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Athlete's foot [keywords]
- Onychomycosis in close quarter living review of the literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycoses 2013 May 14.
Onychomycosis is defined as a fungal infection of the nail bed and/or nail plate. The prevalence of onychomycosis has increased dramatically as a worldwide condition in the twentieth century due to occlusive footwear, global wars and natural migration. Risk factors generally leading to onychomycosis development include bodily spread of dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte tinea pedis, peripheral vascular disease, damaged nails via sports and trauma, older age, genetics, immunodeficiency and diabetes. Many publications discuss prevalence, symptoms and treatment of the disease in individual cases, hospitals or specific locations, but few strongly link the cause of onychomycosis to living environments. This is a review of the current literature on the prevalence of onychomycosis and its relationship to surrounding living environments of those infected. A Pubmed search was performed with 'onychomycosis'. Articles were selected based on the relevance to close quarter living environments. All ages can be affected with onychomycosis, ranging from children in boarding schools to elderly in nursing homes. Although not directly linking living environments to transmission and infection in all articles reviewed, onychomycosis was very prevalent in many different close quarter living settings, including within families, boarding schools, military quarters and nursing homes. This review demonstrates that various close quarter living environments are highly associated with increased transmission and infection with onychomycosis.
- Footwear Traction and Lower Extremity Noncontact Injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013 May 7.
PURPOSE:Football is the most popular high school sport, however, it has the highest rate of injury. Speculation has been prevalent that foot-fixation due to high footwear traction contributes to injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine if a relationship exists between athletes specific footwear traction (measured with their own shoes on the field of play) and lower extremity non-contact injury in high school football.
METHODS:Over three years, 555 high school football athletes had their footwear traction measured on the actual field of play at the start of the season and any injury the athletes suffered during a game was recorded. Lower extremity non-contact injury rates, grouped based on the athlete's specific footwear traction (both translational and rotational) were compared.
RESULTS:For translational traction, injury rate reached a peak of 21.7 injuries/1000 game exposures within the mid-range of translational traction, before decreasing to 4.7 injuries/1000 game exposures in the high range of traction. For rotational traction, there was a steady increase in injury rate as footwear traction increased, starting at 3.3 injuries/1000 game exposures at low traction, and reaching 19.2 injuries/1000 game exposures at high traction.
CONCLUSION:A relationship exists between footwear traction and non-contact lower extremity injury, with increases in rotational traction leading to a greater injury rate and increases in translational traction leading to a decrease in injury. It is recommended that athletes consider selecting footwear with the lowest rotational traction values for which no detriment in performance results.
- Estimation of ligament strains and joint moments in the ankle during a supination sprain injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2013 May 8.
This study presents the ankle ligament strains and ankle joint moments during an accidental injury event diagnosed as a grade I anterior talofibular ligament (ATaFL) sprain. A male athlete accidentally sprained his ankle while performing a cutting motion in a laboratory setting. The kinematic data were input to a three-dimensional rigid-body foot model for simulation analyses. Maximum strains in 20 ligaments were evaluated in simulations that investigated various combinations of the reported ankle joint motions. Temporal strains in the ATaFL and the calcaneofibular ligament (CaFL) were then compared and the three-dimensional ankle joint moments were evaluated from the model. The ATaFL and CaFL were highly strained when the inversion motion was simulated (10% for ATaFL and 12% for CaFL). These ligament strains were increased significantly when either or both plantarflexion and internal rotation motions were added in a temporal fashion (up to 20% for ATaFL and 16% for CaFL). Interestingly, at the time strain peaked in the ATaFL, the plantarflexion angle was not large but apparently important. This computational simulation study suggested that an inversion moment of approximately 23 N m plus an internal rotation moment of approximately 11 N m and a small plantarflexion moment may have generated a strain of 15-20% in the ATaFL to produce a grade I ligament injury in the athlete's ankle. This injury simulation study exhibited the potentially important roles of plantarflexion and internal rotation, when combined with a large inversion motion, to produce a grade I ATaFL injury in the ankle of this athlete.
- Dermatophyte isolation in the socks of patients with tinea pedis and onychomycosis. [LETTER]
- J Dermatol 2013 Apr 27.
- Inflammatory tinea pedis with bacterial superinfection effectively treated with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy. [Journal Article]
- Mycoses 2013 May.:23-5.
Undetected tinea pedis in a patient with diabetes can lead to serious bacterial infections with potentially serious consequences, such as foot amputations. Here we report on a 60-year-old patient with diabetes presenting with pain, severe pruritus, and malodour in the foot's interdigital area, and subsequently, diagnosed with inflammatory tinea pedis with bacterial superinfection. The patient was successfully treated with Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%; marked improvement occurred within 5 days.
- Sertaconazole: an antifungal agent for the topical treatment of superficial candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2013 Apr; 11(4):347-58.
