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Athlete's foot [keywords]
- Chronically Recurrent and Widespread Tinea Corporis Due to Trichophyton rubrum in an Immunocompetent Patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2014 Dec 7.
A 31-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with a 4-year history of extensive erythematous and scaly plaques involving the abdomen, gluteal and inguen regions with concomitant tinea pedis and onychomycosis is described. Diagnosis was based on positive mycological examination and positive histopathologic examination. Species identification was performed by growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar and by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA region. The pathogen identified was Trichophyton rubrum. The same fungal species was cultured from his abdominal, gluteal, foot and toenail. A combination therapy with systemic terbinafine and topically applied terbinafine cream was successful. A 1-year follow-up did not show any recurrence of infection.
- [Treatment of onychomycosis.] [REVIEW]
- J Mycol Med 2014 Dec; 24(4):296-302.
A positive mycological examination is required before discussion of treatment of onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is most commonly due to dermatophytes in association with tinea pedis and/or tinea manuum. It is a catched infection. Candida onychomycosis is a rare opportunistic infection and onychomycosis due to non-dermatophytic moulds is very rare as a "chance mishap". The treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis takes each infected part of the nail into account. Topical antifungal agents should be reserved for mild to moderate onychomycosis. Systemic antifungal agents are required to severe onychomycosis. In all cases, removal of infected nail parts is useful to facilitate the penetration of antifungal drugs and eradication of reinfection sites may be done to prevent recurrences and relapses. In primary, Candida onychomycosis treatment with topical antifungal drugs may be effective but in case of treatment failure, a systemic therapy is required. Suppression predisposing factors is useful. The treatment of non-dermatophytic moulds onychomycosis is still a challenge. Except Neoscytalidium spp., which mimic a dermatophytosis, non-dermatophytic moulds may be isolated from dystrophic nails and it is always difficult to specify their role as a primary pathogen or as a colonizer of nails. The available topical and systemic antifungal drugs are not effective against these non-dermatophytic moulds except itraconazole for onychomycosis due to Aspergillus spp. New therapy such as light and laser therapy are in evaluation.
- [Mycological diagnosis of onychomycosis.] [REVIEW]
- J Mycol Med 2014 Dec; 24(4):269-278.
Onychomycosis represents about 50% of ungueal pathology. Dermatophytes (especially Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale) are the main species involved in tinea pedis. Yeasts of the Candida (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis,…) genus are predominant on hands and very often associated with ungueal disease and perionyxis. Fungi other than the classic dermatophytes and yeasts can be rarely isolated from nail diseases. Among them, species belonging to Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus and Fusarium genus are mainly found, but their involvement in the disease must be proved. Other fungi, presenting a special affinity to keratin (pseudodermatophytes), such as Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (ex Scytalidium dimidiatum) from tropical and subtropical areas and Onychocola canadensis from Northern America and Europe, are considered as real pathogens in nail diseases. A multidisciplinary approach, including clinicians and biologists, is required to confirm the mycosis. This comparative review emphasizes the importance of histological examination, as well as molecular approaches, which are very contributive to the diagnosis of onychomycosis. The role of the laboratory is to identify at the species level the fungus isolated from nail scrapings and to show its involvement in the ungueal lesions.
- D-optimal experimental approach for designing topical microemulsion of itraconazole: Characterization and evaluation of antifungal efficacy against a standardized Tinea pedis infection model in Wistar rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharm Sci 2014 Nov 4.:97-112.
The study aims to statistically develop a microemulsion system of an antifungal agent, itraconazole for overcoming the shortcomings and adverse effects of currently used therapies. Following preformulation studies like solubility determination, component selection and pseudoternary phase diagram construction, a 3-factor D-optimal mixture design was used for optimizing a microemulsion having desirable formulation characteristics. The factors studied for sixteen experimental trials were percent contents (w/w) of water, oil and surfactant, whereas the responses investigated were globule size, transmittance, drug skin retention and drug skin permeation in 6h. Optimized microemulsion (OPT-ME) was incorporated in Carbopol based hydrogel to improve topical applicability. Physical characterization of the formulations was performed using particle size analysis, transmission electron microscopy, texture analysis and rheology behavior. Ex vivo studies carried out in Wistar rat skin depicted that the optimized formulation enhanced drug skin retention and permeation in 6h in comparison to conventional cream and Capmul 908P oil solution of itraconazole. The in vivo evaluation of optimized formulation was performed using a standardized Tinea pedis model in Wistar rats and the results of the pharmacodynamic study, obtained in terms of physical manifestations, fungal-burden score, histopathological profiles and oxidative stress. Rapid remission of Tinea pedis from rats treated with OPT-ME formulation was observed in comparison to commercially available therapies (ketoconazole cream and oral itraconazole solution), thereby indicating the superiority of microemulsion hydrogel formulation over conventional approaches for treating superficial fungal infections. The formulation was stable for a period of twelve months under refrigeration and ambient temperature conditions. All results, therefore, suggest that the OPT-ME can prove to be a promising and rapid alternative to conventional antifungal therapies against superficial fungal infections.
