Athlete's foot [keywords]
- Tinea and Onychomycosis. [Journal Article]
- Semin Cutan Med Surg 2016 Jun; 35(6 Suppl):S110-3.
Onychomycosis and tinea pedis are common fungal infections affecting the nails and feet, respectively. Two newly approved topical agents for onychomycosis are efinaconazole and tavaborole, both of which have demonstrated respectable cure rates in clinical studies. For tinea pedis, naftifine 2% and luliconazole 1% are new agents, both administered for relatively short courses, that may foster greater adherence Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S110-S113.
- Epidemiological trends of dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran: A five-year retrospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mycol Med 2016 Aug 9.
Dermatophytosis is the most frequent fungal infection all over the world and its frequency is constantly increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features and epidemiological trends of dermatophytosis over the years 2010 to 2014 in Tehran, Iran.A total of 13,312 patients clinically suspected of cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Skin scales, plucked hairs, nail clippings and sub-ungual debris were examined by direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophyte species were identified at the species level by a combination of morphological and physiological criteria.Direct microscopy confirmed a contamination rate of 19.7% (2622/13,312 cases) of which 1535 cases (58.5%) were culture positive distributed in male (1022 cases) and female (513 cases). The most commonly infected age group was the 30-39 years old. Tinea pedis (30.4%) was the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis followed by tinea cruris (29.8%) and tinea corporis (15.8%). Epidermophyton floccosum (31%) was the most prevalent causative agent, followed by Trichophyton rubrum (26.2%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (20.3%).Our results showed considerable distribution of dermatophytosis from zoophilic, anthropophilic and geophilic species among population with diverse age groups. Although anthropophilic fungi such as T. mentagrophytes, E. floccosum, and T. rubrum were the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, the prevalence of T. verrucosum showed a meaningful increase over the years, which highlights the importance of rural dermatophytosis mainly transmitted from large animals. This noticeable information improves our current knowledge about dermatophytosis and assists to establish effective prevention and therapeutic strategies to overcome the disease.
- Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples at Sohag University Hospital in Egypt. [Journal Article]
- Electron Physician 2016 Jun; 8(6):2557-67.
The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and explore the in-vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of dermatophytes isolated from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis (tinea infections) attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic.This study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital from December 2014 to December 2015. Clinical samples (e.g., skin scrapings and hair stumps) were collected under aseptic precautions. The identification of dermatophytes was performed through microscopic examination using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) with 40% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) mounts and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and on Dermasel agar base media, both supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. All dermatophytes isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing using the agar-based disk diffusion (ABDD) method against Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Fluconazole, and Griseofulvin. Data were analyzed via SPSS 16, using Chi square and a screening test (cross-tabulation method).A total of 110 patients of dermatophytosis were studied. The patients were clinically diagnosed and mycologically confirmed as having tinea capitis (49), tinea corporis (30), tinea pedis (16), tinea cruris (9), or tinea barbae (6). The dermatophytes isolates belonged to 4 species: Microsporum canis 58 (52.7%), Microsporum gypseum 23 (20.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18 (16.4%), and Microsporum audouinii 11 (10%). The most effective antifungal drugs tested were Clotrimazole, followed by Miconazole (95.5% and 84.5% of isolates were susceptible, respectively).Every patient with a tinea infection should be properly studied for a mycological examination and should be treated accordingly. Dermasel agar is more useful as an identification medium in the isolation of dermatophytes. The ABDD method appears to be a simple, cost-effective, and promising method for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes.
- Genetic Predictors of Susceptibility to Dermatophytoses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2016 Aug 8.
Countless observational studies conducted over the last century reveal that dermatophytes infect humans of every age, race, gender, and socioeconomic status with strikingly high rates. The curious disparity in dermatophyte infection patterns observed within and between populations has led countless investigators to explore whether genetics underlie a susceptibility to, or confer protection against, dermatophyte infections. This paper examines the data that offer a link between genetics and dermatophytoses and discusses the underlying mechanisms that support these observations.
- New Antifungal Agents and New Formulations Against Dermatophytes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2016 Aug 8.
A variety of oral and topical antifungal agents are available for the treatment of superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes. This review builds on the antifungal therapy update published in this journal for the first special issue on Dermatophytosis (Gupta and Cooper 2008;166:353-67). Since 2008, there have not been additions to the oral antifungal armamentarium, with terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole still in widespread use, albeit for generally more severe or recalcitrant infections. Griseofulvin is used in the treatment of tinea capitis. Oral ketoconazole has fallen out of favor in many jurisdictions due to risks of hepatotoxicity. Topical antifungals, applied once or twice daily, are the primary treatment for tinea pedis, tinea corporis/tinea cruris, and mild cases of tinea unguium. Newer topical antifungal agents introduced include the azoles, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and sertaconazole, and the oxaborole, tavaborole. Research is focused on developing formulations of existing topical antifungals that utilize novel delivery systems in order to enhance treatment efficacy and compliance.
- Characterization of clinically important dermatophytes in North of Iran using PCR-RFLP on ITS region. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mycol Med 2016 Aug 2.
Dermatophytosis is considered as one of the major public health problems in the world. Accurate identification of the dermatophytes species is important for recognition of the environment and animal sources of infection. In this survey, 1500 clinical specimens taken from outpatients suspected of dermatophytosis and they were examined by direct microscopy and culture.In total, three hundred and twelve dermatophytes were isolates recovered in culture, they were identified using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method based on the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions.Tinea pedis was the most common clinical form (32.1%) followed by tinea cruris (24.4%), tinea manuum (16.4%), tinea unguium (8.3%), tinea corporis (7.3%), tinea faciei (6.4%), and tinea capitis (5.1%). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most frequent isolate (38.2%), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (29.8%), Epidermophyton floccosum (16.6%), Trichophyton tonsurans (14.8%) and Microsporum canis (0.6%). The frequency of dermatophytosis was higher in males than in females and in the age-group of 21-30 years.Our finding indicated that the incidence of dermatophytosis caused by anthropophilic dermatophytes in Mazandaran province is increasing. Also, this study provides valuable data for the prevention and control of dermatophytosis in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.
