(Asthma) articles in PubMed
- Protective Effects of Intratracheally-Administered Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Asthma in Mice. [Journal Article]
- Toxins (Basel) 2016; 8(10)T
- Asthma is a common chronic disease characterized by bronchial inflammation, reversible airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Current therapeutic options for the management of asth...
Asthma is a common chronic disease characterized by bronchial inflammation, reversible airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Current therapeutic options for the management of asthma include inhaled corticosteroids and β2 agonists, which elicit harmful side effects. In the present study, we examined the capacity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), one of the major components of bee venom (BV), to reduce airway inflammation and improve lung function in an experimental model of asthma. Allergic asthma was induced in female BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal administration of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 0 and 14, followed by intratracheal challenge with 1% OVA six times between days 22 and 30. The infiltration of immune cells, such as Th2 cytokines in the lungs, and the lung histology, were assessed in the OVA-challenged mice in the presence and absence of an intratracheal administration of bvPLA2. We showed that the intratracheal administration of bvPLA2 markedly suppressed the OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation by reducing AHR, overall area of inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, the suppression was associated with a significant decrease in the production of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and a reduction in the number of total cells, including eosinophils, macrophages, and neutrophils in the airway.
- Dietary Enrichment with 20% Fish Oil Decreases Mucus Production and the Inflammatory Response in Mice with Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(9):e0163819Plos
- The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contain...
The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks. At 8 and 10 weeks, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of saline (10 control-fed mice) or OVA (30 remaining mice). Once at 10 weeks and on 3 consecutive days during week 12, mice were challenged by nebulizing with saline or OVA. Mice were euthanized 24 hours after the last challenge and blood was collected for plasma FA analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to determine cell composition and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-13) concentrations. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) + mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue were quantified using morphometric analysis. Relative abundance of mRNA for mucin (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) genes were compared with β-actin by qPCR. Supplementation with either corn oil or fish oil effectively altered plasma FA profiles towards more (n-6) FA or (n-3) FA, respectively (P < 0.0001). Sensitization and challenge with OVA increased the proportion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, and decreased the proportion of macrophages and concentrations of IL-13 in BAL fluid; increased the percentage of PAS+ mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue; and increased gene expression of mucins (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in lung tissue of control-fed mice. Dietary PUFA reversed the increase in PAS+ mucus-producing cells (P = 0.003). In addition, dietary enrichment with fish oil attenuated the percentage of CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue, and increased Muc4 and Muc 5b gene expression compared with OVA-sensitized and challenged control mice. In conclusion, dietary enrichment with either (n-3) or (n-6) PUFA decreased mucus production in lung tissues of OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. More specifically, enrichment with dietary (n-3) PUFA decreased CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates, thus inducing potentially beneficial changes in lung tissue of OVA-sensitized and challenged mice.
- Stability of FeNO and airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol in untreated asthmatics. [Journal Article]
- J Asthma 2016 Sep 26; :0JA
- CONCLUSIONS: In steroid-free non-smoking asthmatics with constant symptom scores and lung function, airway responsiveness to mannitol remained at the same level over a period of months, while a minor change in exhaled FeNO was reported. These results suggest that mannitol is a stable, reliable marker of clinical disease activity.
- Psychological treatment of comorbid asthma and panic disorder in Latino adults: Results from a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- Behav Res Ther 2016 Sep 17; 87:142-154BR
- Confusion between panic and asthma symptoms can result in serious self-management errors. A cognitive behavior psychophysiological therapy (CBPT) intervention was culturally adapted for Latinos consi...
Confusion between panic and asthma symptoms can result in serious self-management errors. A cognitive behavior psychophysiological therapy (CBPT) intervention was culturally adapted for Latinos consisting of CBT for panic disorder (PD), asthma education, differentiation between panic and asthma symptoms, and heart rate variability biofeedback. An RCT compared CBPT to music and relaxation therapy (MRT), which included listening to relaxing music and paced breathing at resting respiration rates. Fifty-three Latino (primarily Puerto Rican) adults with asthma and PD were randomly assigned to CBPT or MRT for 8 weekly sessions. Both groups showed improvements in PD severity, asthma control, and several other anxiety and asthma outcome measures from baseline to post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. CBPT showed an advantage over MRT for improvement in adherence to inhaled corticosteroids. Improvements in PD severity were mediated by anxiety sensitivity in CBPT and by depression in MRT, although earlier levels of these mediators did not predict subsequent improvements. Attrition was high (40%) in both groups, albeit comparable to CBT studies targeting anxiety in Latinos. Additional strategies are needed to improve retention in this high-risk population. Both CBPT and MRT may be efficacious interventions for comorbid asthma-PD, and CBPT may offer additional benefits for improving medication adherence.
- Bronchial reacutization and gastroesophageal reflux: is there a potential clinical correlation? [Journal Article]
- Ann Transl Med 2016; 4(16):304AT
- CONCLUSIONS: The presence of pepsin in the airways shows the occurrence of reflux. The persistence of respiratory symptoms by at least 2 months suggest an endoscopic bronchial examination. This straightforward test confirms the cause possible irritation of the airways and may prevent further diagnostic tests, such as an EGD or pH monitoring esophageal.
