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- A clinical pharmacokinetic study comparing two azelastine hydrochloride nasal formulations in a single-dose design. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2013 May 17.
Azelastine hydrochloride is a potent second-generation antihistamine, available in Europe and the USA as a nasal spray formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Consumer Healthcare has developed a new nasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride. The present study was aimed at comparing the clinical pharmacokinetic profiles and assessing the bioequivalence of the new formulation of azelastine hydrochloride with a marketed reference nasal spray product. This was a randomized, two-way crossover, two-stage, single-dose pharmacokinetic study with 2 weeks washout between the two treatment periods. A dosage of 0.28 mg of the test and reference products was administered as a single dose to healthy volunteers according to the crossover design. Twenty-three subjects (15 subjects from stage 1 and 8 subjects from stage 2) were enrolled in the study. Adjusted mean values for AUC0-t were 1,526.8 h pg/mL for the test drug and 1,441.5 h pg/mL for the reference drug; for C max the values were 61.59 pg/mL for the test drug and 58.21 pg/mL for the reference drug. The 94.12 % CI of geometric mean ratios (test/reference) were 0.99-1.13 and 0.95-1.18 for AUC0-t and C max. This met the predefined criteria for bioequivalence between test and reference drugs. Secondary pharmacokinetic parameters for azelastine and for the metabolite desmethyl azelastine, AUC(0-∞) and t max, were numerically similar between the two study treatments. Both test and reference azelastine hydrochloride formulations were well tolerated at single dose. This study demonstrated the bioequivalence between the new azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray formulation and the marketed reference Allergodil(®) after single-dose administration.
- Computational and experimental investigation of DNA repair protein photolyase interactions with low molecular weight drugs. [Journal Article]
- J Mol Recognit 2013 Jul; 26(7):297-307.
This paper reports the previously unknown interactions between eight low molecular weight commercially available drugs (130-800 Da) and DNA repair protein photolyase using computational docking simulations and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. Theoretical dissociation constants, Kd , obtained from molecular docking simulations were compared with the values found from SPR experiments. Among the eight drugs analyzed, computational and experimental values showed similar binding affinities between selected drug and protein pairs. We found no significant differences in binding interactions between pure and commercial forms of the drug lornoxicam and DNA photolyase. Among the eight drugs studied, prednisone, desloratadine, and azelastine exhibited the highest binding affinity (Kd = 1.65, 2.05, and 8.47 μM, respectively) toward DNA photolyase. Results obtained in this study are promising for use in the prediction of unknown interactions of common drugs with specific proteins such as human clock protein cryptochrome. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Clinically Relevant Effect of a New Intranasal Therapy (MP29-02) in Allergic Rhinitis Assessed by Responder Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2013 May 4; 161(4):369-377.
Background:It is unclear what constitutes a clinically meaningful response for allergic rhinitis (AR) outcomes. The objectives of these post hoc analyses were (1) to define a clinically meaningful response using novel efficacy analyses (including a responder analysis), and (2) to compare the efficacy of MP29-02 [a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and fluticasone propionate (FP)] with commercially available FP, AZE and placebo in seasonal AR (SAR) patients, using these novel analyses.
Methods:610 moderate-to-severe SAR patients (≥12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-day, parallel-group trial. Change from baseline in the reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS) over 14 days was the primary outcome. Post hoc endpoints included the sum of nasal and ocular symptoms (rT7SS), efficacy by disease severity and by predominant nasal symptom, and a set of responder analyses.
Results:MP29-02 most effectively reduced rT7SS (relative greater improvement: 52% to FP; 56% to AZE) and both nasal and ocular symptoms irrespective of severity. More MP29-02 patients achieved a ≥30, ≥50, ≥60, ≥75 and ≥90% rTNSS reduction, which occurred days faster than with either active comparator; MP29-02 alone was superior to placebo at the ≥60% (or higher) threshold. One in 2 MP29-02 patients achieved a ≥50% rTNSS reduction and 1 in 6 achieved complete/near-to-complete response. Only MP29-02 was consistently superior to placebo for all patients, whatever their predominant symptom.
