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Arthritis AND drugs for, in breast-feeding women [keywords]
- Rheumatoid arthritis and pregnancy: safety considerations in pharmacological management. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Drugs 2011 Oct 22; 71(15):1973-87.
Pregnancy can pose a challenge to the physician caring for women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While many women with RA experience a spontaneous improvement in joint pain and inflammation during pregnancy, in others it remains active and they continue to need ongoing therapy. It is important to tailor the treatment regimen so that the disease is stabilized prior to conception and to use medications that are safe throughout pregnancy and lactation. The use of immunomodulating medications considered low risk during pregnancy allows for optimal outcomes. NSAIDs should be avoided in the third trimester. Corticosteroids may be used throughout pregnancy in the lowest effective dose. Antimalarial agents, sulfasalazine and azathioprine are safe options, but methotrexate and leflunomide are contraindicated as they are teratogenic and must, therefore, be withdrawn before a planned pregnancy. The risk for some of the newer biological therapies for RA is not necessarily their proven teratogenicity, but the absence of proven safety for the fetus. As such, it is recommended that abatacept, rituximab and tocilizumab be withheld prior to pregnancy; however, tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and anakinra may be continued until conception. In this review, we provide an overview of the RA treatment issues pre-conception, during pregnancy and in the post-partum period with respect to breastfeeding, and we provide guidelines for drugs that may be used relatively safely for RA management in pregnant women. Where available, pre-conception guidelines for men using these medications for RA are also discussed.
- [Biologics during pregnancy and breast--feeding]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Z Rheumatol 2010 Nov; 69(9):780-7.
Over the past years, biological therapies, especially anti-TNF-α antibody therapy has emerged as a treatment approach in patients who have failed to achieve or maintain remission with tradional DMARDs. Women suffering from inflammatory arthritis may need to continue therapy throughout pregnancy and/or in the lactation period, hence the increased concern over the safety of antirheumatic drugs during pregnancy. Anti-TNF agents fall within the US FDA category B concerning fetal risk, indicating that no adequate and well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant or lactating women. However, in the last decade, numerous case series and registry data of pregnancies exposed to anti-TNF therapy have accumulated in the literature. According to these data, TNF inhibitor therapies appear to be safe in pregnancy, since no increased risk of malformations has been demonstrated. Ceasing therapy after conception should be considered, but treatment may be continued during pregnancy when indicated.The use of these agents is likely compatible with breast-feeding. The extent of fetal risk is not clarified for exposure to other biologics, such as Rituximab.
- [Guidelines in RA treatment: concepts on safety and recommendations using anti-TNF-alpha inhibitors. Grupo de Estudio de Nuevas Terapias de Enfermedades reumáticas (GENTE)]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Practice Guideline, Review]
- Rev Invest Clin 2009 May-Jun; 61(3):252-66.
Recommendations for the use of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARD) with both conventional and biological agents in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) must be based on their safety profile, adverse effects, risks, and advantages. With the purpose of presenting the most updated information about the safety of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonists, in this article we summarize the literature published during the last three years about this sort of biological agents in specific clinical situations, such as risk of developing infections, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity; as well as their administration to patients who will undergo surgical procedures, pregnant and/or breast-feeding women, and patients who need immunizations. Likewise, in this analysis we offer specific recommendations, based on evidence, for the best anti-TNF-alfa management.
- Therapy insight: the use of antirheumatic drugs during nursing. [Journal Article, Review]
- Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2007 Jul; 3(7):400-6.
In 90% of cases, women with rheumatoid arthritis suffer a disease flare within 3 months of delivery of their baby. Drug treatment is, therefore, required; however, such therapies have implications for mothers who decide to nurse their infants. Unfortunately, because of a paucity of data, little is known about the transfer of antirheumatic drugs into breast milk, and even less is known about whether small amounts of these agents ingested during nursing could harm the infant. Our review of the literature indicates that paracetamol, prednisone, antimalarial agents, sulfasalazine and most NSAIDs can safely be used by lactating mothers. Expert opinions differ regarding the use of azathioprine, ciclosporin, and methotrexate during lactation because of varying views on the potential for short-term and long-term adverse effects. Evidence regarding the transfer of leflunomide and biologic drugs into breast milk is insufficient; therefore, until more studies are conducted, the use of these drugs in breastfeeding mothers should be restricted. At present, many patients feel they have to choose between postpartum disease control and lactation. Extended studies of the transfer of antirheumatic drugs into breast milk and the resulting consequences are, therefore, urgently needed.
- Efficacy and safety of etanercept in psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis: an updated review. [Journal Article, Review]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2007; 8(3):143-55.
The introduction in recent years of biologic medicines has greatly changed the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthropathy (PsA). These drugs have been effective in the treatment of these chronic, physically weakening disorders, offering good efficacy and a safety profile that differs from those of all other systemic therapies and medications available to date. Different studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of etanercept in the treatment of psoriasis and PsA. Etanercept therapy for up to 144 weeks in psoriasis has shown maintenance of efficacy over time, recapture of initial clinical responses in patients who interrupted their etanercept therapy and were re-treated, an increased percentage of clinical responses in medium-dose non-responding patients who switched to higher dosages, good responses on quality-of-life tests, and an adverse event-adjusted rate similar to placebo. In PsA, etanercept therapy for up to 96 weeks was associated with inhibition of radiologic progression of the disease in addition to maintenance of efficacy over time and good responses on quality-of-life tests. In studies of patients with psoriasis, the adverse effects of etanercept were mostly mild, did not require discontinuation of treatment, and were not associated with cumulative toxicity over time. However, safety concerns about etanercept therapy are well known, and include injection-site reactions, infections, congestive heart failure, demyelinating diseases, lupus-like syndromes, and neoplasms. There are no data about any new safety concerns when etanercept is combined with systemic traditional therapies, although use of this therapy has been reported in only a small number of patients to date.Non-neutralizing anti-etanercept antibodies are not related to a decreased response to therapy and neutralizing antibodies have not been described to date. Treatment of patients infected with hepatitis C virus or HIV does not increase viral load in either case, affect liver function tests, or increase the risk of infections. To date, the available data suggest that use of etanercept during pregnancy or in breast-feeding women should be avoided. Children and the elderly may be treated with similar efficacy and safety profiles as have been observed in adults. Non-live vaccines can be administered to patients taking etanercept. Because of its long-term efficacy and safety, etanercept is likely to become a treatment option for consideration in the long-term management of patients with psoriasis and PsA.
- Serum salicylate levels in a breast fed infant. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Ann Rheum Dis 1987 Aug; 46(8):638-9.
All drugs should be given with caution to pregnant or breast feeding women. Recent concern about the role of salicylates in the aetiology of Reye's syndrome has prompted the DHSS to restrict the use of aspirin in children. The case of a 9 week old breast fed infant whose serum contained 0.47 mmol/l of salicylate is reported. Her mother was taking aspirin 2.4 g/day, and it is concluded that salicylates must not be taken by breast feeding mothers.