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Aspiration pneumonia, drug use and [keywords]
- Reevaluation of the Japanese guideline for healthcare-associated pneumonia in a medium-sized community hospital in Japan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Infect Chemother 2012 Nov 22.
The Japanese guidelines for nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) categorize patients by risk of resistant bacteria and defined antimicrobials to be used, similar to the healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) guidelines of the United States. The data were collected in large-scale hospitals, possibly a cause of inconsistency with everyday practice in medium-sized community hospitals. To test the feasibility of this guideline based on a retrospective study performed in a medium-sized community hospital in Japan, the medical records of pneumonia patients were retrospectively studied [718 patients: NHCAP, 477, 66.4 %; community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 241, 33.4 %). Factors related to patients' background, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome were compared between NHCAP and CAP. The A-DROP system, scored by age, dehydration, respiratory failure, disorientation, and low blood pressure, evaluated the severity of pneumonia. In contrast to CAP patients, NHCAP patients included more elderly patients requiring nursing care and revealed higher rates of poor nutrition, dementia, aspiration, severe cases, detection of drug-resistant bacteria, and mortality. For NHCAP, the success rate did not differ between those receiving and not receiving proper initial treatment (76.9 vs. 78.5 %) nor did mortality rate within 30 days differ (13.1 vs. 13.8 %). Risk factors for mortality within 30 days for NHCAP were diabetes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.394, p = 0.009], albumin <2.5 g/dl (AOR 2.766, p = 0.002), A-DROP very severe (AOR 1.930, p = 0.021), and imaging showing extensive pneumonia (AOR 2.541, p = 0.002). The severity of pneumonia rather than risk of resistant bacteria should be considered, in addition to ethical concerns, in initial treatment strategy in NHCAP to avoid excessive use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials.
- Life expectancy following rehabilitation: a NIDRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems study. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- J Head Trauma Rehabil 2012 Nov-Dec; 27(6):E69-80.
To characterize overall and cause-specific mortality and life expectancy among persons who have completed inpatient traumatic brain injury rehabilitation and to assess risk factors for mortality.Prospective cohort study.The Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems.A total of 8573 individuals injured between 1988 and 2009, with survival status per December 31, 2009, determined.Not applicable.Standardized mortality ratio (SMR), life expectancy, cause of death.SMR was 2.25 overall and was significantly elevated for all age groups, both sexes, all race/ethnic groups (except Native Americans), and all injury severity groups. SMR decreased as survival time increased but remained elevated even after 10 years postinjury. SMR was elevated for all cause-of-death categories but especially so for seizures, aspiration pneumonia, sepsis, accidental poisonings, and falls. Life expectancy was shortened an average of 6.7 years. Multivariate Cox regression showed age at injury, sex, race/ethnic group, marital status and employment status at the time of injury year of injury, preinjury drug use, days unconscious, functional independence and disability on rehabilitation discharge, and comorbid spinal cord injury to be independent risk factors for death.There is an increased risk of death after moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. Risk factors and causes of death have been identified that may be amenable to intervention.
- [What is your diagnosis? Hydrocarbon pneumonitis with right pneumothorax after petroleum aspiration (fire eater's lung)]. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Praxis (Bern 1994) 2012 Oct 31; 101(22):1413-5.
- Expansion of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury after instillation of three forms of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Part Fibre Toxicol 2012.:38.
The exceptional physical-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes have lead to their use in diverse commercial and biomedical applications. However, their utilization has raised concerns about human exposure that may predispose individuals to adverse health risks. The present study investigated the susceptibility to cardiac ischemic injury following a single exposure to various forms of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). It was hypothesized that oropharyngeal aspiration of MWCNTs exacerbates myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R injury).Oropharyngeal aspiration was performed on male C57BL/6J mice with a single amount of MWCNT (0.01 - 100 μg) suspended in 100 μL of a surfactant saline (SS) solution. Three forms of MWCNTs were used in this study: unmodified, commercial grade (C-grade), and functionalized forms that were modified either by acid treatment (carboxylated, COOH) or nitrogenation (N-doped) and a SS vehicle. The pulmonary inflammation, serum cytokine profile and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury were assessed at 1, 7 and 28 days post-aspiration.Pulmonary response to MWCNT oropharyngeal aspiration assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) revealed modest increases in protein and inflammatory cell recruitment. Lung histology showed modest tissue inflammation as compared to the SS group. Serum levels of eotaxin were significantly elevated in the carboxylated MWCNT aspirated mice 1 day post exposure. Oropharyngeal aspiration of all three forms of MWCNTs resulted in a time and/or dose-dependent exacerbation of myocardial infarction. The severity of myocardial injury varied with the form of MWCNTs used. The N-doped MWCNT produced the greatest expansion of the infarct at any time point and required a log concentration lower to establish a no effect level. The expansion of the I/R injury remained significantly elevated at 28 days following aspiration of the COOH and N-doped forms, but not the C-grade as compared to SS.Our results suggest that oropharyngeal aspiration of MWCNT promotes increased susceptibility of cardiac tissue to ischemia/reperfusion injury without a significant pulmonary inflammatory response. The cardiac injury effects were observed at low concentrations of MWCNTs and presence of MWCNTs may pose a significant risk to the cardiovascular system.