- Is it Possible to Sanitize Athletes' Shoes? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Athl Train 2014 Nov 21.
Context : Footwear should be designed to avoid trauma and injury to the skin of the feet that can favor bacterial and fungal infections. Procedures and substances for sanitizing the interior of shoes are uncommon but are important aspects of primary prevention against foot infections and unpleasant odor. Objective : To evaluate the efficacy of a sanitizing technique for reducing bacterial and fungal contamination of footwear. Design : Crossover study. Setting : Mens Sana basketball team. Patients or Other Participants : Twenty-seven male athletes and 4 coaches (62 shoes). Intervention(s) : The experimental protocol required a first sample (swab), 1/shoe, at time 0 from inside the shoes of all athletes before the sanitizing technique began and a second sample at time 1, after about 4 weeks, April 2012 to May 2012, of daily use of the sanitizing technique. Main Outcome Measure(s) : The differences before and after use of the sanitizing technique for total bacterial count at 36°C and 22°C for Staphylococcus spp, yeasts, molds, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Escherichia coli , and total coliform bacteria were evaluated. Results : Before use of the sanitizing technique, the total bacterial counts at 36°C and 22°C and Staphylococcus spp were greater by a factor of 5.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.42, 9.84), 5.84 (95% CI = 3.45, 9.78), and 4.78 (95% CI 2.84, 8.03), respectively. All the other comparisons showed a reduction in microbial loads, whereas E coli and coliforms were no longer detected. No statistically significant decrease in yeasts (P = .0841) or molds (P = .6913) was recorded. Conclusions : The sanitizing technique significantly reduced the bacterial presence in athletes' shoes.
- Diagnosis and management of tinea infections. [Journal Article]
- Am Fam Physician 2014 Nov 15; 90(10):702-10.
Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss.
- Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dermatol 2014 Nov 11.
Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis.
- A Randomized, Double-blind, Vehicle-controlled Trial of Luliconazole Cream 1% in the Treatment of Interdigital Tinea Pedis. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2014 Oct; 7(10):20-7.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of luliconazole cream 1% applied once daily for 14 days in patients with interdigital tinea pedis.Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled study.Private dermatology clinics and clinical research centers in the United States and Central America.Three hundred twenty-two male and female patients ≥12 years of age diagnosed with interdigital tinea pedis.Complete clearance (i.e., clinical and mycological cure), effective treatment, and fungal culture and susceptibility.At study Day 42, complete clearance was obtained by a larger percentage (14.0% [15/107] vs. 2.8% [3/107]; p<0.001) of patients treated with luliconazole cream 1% compared with vehicle. Also at Day 42, more luliconazole-treated patients compared with vehicle-treated patients obtained effective treatment (32.7% vs. 15.0%), clinical cure (15.0% vs. 3.7%), and mycologic cure (56.1% vs. 27.1%). Erythema, scaling, and pruritus scores were lower for the luliconazole cream 1% group compared with vehicle on Day 14, Day 28, and Day 42. For all species and the same isolates, the MIC50/90 for luliconazole cream 1% was 6- to 12-fold lower than for other agents tested. No patients discontinued treatment because of a treatment-emergent adverse event.Luliconazole cream 1% was safe and well-tolerated and demonstrated significantly greater efficacy than vehicle cream in patients with interdigital tinea pedis.
- Not only athlete's foot survives in feet. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2014 Oct 23.
- A retrospective chart review of the clinical efficacy of Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser for toenail onychomycosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dermatolog Treat 2014 Nov 5.:1-3.
Abstract Cosmetic improvement in nail appearance is a great concern to patients with onychomycosis. Although oral and topical treatments for onychomycosis can potentially eradicate the infection, unsightly nails may remain despite negative mycology. Laser-based devices have been approved for the temporary clearance of nails with onychomycosis, thus providing a means of improving the aesthetic appearance of the nails. A retrospective chart review of patients treated with a Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser and debridement for onychomycosis, and terbinafine 1% cream for associated tinea pedis, between July 2012 and February 2014 was performed to ascertain the proportion of patients who achieved clinical outcomes. A temporary improvement in the appearance of the target nail was observed in 78% of patients and the affected area of the nail plate was reduced by at least 50% from baseline in 46% of patients. It appears that patients whose great toenails are potentially infected with non-dermatophyte molds may particularly benefit from laser therapy. Higher clinical outcome rates were observed with administration of four or more treatments, but additional observations and/or studies are needed to optimize the regimen of laser therapy to improve the cosmetic appearance of infected nails.