cardiac disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer. Multilevel regression models were applied to examine (change in) predictors of over-reporting (R+, GP-) and under-reporting (R-, GP+).Over-reporting of chronic diseases became significantly more common over time, whereas under-reporting became less common. Agreement and change in agreement differed across the specific diseases. Under-reporting was associated with male gender; over-reporting with female gender, worse self-rated health, and worse physical functioning. Older adults were less accurate in their self-reports than younger adults.Trends in self-reported chronic diseases may be influenced by changes in reporting behavior, and future studies should take this possibility into account.
- Human Allogeneic Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cell Reactivity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Stem Cell Res Ther 2013 Dec 12; 3(Suppl 6):004.
For clinical applications, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) can be isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue of autologous or allogeneic origin. Allogeneic cell usage has advantages but may harbor the risk of sensitization against foreign HLA. Therefore, we evaluated whether bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSC are capable of inducing HLA-specific alloreactivity.MSC were isolated from healthy human Bone Marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (ASC) donors. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were co-cultured with HLA-AB mismatched BM-MSC or ASC precultured with or without IFNy. After isolation via FACS sorting, the educated CD8+ T effector populations were exposed for 4 hours to Europium labeled MSC of the same HLA make up as in the co-cultures or with different HLA. Lysis of MSC was determined by spectrophotometric measurement of Europium release.CD8+ T cells educated with BM-MSC were capable of HLA specific lysis of BM-MSC. The maximum lysis was 24% in an effector:target (E:T) ratio of 40:1. Exposure to IFNγ increased HLA-I expression on BM-MSC and increased lysis to 48%. Co-culturing of PBMC with IFNγ-stimulated BM-MSC further increased lysis to 76%. Surprisingly, lysis induced by ASC was significantly lower. CD8+ T cells educated with ASC induced a maximum lysis of 13% and CD8+ T cells educated with IFNγ-stimulated ASC of only 31%.Allogeneic BM-MSC, and to a lesser extend ASC, are capable of inducing HLA specific reactivity. These results should be taken into consideration when using allogeneic MSC for clinical therapy.
- Authors' Reply to Letter to the Editor. [LETTER]
- Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014 Apr 11.
- Low dose irinotecan improves advanced lupus nephritis in mice potentially by changing DNA relaxation and anti-dsDNA binding. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arthritis Rheumatol 2014 Apr 11.
Objective Albeit clear advances in the treatment of SLE, many patients still present with refractory lupus nephritis requiring new treatment strategies for this disease. Here we determined whether reduced doses of the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan, which is known as chemotherapeutic agent, were able to suppress SLE in NZB/W F1 mice. We further evaluated the potential mechanism how irinotecan influenced the course of SLE. Methods NZB/W F1 mice were treated with low dose irinotecan either from week 24 of age or from established glomerulonephritis defined by a proteinuria ≥grade 3+. Binding of anti-dsDNA antibodies was measured by ELISA; and DNA relaxation was visualized by gel electrophoresis. Results Significantly reduced irinotecan dosages improved lupus nephritis and prolonged survival in NZB/W F1 mice. The lowest dose successfully used for the treatment of established murine lupus nephritis was more than 50 times lower than the dose usually applied for chemotherapy in humans. As a mechanism, low dose irinotecan reduced B cell activity; however, the levels of B cell activity in irinotecan-treated mice were similar to those in Balb/c mice of the same age suggesting that irinotecan did not induce a clear immunosuppression. In addition, incubation of double-stranded (ds) DNA with topoisomerase I increased binding of murine and human anti-dsDNA antibodies showing for the first time that relaxed DNA is more susceptible to anti-dsDNA antibody binding. This effect was reversed by addition of the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin. Conclusion Our results propose topoisomerase I inhibitors as a novel and targeted therapy for SLE. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
- The Prozone Effect in Serum Assays for IgG4: Responses to the letters. [LETTER]
- Arthritis Rheumatol 2014 Apr 11.