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Arthropathy, neurogenic [keywords]
- Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Charcot arthropathy of the foot. [Journal Article]
- Foot Ankle Int 2013 Feb; 34(2):234-7.
Patients with Charcot arthropathy present a high risk for ulcers with secondary bone infection. Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa represent a severe threat to the patients. We hypothesized that infections with P aeruginosa result in a longer stay in hospital and more operations than infections with other bacteria.All patients who underwent surgery for Charcot arthropathy of the feet between 1996 and 2006 (n = 205) in our clinic were included. The duration of hospitalization and number of surgeries for infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) versus P aeruginosa were compared to infections with other bacteria. All patients were scanned for MRSA and were isolated when tested positive and treated according to a defined algorithm.Seventy-nine intraoperative samples exhibited bacterial growth: 12 cases of MRSA, 14 cases of P aeruginosa, and 53 case of other bacteria. Patients with deep infections due to P aeruginosa stayed significantly longer in the hospital (52 vs 35 days, P < .041) and needed significantly more surgery (1.71 vs 1.28 surgeries, P < .027). There was no significant difference between patients with MRSA infections and those without MRSA or P aeruginosa.Infections with P aeruginosa resulted in more surgeries and a longer stay in the hospital. Early debridement is the basic treatment. A specific algorithm for isolation and operative and antibiotic treatment for P aeruginosa infections is proposed similar to an algorithm for MRSA that has been shown to be successful.Level IV, retrospective case Series.
- Antibiotic-coated nail for fusion of infected charcot ankles. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- Foot Ankle Int 2013 Jan; 34(1):80-4.
Treating infected ankles in patients with neuropathy is difficult, and complications are frequently encountered. Eradication of infection and effective arthrodesis are required for a successful outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with Charcot neuropathy whose infected ankles were treated with a retrograde, antibiotic-coated, locked intramedullary nail.We analyzed 5 patients with infected neuroarthropathy of the ankle joint. Three patients had failed treatment with the circular external fixator for infected neuroarthropathy of the ankle. The other 2 were treated primarily by this technique. All patients were treated with surgical nonunion repair, arthrodesis, and insertion of an antibiotic-coated, locked intramedullary nail. The average age was 59 years (range, 46 to 82 years). The average follow up period was 18 months (range, 12-24 months).The average time taken for radiological healing was 4.1 months (range, 4-4.5 months). In all patients, bony union was achieved and infection was eradicated. There were no cases of hardware failure.Antibiotic-coated nails were used to treat infected ankle nonunions and infected distal tibial fractures in Charcot patients with successful bony union, fusion, and eradication of infection.Level IV, therapeutic study.
- Neuropathic arthropathy caused by syringomyelia. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosurg Spine 2013 Mar; 18(3):303-9.
Neuropathic arthropathy (Charcot joint) caused by syringomyelia is rare and commonly misdiagnosed. Few cases have been reported by neurosurgeons. The aims of this study were to analyze the clinical and imaging presentations of neuropathic arthropathy and to discuss the effect of surgical management of the primary neurological deficits on neuropathic arthropathy.The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data of 12 patients with neuropathic arthropathy caused by syringomyelia who were referred to the department of neurosurgery between January 2003 and September 2012. Radiographs revealed destruction, dislocation, disorganization, and increased density or debris in the joints. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a syrinx of the spinal cord in all patients, with Chiari malformation in 11 patients and tethered spinal cord in 1 patient. Neurosurgical operations were performed in 5 of 12 patients, including posterior fossa decompression in 4 patients and syrinx-subarachnoidal shunt placement in 1 patient. Surgical management of the neuropathic joints was not performed in any of the patients. All patients were followed up, with a mean duration of 39 months.Sixteen joints were involved, including 10 elbows, 3 shoulders, 2 interphalangeal joints, and 1 wrist. The side of the syrinx on cervical axial MRI was consistent with the side of the affected limb in every patient. Five patients who underwent neurosurgical treatments stated improvement in neurological dysfunctions and no deterioration in symptoms related to neuropathic arthropathy. In the 7 patients without neurosurgical treatments, 5 reported aggravation of neuropathic arthropathy manifestations, with deterioration of neurological symptoms in 4 of the 5 patients. The condition of the other 2 patients remained stable.The elbow is the most frequently involved joint in neuropathic arthropathy caused by syringomyelia, followed by the shoulder. The authors speculate that the side of the syrinx determines the side of the neuropathic arthropathy. A detailed medical history and a careful physical examination are crucial for differentiating neuropathic arthropathy from other joint lesions. This study suggests that early management of the primary neurological condition may play an important role in preventing the development of neuropathic arthropathy and avoiding disease progression.
- Best foot forward. How to tread carefully and avoid foot problems. [Journal Article]
- Diabetes Forecast 2012 Dec; 65(12):28, 30-1.