Conclusions:MP29-02 provided faster and more complete symptom control than first-line therapies. It was consistently superior irrespective of severity, response criteria or patient-type, and may be considered the drug of choice for moderate-to-severe AR. These measures define a new standard for assessing relevance in AR.
- A four-way, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to determine the efficacy and speed of azelastine nasal spray, versus loratadine, and cetirizine in adult subjects with allergen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2013 May 1; 9(1):16.
BACKGROUND:Azelastine has been shown to be effective against seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The Environmental Exposure Unit (EEU) is a validated model of experimental SAR. The objective of this double-blind, four-way crossover study was to evaluate the onset of action of azelastine nasal spray, versus the oral antihistamines loratadine 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg in the relief of the symptoms of SAR.
METHODS:70 participants, aged 18-65, were randomized to receive azelastine nasal spray, cetirizine, loratadine, or placebo after controlled ragweed pollen exposure in the EEU. Symptoms were evaluated using the total nasal symptom score (TNSS). The primary efficacy parameter was the onset of action as measured by the change from baseline in TNSS.
RESULTS:Azelastine displayed a statistically significant improvement in TNSS compared with placebo at all time points from 15 minutes through 6 hours post dose. Azelastine, cetirizine, and loratadine reduced TNSS compared to placebo with an onset of action of 15 (p < 0.001), 60 (p = 0.015), and 75 (p = 0.034) minutes, respectively. The overall assessment of efficacy was rated as good or very good by 46% of the participants for azelastine, 51% of the participants for cetirizine, and 30% of the participants for loratadine compared to 18% of the participants for placebo.
CONCLUSIONS:Azelastine's onset of action for symptom relief was faster than that of cetirizine and loratadine. The overall participant satisfaction in treatment with azelastine is comparable to cetirizine and statistically superior to loratadine. These results suggest that azelastine may be preferential to oral antihistamines for the rapid relief of SAR symptoms.
- Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression. [Journal Article]
- Anal Chim Acta 2013 Apr 3.:45-52.
The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic - azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples×sensors×pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model.
- Intranasal phototherapy versus azelastine in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Auris Nasus Larynx 2012 Dec 7.
OBJECTIVE:It has been suggested that intranasal phototherapy represents an alternative choice in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Our aim was to compare the efficacy of intranasal phototherapy with that of azelastine in patients with SAR.
METHODS:Seventy seven patients were randomly assigned to the two treatment groups: Group A (phototherapy) and Group B (azelastine). Subjective and objective outcomes were represented by changes in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS), Quality of life scores (Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire - RQLQ), and nasal resistance.
RESULTS:The study demonstrated that both azelastine and intranasal phototherapy are able to significantly improve TNSS, including individual nasal symptoms. Nevertheless, phototherapy reduced nasal obstruction better than azelastine (p=0.038). Both treatments were highly effective in improving RQLQ scores overall and in seven separate domains.
CONCLUSION:Whether intranasal phototheraphy will be a standard treatment of SAR or not should be appraised in future studies and clinical trials.
- Traditionally used Veronica officinalis inhibits proinflammatory mediators via the NF-κB signalling pathway in a human lung cell line. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Jan 9; 145(1):118-26.
Extracts from Veronica officinalis L. are traditionally used for the treatment of lung diseases; however, the effective compounds and the mode of action are still unknown.Here we analyzed the effects of a standardized Veronica extract on genes expression and signalling protein production associated with the development of inflammatory lung diseases.The degranulation capacity of primary mast cells, as well as gene expression and release of inflammatory mediators from human lung epithelial cells (A549 cells) were analyzed in relation to the synthetic drugs azelastine and dexamethasone. Gene and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 were investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The involvement of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signaling in regulation of these molecules were characterized by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Characteristic extract components were identified by LC-MS and verminoside was quantified by HPLC analysis.We demonstrated that Veronica officinalis has a small influence on the degranulation capacity of mast cells but rather inhibits gene and protein expression of the chemokine eotaxin in A549 lung epithelial cells, which is essential for recruitment of inflammatory-associated cells in lung diseases. Furthermore, release of the inflammatory mediator PGE(2) was diminished through inhibition of COX-2 expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway in TNF-α-activated A549 cells. Phytochemical analysis identified verproside and verminoside as the most abundant iridoid glycosides.Our results are a contribution to explaining the observed anti-inflammatory effects of Veronica offcinalis extract on a molecular level. However, its clinical potency has at first to be proven in animals and subsequently in clinical trials.
