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Athlete's foot [keywords]
- Purification and characterization of antifungal phenazines from a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain FPO4 against medically important fungi. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mycol Med 2014 Apr 17.
The strain FPO4 was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice plant root and identified as a fluorescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences and BLAST analysis. The extracellular metabolites produced by this strain were purified by silica gel column chromatography and isolated four pure compounds. Based on the spectral data the four compounds were identified as phenazin-1-ol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxyl-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS), and phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), respectively. Phenazin-1-ol and PCA were active against all the eight fungi tested. The highest activity of 4μg/mL by PCA was recorded against Trichophyton rubrum, a human pathogen responsible for causing athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm and fingernail fungus infections, followed by Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The activity of phenazin-1-ol, PCA against Candida spp. was found to be better than the standard antifungal agent amphotericin B. Furthermore, the present study reports the antimicrobial activity of the purified phenazines on major human pathogen, T. rubrum for the first time.
- Occult tinea pedis in an Israeli population and predisposing factors for the acquisition of the disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Dermatol 2014 Apr 16.
Tinea pedis is a commonly encountered dermatophytic infection with a clinical prevalence of 15-25%. Limited studies have evaluated the prevalence of occult tinea pedis.The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of occult tinea pedis in asymptomatic subjects with feet that appeared healthy and to identify possible related risk factors.A prospective study of 221 asymptomatic subjects with apparently normal feet was conducted. All subjects completed a questionnaire covering anamnestic details (personal and family histories of tinea pedis, preferred footwear) and were examined for foot odor and the clinical presence of tinea pedis and onychomycosis. Samples were taken from the foot for direct microscopic examination and culture.Among the 221 patients, 31 (14.0%) were positive for occult tinea pedis. Positive cultures from both the anterior and posterior aspects of the foot were obtained in 22 patients. The most common pathogen isolated was Trichophyton rubrum. Strong correlations emerged between occult tinea pedis and characteristics such as male gender, foot odor, previous personal and family histories of tinea pedis, and clinical and mycological evidence of onychomycosis. No significant associations were found between occult tinea pedis and age or preferred footwear.The prevalence of occult tinea pedis is similar to that of clinical tinea pedis. This may imply that patients with subclinical infection carry a risk for transmitting disease similar to that of clinical carriers. This is of great importance in the prevention and management of the disease as high-risk asymptomatic carriers can be identified.
- What is new in fungal pharmacotherapeutics? [Journal Article]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2014 Apr 1; 13(4):389-95.
Approximately 20-25% of the population worldwide is affected by superficial cutaneous mycoses (SCM). SCM are cutaneous fungal infections with a wide array of systemic and topical treatment options. However, successful therapeutic outcomes are limited by patient non-adherence, medication side effects, potential drug interactions, antifungal resistance and disease recurrence. Advances in formulation technology have allowed for the development of more effective and safer therapies. In this article we will review several new and emerging pharmacotherapeutics for onychomycosis and tinea pedis.<br /><br /> <em>J Drugs Dermatol.</em> 2014;13(4):391-395.
- Oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot. [Journal Article]
- Sao Paulo Med J 2014; 132(2):127.
About 15% of the world population have fungal infections of the feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot). There are many clinical presentations of tinea pedis, and most commonly, tinea pedis is seen between the toes (interdigital) and on the soles, heels, and sides of the foot (plantar). Plantar tinea pedis is known as moccasin foot. Once acquired, the infection can spread to other sites including the nails, which can be a source of re-infection. Oral therapy is usually used for chronic conditions or when topical treatment has failed.To assess the effects of oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot (tinea pedis).Search methods: For this update we searched the following databases to July 2012: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), and CINAHL (from 1981). We checked the bibliographies of retrieved trials for further references to relevant trials, and we searched online trials registers. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of oral treatments in participants who have a clinically diagnosed tinea pedis, confirmed by microscopy and growth of dermatophytes (fungi) in culture. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently undertook study selection, "Risk of bias" assessment, and data extraction.We included 15 trials, involving 1,438 participants. The 2 trials (71 participants) comparing terbinafine and griseofulvin produced a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 2.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49 to 3.44) in favors of terbinafine's ability to cure infection. No significant difference was detected between terbinafine and itraconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole, or between griseofulvin and ketoconazole, although the trials were generally small. Two trials showed that terbinafine and itraconazole were effective compared with placebo: terbinafine (31 participants, RR 24.54, 95%CI 1.57 to 384.32) and itraconazole (72 participants, RR 6.67, 95%CI 2.17 to 20.48). All drugs reported adverse effects, with gastrointestinal effects most commonly reported. Ten of the trials were published over 15 years ago, and this is reflected by the poor reporting of information from which to make a clear "Risk of bias" assessment. Only one trial was at low risk of bias overall. The majority of the remaining trials were judged as "unclear" risk of bias because of the lack of clear statements with respect to methods of generating the randomization sequence and allocation concealment. More trials achieved blinding of participants and personnel than blinding of the outcome assessors, which was again poorly reported.The evidence suggests that terbinafine is more effective than griseofulvin; and terbinafine and itraconazole are more effective than no treatment. In order to produce more reliable data , a rigorous evaluation of different drug therapies needs to be undertaken with larger sample sizes to ensure they are large enough to show any real difference when two treatments are being compared. It is also important to continue to follow up and collect data , preferably for six months after the end of the intervention period, to establish whether or not the infection recurred.