- Treatment of osteomyelitis in charcot foot with single-stage resection of infection, correction of deformity, and maintenance with ring fixation. [Journal Article]
- Foot Ankle Int 2012 Dec; 33(12):1069-74.
There is both increased interest and awareness in diabetes-associated Charcot foot arthropathy. The number of affected patients will likely increase as the incidence of both diabetes and morbid obesity increases. Many experts now favor surgical correction of the deformity rather than longitudinal management with accommodative bracing. In patients with open wounds and exposed bone and/or chronic osteomyelitis, it is controversial whether resolution of the bony infection should be achieved before attempting surgical correction of the acquired deformity.During a 78-month period, 178 patients underwent surgical correction of deformity with diabetes-associated Charcot foot or ankle arthropathy by a single surgeon. Seventy-three had evidence of osteomyelitis at the time of surgery. There were 41 males and 32 females. Their average age was 57.9 (range, 31 to 76) years, and body mass index was 36.9 (range, 21.8 to 60.9). The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis was made by (a) an open wound overlying the deformity with exposed bone and chronic drainage; (b) a history of biopsy-diagnosed osteomyelitis that was not currently draining, but had clinical and pathologic evidence of abnormal bone in the region of the previous infection; or (c) a history of previous wound overlying bony deformity with abnormal bone observed at the time of surgery. Surgery involved radical resection of the clinically infected bone, combined with acute correction of the deformity to a plantigrade foot. Parenteral culture-specific antibiotic therapy was administered and monitored by an infectious disease comanagement service. A three-level preconstructed static circular external fixator was applied to maintain the surgically obtained correction.Sixty-eight of 71 patients (95.7%) achieved limb salvage and were able to ambulate with commercially available therapeutic footwear. One patient died shortly after removal of the external fixator from unrelated causes. Three patients required amputation. Resolution of infection and wound closure was achieved in five patients following a second surgical debridement. Two noninfected wounds were resolved with local soft tissue flaps. Two patients have persistent noninfected wounds that have been resistant to wound care therapy.A plantigrade noninfected foot can be achieved in patients with infected diabetic Charcot foot deformity with single-stage radical resection of osteomyelitis, correction of the deformity, maintenance of the correction with static external fixation, and culture-specific antibiotic therapy.
- Neuroarthropathy secondary to transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR V30M). [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Acta Clin Belg 2012 Sep-Oct; 67(5):372-4.
In this article we report the case of a 46-years-old Portuguese woman admitted in our orthopaedic ward with right knee pain. Radiological findings were consistent with neuroarthropathy. After exclusion of the most common causes of polyneuropathy, Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) was diagnosed by the discovery of a mutation V30M on chromosome 18 by polymerase chain reaction on a fibroblast culture of her skin biopsy. FAP is one of many aetiologies of polyneuropathy. Although a rare disease, genetic screening in selected populations makes early diagnosis and prompt treatment of asymptomatic family members readily available.
- Charcot's arthropathy of the spine. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Arthritis Rheum 2013 Feb; 65(2):342.
- An overview of bone grafting techniques for the diabetic Charcot foot and ankle. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2012 Oct; 29(4):589-95.
Surgical options for diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle must take into consideration the challenging environment for bone healing that accompanies these complex pathologic conditions. Bone grafting has established an important role in reconstructive surgery to promote bone formation, replacement, and repair. This article provides an overview of available bone grafting methods in conjunction with a review of the literature on these techniques as they pertain to diabetic Charcot foot and ankle reconstruction.
- The development of a neuropathic ankle following successful correction of non-plantigrade charcot foot deformity. [Journal Article]
- Foot Ankle Int 2012 Aug; 33(8):644-6.
The treatment of Charcot foot arthropathy has traditionally involved immobilization during the acute phase followed by longitudinal management with accommodative bracing. In response to the perceived poor outcomes associated with nonoperative accommodative treatment, many experts now advise surgical correction of the deformity, especially when the affected foot is not clinically plantigrade. The significant rate of surgical and medical-associated morbidity accompanying this form of treatment has led surgeons to look for improved methods of surgical stabilization, including the use of the circular ring external fixation.Over a 7-year period, a single surgeon performed surgical correction of non-plantigrade Charcot foot deformity on 171 feet in 164 patients with a statically applied circular external fixator. Following successful correction, five patients developed a neuropathic deformity of the ipsilateral ankle after removal of the external fixator and subsequent weight bearing total contact cast.Three of the five patients progressed to successful healing of the neuropathic (Charcot) ankle arthropathy following treatment with a series of weightbearing total contact casts. Two underwent successful ankle fusion with retrograde locked intramedullary nailing.This unusual clinical scenario likely represents either a progression of the disease process in the foot or a complication associated with surgical correction of the original neuropathic foot deformity. A better understanding of this observation will likely become apparent as we acquire more experience with this disorder.
- Teaching NeuroImages: Neuropathic elbow arthropathy due to syringomyelia. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Neurology 2012 Sep 18; 79(12):e102.