- Can angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce the risk of pneumonia after stroke? [Comment, Editorial]
- J Hypertens 2012 Nov; 30(11):2088-9.
- Complications of oropharyngeal dysphagia: aspiration pneumonia. [Journal Article]
- Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser 2012.:67-76.
The incidence and prevalence of aspiration pneumonia (AP) are poorly defined. They increase in direct relation with age and underlying diseases. The pathogenesis of AP presumes the contribution of risk factors that alter swallowing function and predispose to the oropharyngeal bacterial colonization. The microbial etiology of AP involves Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae for community-acquired AP and Gram-negative aerobic bacilli in nosocomial pneumonia. It is worth bearing in mind the relative unimportance of anaerobic bacteria in AP. When we choose the empirical antibiotic treatment, we have to consider some pathogens identified in oropharyngeal flora. Empirical treatment with antianaerobics should only be used in certain patients. According to some known risks factors, the prevention of AP should include measures in order to avoid it.
- [Domestic imipenem cilastatin sodium for the treatment of severe aspiration pneumonia, a curative effect observation]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2012 Oct; 24(10):628-31.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of domestic imipenem cilastatin sodium for the treatments of severe aspiration pneumonia.A randomize, open, parallel-controlled trial was conducted. Sixty-eight patients with severe aspiration pneumonia were divided into trial group (n=36) and control group (n=32) by random distribution method. The application of trial group domestic imipenem cilastatin sodium was 1.0 g intravenous drip, every 6-8 hours for 7-14 days. The control group application with imported injection imipenem cilastatin sodium was 1.0 g intravenous drip, every 6-8 hours for 7-14 days. The highest daily temperature (T), heart rate (HR), breathing rate (RR), pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO(2)), inhaled oxygen concentration (FiO(2)), oxygenation index (PaO(2)/FiO(2)), airway peak pressure (Paw), minute ventilation (MV) and white blood count (WBC), pro calcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) index before and 1, 3, 7 days after treatment, and liver and kidney function, chest X-rays, and sputum cultures of drug sensitive test were conducted. And the effectiveness and safety were determined according to the standards.After treatment indexes of the two groups were obviously improved, i. e. T, HR, RR, Paw, MV, the WBC, PCT, CRP were gradually declined, PaO(2)/FiO(2) was gradually raised. There were statistical significance before and 3 days after treatment in the trial and the control group [T: 37.35±0.91 centigrade vs. 38.43±1.06 centigrade, 37.28±0.88 centigrade vs. 38.35±1.11 centigrade; HR: 90.25±10.60 bpm vs. 118.94±15.46 bpm, 89.31±11.17 bpm vs. 124.34±17.87 bpm; RR: 25.14±3.17 bpm vs. 32.28±4.49 bpm, 24.81±2.43 bpm vs. 33.13±4.17 bpm; Paw: 23.03±3.04 cm H(2)O vs. 33.22±4.59 cm H(2)O, 22.75±3.22 cm H(2)O vs. 33.63±4.79 cm H(2)O; MV: 8.67±1.26 L/min vs. 11.80±2.01 L/min, 8.88±1.45 L/min vs. 13.21±2.90 L/min; WBC: 11.26±1.96 ×10(9)/L vs. 14.57±3.10 ×10(9)/L, 12.28±3.38 ×10(9)/L vs. 15.25±4.93 ×10(9)/L; PCT: 6.90±5.46 μg/L vs. 16.97±7.93 μg/L, 6.17±6.13 μg/L vs. 21.26±11.54 μg/L; CRP: 85.50±37.91 mg/L vs. 120.17±45.47 mg/L, 94.31±38.51 mg/L vs. 142.34±53.57 mg/L; PaO(2)/ FiO(2): 182.06±40.88 mm Hg vs. 98.67±20.62 mm Hg, 184.09±43.78 mm Hg vs. 96.22±22.59 mm Hg, all P<0.05]. There was no significant change in SpO(2) before and after treatment in two groups. And the total clinical effective rate in trial and control group were 83.4% and 81.2%, adverse reaction rate were 13.9% and 9.4%, bacterial removal rate were 90.3% and 87.0% respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (all P>0.05).Domestic imipenem cilastatin sodium can effectively control severe aspiration pneumonia, and it is safe and effective antibiotics.
