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Athlete's foot [keywords]
- Overview of dermatophyte infections at the dermatology outpatient clinic of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- Nig Q J Hosp Med 2013 Jan-Mar; 23(1):1-6.
Dermatophytes are the commonest organisms causing superficial fungal infections. Earlier epidemiologic studies in Nigeria revealed dermatophyte infection as one of the top three reasons for visiting the dermatologists.To determine the frequency, characteristics and predisposing factors to dermatophyte infections at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) from March 2003 to September 2009.The clinic records and case notes of patients were reviewed. Patients' data which includes demographic details, characteristics of disease, predisposing factors and clinical presentation findings were entered on Excel spreadsheets and analyzed using SPSS 15. Results were displayed using frequency tables.Dermatophyte infections were found in 8.39% of patients attending the dermatology outpatient clinic of LUTH. Tinea pedis was the most frequently seen, occurring in 33.6% of patients; followed by tinea corporis (20%), tinea manuum (18.6%) and tinea capitis (14.8%). Dermatophyte infection was most frequently seen in the 3rd and the 4th decades of life, except tinea capitis seen predominantly in the 1st decade of life and tinea intertrigo in the 5th decade.Dermatophyte infections occur at all age groups, although frequency of occurrence differs with age group and site of the body affected.
- Nail and Skin Disorders of the Foot. [REVIEW]
- Med Clin North Am 2014 Mar; 98(2):213-225.
Disorders of the dermis and the nails on the feet are common. Despite the simplicity of the skin and nail disorders of the foot, they can be debilitating and impact the patient's ability to ambulate and perform activities of daily living. Diagnosis in most cases is confirmed on physical examination alone. Diligent care of skin and nail disorders can prevent further pathology involving the deeper structures of the foot and allow the patient to fully participate in their usual activities.
- Use of naftifine hydrochloride 2% cream and 39% urea cream in the treatment of tinea pedis complicated by hyperkeratosis. [Journal Article]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2014 Feb 1; 13(2):162-5.
The treatment of tinea pedis with hyperkeratosis has always been challenging due to presence of thick scales even after the resolution of active fungal infection. Patients usually identify hyperkeratosis with active disease. Therefore, a regimen of an antifungal and a keratolytic agent would be useful not only clearing the skin clinically but also addressing patients' perceptions.<BR /><BR /> <EM>J Drugs Dermatol.</EM> 2014;13(2):162-165.
- Tinea pedis: The etiology and global epidemiology of a common fungal infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Rev Microbiol 2014 Feb 4.
Abstract Tinea pedis, which is a dermatophytic infection of the feet, can involve the interdigital web spaces or the sides of the feet and may be a chronic or recurring condition. The most common etiological agents are anthropophiles, including Trichophyton rubrum sensu stricto, which is the most common, followed by Trichophyton interdigitale and Epidermophyton floccosum. There has been a change in this research arena, necessitating a re-evaluation of our knowledge on the topic from a multidisciplinary perspective. Thus, this review aimed to provide a solid overview of the current status and changing patterns of tinea pedis. The second half of the twentieth century witnessed a global increase in tinea pedis and a clonal spread of one major etiologic agent, T. rubrum. This phenomenon is likely due to increases in urbanization and the use of sports and fitness facilities, the growing prevalence of obesity and the aging population. For optimal patient care and management, the diagnosis of tinea pedis should be verified by microbiological analysis. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical forms, complications and mycological characteristics of tinea pedis and we highlight the pathogenesis, prevention and control parameters of this infection.
- Efficacy and safety of 1 % terbinafine film-forming solution in chinese patients with tinea pedis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study. [Journal Article]
- Clin Drug Investig 2014 Mar; 34(3):223-30.
Superficial fungal skin infections are treated using topical antifungals. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a single application of 1 % terbinafine film-forming solution (FFS) versus placebo for the treatment of tinea pedis in the Chinese population.Six centers in China randomized 290 patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 1 % terbinafine FFS or FFS vehicle (placebo) once on the affected foot/feet. Efficacy assessments included microscopy and mycologic culture, and assessing clinical signs and symptoms at baseline, and at weeks 1 and 6 after the topical treatment. All adverse events were recorded.At week 6, 1 % terbinafine FFS was superior to placebo for effective treatment rate (63 vs. 8 %); clinical cure (30 vs. 6 %); mycological cure (86 vs. 12 %); negative microscopy (90 vs. 24 %); and negative mycological culture (90 vs. 27 %): all p ≤ 0.001 and clinically relevant. At week 6, 1 % terbinafine FFS was clinically superior to placebo for the absence of: erythema (69 vs. 29 %); desquamation (33 vs. 8 %); and pruritus (70 vs. 30 %): all p ≤ 0.001 and clinically relevant. At week 6, differences in the average total signs and symptoms scores were significantly lower for 1 % terbinafine FFS versus placebo (p ≤ 0.001). Both 1 % terbinafine FFS and placebo were safe and well tolerated based on adverse events and investigator and patient assessments.This double-blind, randomized, multicenter study demonstrated one single topical application of 1 % terbinafine FFS was safe and effective in the treatment of tinea pedis in the Chinese population.