- Nucala (Mepolizumab): First IL-5 Antagonist Monoclonal Antibody FDA Approved for Maintenance Treatment of Patients with Severe Asthma. [Journal Article]
- Am Health Drug Benefits 2016; 9(Spec Feature):106-10AH
- Treatment of eosinophilic otitis media with pegylated interferon-α 2a and 2b. [Journal Article]
- Laryngoscope 2016 Sep 26L
- CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that pegylated interferon-α 2a and 2b therapy may benefit patients with severe, refractory EOM. Further larger studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate these early but promising results.
- Inundation of asthma target research: Untangling asthma riddles. [Review]
- Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2016 Sep 22PP
- Asthma is inveterate inflammatory disorder, delineated by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway wall remodeling. Although, asthma is a vague term, and is recognized as h...
Asthma is inveterate inflammatory disorder, delineated by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway wall remodeling. Although, asthma is a vague term, and is recognized as heterogenous entity encompassing different phenotypes. Targeting single mediator or receptor did not prove much clinical significant, as asthma is complex disease involving myriad inflammatory mediators. Asthma may probably involve a large number of different types of molecular and cellular components interacting through complex pathophysiological pathways. This review covers the past, present, and future therapeutic approaches and pathophysiological mechanisms of asthma. Furthermore, review describe importance of targeting several mediators/modulators and receptor antagonists involved in the physiopathology of asthma. Novel targets for asthma research include Galectins, Immunological targets, K (+) Channels, Kinases and Transcription Factors, Toll-like receptors, Selectins and Transient receptor potential channels. But recent developments in asthma research are very promising, these include Bitter taste receptors (TAS2R) abated airway obstruction in mouse model of asthma and Calcium-sensing receptor obliterate inflammation and in bronchial hyperresponsiveness allergic asthma. All these progresses in asthma targets, and asthma phenotypes exploration are auspicious in untangling of asthma riddles.
- Human and mouse monocytes display distinct signalling and cytokine profiles upon stimulation with FFAR2/FFAR3 short-chain fatty acid receptor agonists. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016; 6:34145SR
- Knockout mice studies implicate the mammalian short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptors, FFAR2 and FFAR3- in colitis, arthritis and asthma. However, the correlation with human biology is uncertain. Her...
Knockout mice studies implicate the mammalian short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptors, FFAR2 and FFAR3- in colitis, arthritis and asthma. However, the correlation with human biology is uncertain. Here, we detected FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression in human monocytes via immunohistochemistry. Upon treatment with acetate SCFA or FFAR2- and FFAR3-specific synthetic agonists, human monocytes displayed elevated p38 phosphorylation and attenuated C5, CCL1, CCL2, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β and ICAM-1 inflammatory cytokine expression. Acetate and FFAR2 agonist treatment also repressed Akt and ERK2 signalling. Surprisingly, mouse monocytes displayed a distinct response to acetate treatment, elevating GM-CSF, IL-1α, and IL-1β cytokine expression. This effect persisted in FFAR2/3-knockout mouse monocytes and was not reproduced by synthetic agonists, suggesting a FFAR2/3 independent mechanism in mice. Collectively, we show that SCFAs act via FFAR2/3 to modulate human monocyte inflammatory responses- a pathway that is absent in mouse monocytes.
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- The role of skin and gut microbiota in the development of atopic eczema. [Review]
- Br J Dermatol 2016; 175 Suppl 2:13-18BJ
- Conventional culture-based studies have suggested that a reduction in microbial exposure in early life predisposes to atopic eczema and allergies. However, molecular microbiological methods have show...
Conventional culture-based studies have suggested that a reduction in microbial exposure in early life predisposes to atopic eczema and allergies. However, molecular microbiological methods have shown that conventional culture fails to grow around 80% of the bacterial flora. More recent work reviewed in this paper has employed next generation sequencing to study the influence of the gut and skin microbiota, both with regard to the risk of developing atopic eczema but also the role of pathogenic and commensal bacteria in established disease. Birth cohorts investigating the gastrointestinal tract reported reduced faecal microbiota diversity among those who later developed atopic eczema, using gel electrophoresis, real-time PCR or 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. However, the inverse association with reduced faecal bacterial diversity was not confirmed in cross-sectional studies among patients with established atopic eczema. Only two studies investigated the cutaneous microbiota in a longitudinal study design and both were unable to provide evidence that Staphylococcus aureus colonisation precedes the development of atopic eczema. Next generation sequencing has confirmed the cross-sectional association between atopic eczema and S. aureus colonisation. The two studies that used this approach have also shown that disease flares are associated with a significant fall in skin microbiota diversity and an increase in the relative abundance of both S. aureus and epidermidis. Interestingly, S. aureus elimination does not appear to be the main reason why atopic eczema improves after a flare and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy enhances bacterial diversity. Further, well-phenotyped birth cohorts that take key confounders, such as antibiotic exposure, into account are required.