Sertaconazole is a useful antifungal agent against mycoses of the skin and mucosa, such as cutaneous, genital and oral candidiasis and tinea pedis. Its antifungal activity is due to inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis and disruption of the cell wall. At higher concentrations, sertaconazole is able to bind to nonsterol lipids of the fungal cell wall, increasing the permeability and the subsequent death of fungal cells. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities on Candida are dose-dependent. The antifungal spectrum of sertaconazole includes deramophytes, Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia and also Aspergillus, Scedosporium and Scopulariopsis. Sertaconazole also shows an antimicrobial activity against streptococci, staphylococci and protozoa (Trichomonas). In clinical trials including patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, a single dose of sertaconazole produced a higher cure rate compared with other topical azoles such as econazole and clotrimazole, in shorter periods. Sertaconazole has shown an anti-inflammatory effect that is very useful for the relief of unpleasant symptoms.
- [Molecular biological detection of dermatophytes in clinical samples when onychomycosis or tinea pedis is suspected : A prospective study comparing conventional dermatomycological diagnostics and polymerase chain reaction]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hautarzt 2013 Apr; 64(4):283-9.
The prevalence of onychomycosis is rising worldwide. Before starting antifungal treatment, an exact mycological diagnosis should be obtained. The current laboratory diagnosis of dermatomycoses is based on the detection of the causative agent by microscopy and culture. These conventional diagnostic methods for fungal infections often are not the best solution because they are time-consuming, cultures are false-negative and direct examination identifies non-vital structures which cannot be used for speciation.A total of 218 patients presenting in a surgical practice over 3 months with clinical signs of tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis were involved in the prospective study. All patients had predisposing factors for tinea pedis and tinea unguium, such as vascular insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and leg ulcers. Nail specimens and skin scrapings were investigated for fungi using Blancophor® preparation, and cultured. In addition to conventional diagnostics, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for detection of dermatophyte DNA was employed. This PCR-Elisa assay is based on the use of specific primers which target the topoisomerase II gene. This allows the highly specific molecular identification of Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, T. interdigitale, and Epidermophyton floccosum directly in clinical samples.23.9 % of patients were culture-positive for dermatophytes (either T. rubrum, or T. interdigitale). With PCR, dermatophyte DNA either of T. rubrum or T. interdigitale could be detected in nail samples and skin scrapings from at least 29.9 % of all patients. Epidermophyton floccosum was not found in this study, neither by cultivation nor by PCR. The diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR-Elisa assay was calculated as 79.0% %; the diagnostic specificity as 85.5 %.PCR-Elisa evaluation makes possible a rapid, specific and sensitive diagnosis of dermatophytosis of the nails and skin within 24 (maximal 48) hours with identification of the involved species.
- Effects of a foot bath containing green tea polyphenols on interdigital tinea pedis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Foot (Edinb) 2013 Mar 14.
BACKGROUND:It has been shown that green tea polyphenols (GTP) can directly kill Trichophyton in vitro; however, there are no published clinical studies that show anti-fungal activity of GTP.
OBJECTIVES:To identify the effects of GTP on interdigital tinea pedis in elderly patients.
METHOD:Ninety-four patients with interdigital tinea pedis were enrolled and were either given a lukewarm water foot bath containing GTP or placebo treatment. Effects of GTP were assessed based on changes in the size of the affected area, the rate of recurrence, microscopy findings, and overall assessment of skin changes.
RESULTS:After 12 weeks of treatment with either GTP or placebo, a significant reduction in the size of the affected area was observed (p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the GTP or placebo groups in the size of the affected area (p=0.638), the recurrence rate (p=0.172), or the microscopy findings (p=1.000). However, the overall assessment demonstrated significant improvements (p=0.010) in the GTP group.
CONCLUSIONS:These results show that GTP was effective in improving the symptoms of tinea pedis in comparison to only lukewarm water. Our results suggest that GTP could have anti-fungal activity.
- Swimming speed of the breaststroke kick. [Journal Article]
- J Hum Kinet 2012 Dec.:133-9.
The breaststroke kick is responsible for a considerable portion of the forward propulsion in breaststroke swimming. The aim of this study was to measure selected anthropometric variables and functional properties of a swimmer's body: length of body parts; functional range of motion in the leg joints and anaerobic power of the lower limbs. Chosen kinematic variables useful in the evaluation of swimming performance in the breaststroke kick were evaluated. In the present research, swimming speed using breaststroke kicks depended to the largest extent on anaerobic endurance (0.46, p < 0.05 partial correlations with age control). In addition, knee external rotation and swimming technique index had an impact on swimming speed and kick length (both partial correlations with age control 0.35, p < 0.08). A kinematic analysis of the breaststroke kick hip displacement compatible with horizontal body displacement was significantly negatively correlated with foot slip in the water opposite to body displacement (partial correlations: with leg length control -0.43, p < 0.05; with shank length control -0.45, p < 0.05, respectively). Present research and measurements of selected body properties, physical endurance and kinematic movement analysis may help in making a precise determination of an athlete's talent for breaststroke swimming.
- Topical Treatment of Tinea Pedis Using 6% Coriander Oil in Unguentum Leniens: A Randomized, Controlled, Comparative Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dermatology 2013; 226(1):47-51.