- Skin and nail mycoses in patients with diabetic foot. [Journal Article]
- G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2013 Dec; 148(6):603-8.
Diabetes mellitus affects all socioeconomic and age groups and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. The diabetic foot complication represents one of the most complex and serious complications in these patients. Fungal infections can also contribute to the severity of the diabetic foot. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of foot skin and toenail mycosis in a group of 75 patients with diabetic foot complication and in a matched control group. Diabetic patients showed onychomycosis in 53.3% and foot skin mycosis in 46.7% of the cases, with a prevalence of both fungal infections significantly higher than that observed in the control group. At least one type of these fungal infections was present in 69.3% of diabetic subjects with a highly significant difference compared to control group (P<0.001). Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were the most common species responsible of both nail and skin infections. Candida spp, Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp and other moulds. were found in about 1/3 onychomycosis. Previous toe amputation was significantly associated with both skin and nail mycosis. The present study confirms that both tinea pedis and onychomycosis have a high prevalence in subjects suffering from diabetic foot complication, and that the problem of fungal infections of the foot in diabetic subjects is still highly underestimated. Consequently, there is an important clinical rationale for careful mycological examination of diabetic foot and an adequate treatment tailored for each individual patient according to the fungal species involved.
- Dermatophytosis and immunovirological status of HIV-infected and AIDS patients from Sao Paulo city, Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycoses 2014 Jan 13.
Over the past decades, more people became infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Because of that the incidence of fungal infections rose dramatically. It happened because this virus can modify the course of fungal diseases, leading to altered clinical pictures. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological and biological aspects of dermatophytosis in HIV-positive and AIDS patients living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 84 (44 HIV-positive and 40 AIDS) patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were tested for dermatophyte infections, as well as for the CD4(+) /CD8(+) and HIV viral load counts. Tinea unguium was most frequently observed in AIDS patients, whereas Tinea pedis was mostly observed in HIV-positive patients. The most frequent dermatophyte species was Trichophyton rubrum. CD4(+) counts and CD4(+) /CD8(+) ratios were not associated with a higher risk for dermatophytosis. On the other hand, viral load higher than 100 000 copies/ml was associated with a higher frequency of dermatophytosis. The results suggest to that although dermatophytosis is common in HIV-positive and AIDS patients, the degree of immunosuppression does not seems to correlate with increased risk of this fungal infection. In addition, high viral load as a predictive risk factor for dermatophyte infection should be subject of further evaluations.
- Urea: a comprehensive review of the clinical literature. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Online J 2013 Nov; 19(11):20392.
Urea is an organic compound that has been used clinically for dermatological diseases for more than a century. Urea is a potent emollient and keratolytic agent, making urea an effective monotherapy for conditions associated with dry and scaly skin. A systematic review of the literature is needed to provide clinicians with evidence-based applications of urea in the treatment of dermatological diseases.A PubMed search was conducted using the term "urea" combined with "skin," "ichthyosis," "psoriasis," "xerosis," "emollient," "onychomycosis," "dermatitis," and "avulsion." A total of 81 publications met inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Treatment indication(s), test agents, number of subjects, treatment protocols, results, and side effects were recorded.Effective treatment with urea has been reported for the following conditions: ichthyosis, xerosis, atopic dermatitis/eczema, contact dermatitis, radiation induced dermatitis, psoriasis/seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, tinea pedis, keratosis, pruritus, and dystrophic nails. Furthermore, urea has been used with other medications as a penetration enhancing agent. Mild irritation is the most common adverse event, proving urea to be a safe and tolerable topical drug without systemic toxicity.Urea is a safe, effective dermatologic therapy with wide-ranging clinical utility and minimal, non-systemic side effects. In order to optimize patient care, dermatologists should be well informed with regards to urea's indications and efficacy.
- Put your best foot forward: advances in the management of tinea pedis. [Editorial]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2013 Nov; 12(11 Suppl):s164.