- Correlation between bispectral index, observational sedation scale, and lower esophageal sphincter pressure in volunteers using dexmedetomidine or propofol. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Sci Monit 2012 Oct; 18(10):CR593-6.
Many anesthetics reduce lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and consequently the gastro-esophageal pressure gradient (GEPG); thus they may promote gastro-esophageal reflux and contribute to aspiration pneumonia. Our goals were to evaluate the association between LESP and 2 measures of sedation: bispectral index (BIS) and the responsiveness component of the Observer's Assessment of Alertness score (OAA/S).Eleven healthy volunteers were each sedated on 2 separate days. Subjects were given sedative infusions of increasing target plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine or propofol. LESP and GEPG were recorded after starting each infusion phase. Generalized estimating equation modeling was used to assess the relationship between LESP and, respectively, BIS and OAA/S. The existence of a drug-dependent association was evaluated within these models by testing an interaction term. Wald tests were used to evaluate the relationships within the models.We found a significant relationship between LESP and BIS (P=0.0043) after adjusting for the main effect of sedative type--a deepening of sedation as measured by a decrease in BIS of 10% was associated with a decrease [Bonferroni-adjusted 95% CI] in LESP of -1.34 [-2.39, -0.29] mmHg. After adjusting for the main effect of sedative drug, LESP significantly declined with declining OAA/S (P=0.001); a unit decrease of OAA/S was associated with a decrease [Bonferroni-adjusted 95% CI] in LESP of -2.01 [-3.20, -0.81] mmHg.Deeper sedation, as measured by either BIS or OAA/S, significantly reduces LESP.
- Severe lipoid pneumonia following aspiration of machine oil: successful treatment with steroids. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2012 Jul-Sep; 54(3):197-9.
Lipoid pneumonia in children follows mineral oil aspiration and may result in acute respiratory failure. Majority of the patients recover without long-term morbidity, though a few may be left with residual damage to the lungs. We report a case of a two-and-a-half-year-old child with persistent lipoid pneumonia following accidental inhalation of machine oil, who was successfully treated with steroids.
- Risk factors and prognosis of pulmonary complications after endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasia. [Journal Article]
- Dig Dis Sci 2013 Feb; 58(2):540-6.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia after an endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can prolong the patient's stay in the hospital, leading to greater healthcare costs. However, little is known of the characteristics and risk factors associated with this complication.To analyze the clinical features of pneumonia after ESD and to suggest a treatment plan.This was a retrospective study in which the cases of 1,661 consecutive patients who underwent ESD for 1,725 lesions between January 2008 and June 2011 were reviewed.Of the 1,661 patients who underwent ESD during the study period, 38 were subsequently diagnosed with pneumonia, and an additional 18 patients exhibited lung consolidation, based on chest radiography, without respiratory signs or symptoms. The remaining 1,605 patients showed neither lung consolidation on chest radiography nor respiratory signs/symptoms. Continuous propofol infusion with intermittent or continuous administration of an opioid [odds ratio (OR) 4.498, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.267-8.923], a procedure time of >2 h (OR 2.900, 95 % CI 1.307-6.439), male gender (OR 2.835, 95 % CI 1.164-6.909), and age >75 years (OR 2.765, 95 % CI 1.224-6.249) were independent risk factors for pneumonia after ESD. In patients with only lung consolidation (without respiratory signs and symptoms), the length of hospital stay and prognosis were not affected by antibiotics use.Deep sedation under continuous propofol infusion with opioid injection during ESD may be a risk factor for pneumonia.