- Comparison of intranasal azelastine to intranasal fluticasone propionate for symptom control in moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2012 Nov-Dec; 33(6):450-8.
Intranasal corticosteroids are considered the most effective therapy for moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and recommended first line in guidelines. It is uncertain whether intranasal antihistamines have comparable efficacy. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of azelastine (AZE; 137 μg/spray) and fluticasone propionate (FP; 50 μg/spray), both given as 1 spray/nostril bid (i.e., approved dosing regimen in the United States), in SAR via a post hoc analysis of data from a previously published direct-comparison study. Six hundred ten moderate-to-severe SAR patients (≥12 years old) were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS (morning and evening), over 14 days. Reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS) was a key secondary variable. Reflective total of seven symptom scores (rT7SS [nasal plus ocular symptoms]) and time to ≥50% reduction from baseline in these key parameters were also analyzed. AZE and FP reduced rTNSS from baseline by a similar degree (-3.25 versus -3.84; p = 0.2014). Patients experienced comparable improvement in rTOSS (-2.62 versus -2.17; p = 0.2371) and rT7SS (-5.83 versus -6.05; p = 0.7820). FP was superior to AZE in alleviating rhinorrhea (-1.15 versus -0.87; p = 0.0433), but AZE showed comparable efficacy for all other nasal and ocular symptoms. There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between AZE (-1.17) and FP (-1.43) for reduction in the overall rhinitis quality of life questionnaire score (although FP, but not AZE, significantly differed from placebo). A similar proportion of patients in the AZE and FP groups achieved a 50% reduction in rTNSS. However, more AZE patients (53.0%) exhibited a 50% reduction in rTOSS by day 14 versus FP (39.6%), and ≤3 days faster (p = 0.028). Intranasal AZE (137 micrograms/spray) and intranasal FP (50 micrograms/spray), both 1 spray/nostril b.i.d., had comparable efficacy in symptom control in moderate-to-severe SAR.
- Azelastine/fluticasone propionate(Dymista) for seasonal allergic rhinitis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Med Lett Drugs Ther 2012 Oct 29; 54(1402):85-7.
- Synthesis and pharmacological investigation of azaphthalazinone human histamine H(1) receptor antagonists. [Journal Article]
- Bioorg Med Chem 2012 Oct 15; 20(20):6097-108.
5-Aza, 6-aza, 7-aza and 8-aza-phthalazinone, and 5,8-diazaphthalazinone templates were synthesised by stereoselective routes starting from the appropriate pyridine/pyrazine dicarboxylic acids by activation with CDI, reaction with 4-chlorophenyl acetate ester enolate to give a β-ketoester, which was hydrolysed, and decarboxylated. The resulting ketone was condensed with hydrazine to form the azaphthalazinone core. The azaphthalazinone cores were alkylated with N-Boc-D-prolinol at N-2 by Mitsunobu reaction, de-protected, and then alkylated at the pyrrolidine nitrogen to provide the target H(1) receptor antagonists. All four mono-azaphthalazinone series had higher affinity (pK(i)) for the human H(1) receptor than azelastine, but were not as potent as the parent non-aza phthalazinone. The 5,8-diazaphthalazinone was equipotent with azelastine. The least potent series were the 7-azaphthalazinones, whereas the 5-azaphthalazinones were the most lipophilic. The more hydrophilic series were the 8-aza series. Replacement of the N-methyl substituent on the pyrrolidine with the n-butyl group caused an increase in potency (pA(2)) and a corresponding increase in lipophilicity. Introduction of a β-ether oxygen in the n-butyl analogues (2-methoxyethyl group) decreased the H(1) pA(2) slightly, and increased the selectivity against hERG. The duration of action in vitro was longer in the 6-azaphthalazinone series. The more potent and selective 6-azaphthalazinone core was used to append an H(3) receptor antagonist fragment, and to convert the series into the long acting single-ligand, dual H(1) H(3) receptor antagonist 44. The pharmacological profile of 44 was very similar to our intranasal clinical candidate 1.