- [Tinea in the genital area : A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge]. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Hautarzt 2016 Aug 3.
Pubogenital tinea or tinea genitalis represents a rare type of dermatophytosis which, however, is increasingly being diagnosed. The mons pubis is affected, but also the outer regions to the penis shaft and the labia together with the groins. Pubogenital tinea is a more superficial erythrosquamous type, but strong inflammatory dermatomycoses of the genital area as tinea genitalis profunda ranging to kerion celsi are observed. A total of 30 patients (14-63 years of age, 11 men and 19 women) with pubogenital tinea are described. Most patients originated from Graz, Austria, while 2 patients were from Germany (Saxony and Isle of Sylt). Causative agents were mainly zoophilic dermatophytes: Microsporum (M.) canis (11), Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale (9), T. anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae (2), and T. verrucosum (1). Anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (6) and T. tonsurans (1). Anamnestic questions should include contact with pets, physical activities, and travel. Genital shaving and concurrent tinea pedis and onychomycosis are disposing factors. Treatment consisted of oral antifungals except in the three women who were pregnant. Preferably, itraconazole or terbinafine was used, while in a single case, fluconazole was administered. Griseofulvin was not used, because this classic systemic antifungal agent is not allowed any more in Austria. In one patient, oral antifungal therapy was changed from itraconazole to terbinafine due to inefficacy.
- Tavaborole, Efinaconazole, and Luliconazole: Three New Antimycotic Agents for the Treatment of Dermatophytic Fungi. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pharm Pract 2016 Aug 3.
Fungal diseases of the nail bed (onychomycosis) and epidermis are recurrent illnesses in the elderly and immunocompromised patients, which have few efficacious treatment options. Current treatment options for onychomycosis are limited to topical agents, laser treatment, and oral antifungals. Previous generations of topical agents were not efficacious, owing to poor penetration of the nail bed. Oral antifungal drugs, such as itraconazole, terbinafine, and fluconazole, not only give better response rates but also inhibit a host of CYP450 enzymes. Oral antifungals can exacerbate drug-drug interactions for patients taking other medications concurrently. Newer topical agents might recognize improved efficacy and provide therapeutic alternatives when the use of oral antifungal agents is contraindicated. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved efinaconazole and tavaborole for the treatment of onychomycosis. Additionally, the FDA approved luliconazole for the treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis. This review examines the mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, and clinical trials data and considers the place in therapy for these 3 new antimycotic agents.
- Epidemiology of onychomycosis in Serbia: a laboratory-based survey and risk factor identification. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycoses 2016 Jul 29.
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the fingernails and/or toenails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte moulds. The epidemiology of onychomycosis in Serbia is yet to be fully established. This epidemiological study was aimed at evaluating the epidemiology of onychomycosis in a sample of the Serbian patients at risk of onychomycosis, to determine the fungal aetiological agents and to identify the possible risk factors. The study population included 374 patients from six centres in Serbia with suspected onychomycosis. Demographic data, data about comorbidities, lifestyle, clinical aspects of onychomycosis, trauma, excessive perspiration and personal and family history of previous onychomycosis were studied. Laboratory confirmation of diagnosis was done by direct microscopy, fungal culture and PCR. Diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed in 50.8% of patients, who tested positive to at least one laboratory test (direct microscopy, fungal culture or PCR). Trichophyton rubrum was predominant both on toenails (85.98%) and on fingernails (38.46%). Independent risk factors for onychomycosis were: old age (OR = 2.285; P < 0.001), family history of previous onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis (OR = 2.452; P = 0.005), excessive perspiration (OR = 2.165; P = 0.002) and higher degree of hyperkeratosis (OR = 1.755; P = 0.020). This is a first epidemiological study of onychomycosis from Serbia.
- Skin disorders in peritoneal dialysis patients: An underdiagnosed subject. [Journal Article]
- World J Nephrol 2016 Jul 6; 5(4):372-7.
To examine all skin changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients followed up in our unit.Patients on PD program for at least three months without any known chronic skin disease were included in the study. Patients with already diagnosed skin disease, those who have systemic diseases that may cause skin lesions, patients with malignancies and those who did not give informed consent were excluded from the study. All patients were examined by the same predetermined dermatologist with all findings recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data including measures of dialysis adequacy of patients were recorded also. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 16.0 standard version was used for statistical analysis.Among the patients followed up in our PD unit, those without exclusion criteria who gave informed consent, 38 patients were included in the study with male/female ratio and mean age of 26/12 and 50.3 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The duration of CKD was 7.86 ± 4.16 years and the mean PD duration was 47.1 ± 29.6 mo. Primary kidney disease was diabetic nephropathy in 11, nephrosclerosis in six, uropathologies in four, chronic glomerulonephritis in three, chronic pyelonephritis in three, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in three patients while cause was unknown in eight patients. All patients except for one patient had at least one skin lesion. Loss of lunula, onychomycosis and tinea pedis are the most frequent skin disorders recorded in the study group. Diabetic patients had tinea pedis more frequently (P = 0.045). No relationship of skin findings was detected with primary renal diseases, comorbidities and medications that the patients were using.Skin abnormalities are common in in PD patients. The most frequent skin pathologies are onychomycosis and tinea pedis which must not be overlooked.