- Anti-dermatophytic activity of bakuchiol: In vitro mechanistic studies and in vivo tinea pedis-inhibiting activity in a guinea pig model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phytomedicine 2014 Apr 2.
Bakuchiol was an active antifungal compound isolated from Psoraleae Fructus by means of bioassay-guided fractionation in our previous study. The present work aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and the therapeutic effect of bakuchiol in Trichophyton mentagrophytes-induced tinea pedis. After exposure to bakuchiol at 0.25-fold, 0.5-fold and 1-fold of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (3.91μg/ml) for 24h, the fungal conidia of T. mentagrophytes demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in membrane permeability. Moreover, bakuchiol at 1-fold MIC elicited a 187% elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in fungal cells after a 3-h incubation. However, bakuchiol did not induce DNA fragmentation. In a guinea pig model of tinea pedis, bakuchiol at 1%, 5% or 10% (w/w) concentration in aqueous cream could significantly reduce the fungal burden of infected feet (p<0.01-0.05). In conclusion, this is the first report to demonstrate that bakuchiol is effective in relieving tinea pedis and in inhibiting the growth of the dermatophyte T. mentagrophytes by increasing fungal membrane permeability and ROS generation, but not via induction of DNA fragmentation.
- Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycoses 2014 Apr 3.
Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.
- Effects of Aircast brace and elastic bandage on physical performance of athletes after ankle injuries. [Journal Article]
- Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2014; 48(1):10-6.
Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using Aircast® orthosis and elastic bandage application on the physical performance of athletes with ankle injuries.
Methods:The study included 60 elite male football players with ankle injuries. Ankle range of motion on the sagittal and frontal plane was measured. One maximum repetition test for the tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior and peroneal muscles; fingertip rise test, single- and double-feet vertical jump tests and 10-step/sec test for the gastrosoleus were performed. All tests were performed three times; without brace application, wrapped in elastic bandage and fitted with the Aircast® orthosis.
Results:There was no statistically significant difference between the test results of single-foot vertical jump, 10-step/sec and fingertip rise tests (p>0.05). Double-feet vertical jump test results with both exterior supports were better than the ankle without any support (p<0.05). Vertical jump test results were significantly higher with the Aircast® orthosis than elastic bandage (p<0.05). Inversion and eversion movements were restricted significantly more in the Aircast® orthosis than in the elastic bandage (p<0.05).
Conclusion:Although external supports restrict the foot-ankle range of motion in specific ratios, these restrictions did not adversely affect the athlete's physical fitness. The Aircast® orthosis was more effective than the elastic bandage in reducing injury risk, preventing repetitive injuries and providing an early return to sports.
- Superficial Fungal Infections in Children. [REVIEW]
- Pediatr Clin North Am 2014 Apr; 61(2):443-455.
Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described.
- Nail and skin disorders of the foot. [Journal Article]
- Med Clin North Am 2014 Mar; 98(2):213-25.
Disorders of the dermis and the nails on the feet are common. Despite the simplicity of the skin and nail disorders of the foot, they can be debilitating and impact the patient's ability to ambulate and perform activities of daily living. Diagnosis in most cases is confirmed on physical examination alone. Diligent care of skin and nail disorders can prevent further pathology involving the deeper structures of the foot and allow the patient to fully participate in their usual activities.
- Use of naftifine hydrochloride 2% cream and 39% urea cream in the treatment of tinea pedis complicated by hyperkeratosis. [Journal Article]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2014 Feb; 13(2):162-5.
The treatment of tinea pedis with hyperkeratosis has always been challenging due to presence of thick scales even after the resolution of active fungal infection. Patients usually identify hyperkeratosis with active disease. Therefore, a regimen of an antifungal and a keratolytic agent would be useful not only clearing the skin clinically but also addressing patients' perceptions.