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Athlete's foot [keywords]
- Urea: a comprehensive review of the clinical literature. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Online J 2013; 19(11):20392.
Introduction: Urea is an organic compound that has been used clinically for dermatological diseases for more than a century. Urea is a potent emollient and keratolytic agent, making urea an effective monotherapy for conditions associated with dry and scaly skin. A systematic review of the literature is needed to provide clinicians with evidence-based applications of urea in the treatment of dermatological diseases.
Methods:A PubMed search was conducted using the term "urea" combined with "skin," "ichthyosis," "psoriasis," "xerosis," "emollient," "onychomycosis," "dermatitis," and "avulsion." A total of 81 publications met inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Treatment indication(s), test agents, number of subjects, treatment protocols, results, and side effects were recorded.
Results:Effective treatment with urea has been reported for the following conditions: ichthyosis, xerosis, atopic dermatitis/eczema, contact dermatitis, radiation induced dermatitis, psoriasis/seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, tinea pedis, keratosis, pruritus, and dystrophic nails. Furthermore, urea has been used with other medications as a penetration enhancing agent. Mild irritation is the most common adverse event, proving urea to be a safe and tolerable topical drug without systemic toxicity. Discussion/
Conclusion:Urea is a safe, effective dermatologic therapy with wide-ranging clinical utility and minimal, non-systemic side effects. In order to optimize patient care, dermatologists should be well informed with regards to urea's indications and efficacy.
- Put Your Best Foot Forward: Advances in the Management of Tinea Pedis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2013 Nov 1; 12(11):s164.
- The prevalence of skin eruptions and mycoses of the buttocks and feet in aged care facility residents: A cross-sectional study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2013 Oct 18.
The prevalence of skin mycoses in the elderly remains unclear. The proportion of people with skin eruptions who are positive for mycoses using direct microscopy is not known. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of skin eruptions and skin mycoses (e.g. candidiasis and tinea) in the buttocks and feet, which are common sites of skin mycoses in residents of long-term care facilities. This multi-site cross-sectional study used visual inspection and direct microscopy to diagnose the type of skin eruption. Subjects were residents of facilities covered by long-term care insurance schemes in Japan. Of the 171 residents enrolled in this study, 72.5% had a skin eruption. Only 4.8% of participants had tinea in the buttocks; 2.4% had buttock candidiasis. In those with a nail abnormality, 58.3% of residents had tinea unguium. For tinea pedis, residents who had any form of interdigital or plantar region skin eruption, 22.5% and 31.4% of residents were positive, respectively. The prevalence of observed skin mycoses was: buttock candidiasis 1.8%; buttock tinea 3.5%; tinea unguium 56.2%; interdigital tinea pedis 20.5%; and plantar tinea pedis 22.5%. The very low proportion of residents with mycoses in the buttocks suggests that anti-inflammatory agents, such as steroids, should be used as first choice. Our observation that not all residents with skin eruptions on the feet had tinea, should remind clinicians to perform direct microscopy before initiating antifungal treatments.
- Multiple rare opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in persistent foot skin infection. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pak J Biol Sci 2013 Mar 1; 16(5):208-18.
Persistent superficial skin infection caused by multiple fungi is rarely reported. Recently, a number of fungi, both opportunistic and persistent in nature were isolated from the foot skin of a 24-year old male in Malaysia. The fungi were identified as Candida parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Phoma spp., Debaryomyces hansenii, Acremonium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Aspergillus spp., This is the first report on these opportunistic strains were co-isolated from a healthy individual who suffered from persistent foot skin infection which was diagnosed as athlete's foot for more than 12 years. Among the isolated fungi, C. parapsilosis has been an increasingly common cause of skin infections. R. mucilaginosa and D. hansenii were rarely reported in cases of skin infection. A. pullulans, an emerging fungal pathogen was also being isolated in this case. Interestingly, it was noted that C. parapsilosis, R. mucilaginosa, D. hansenii and A. pullulans are among the common halophiles and this suggests the association of halotolerant fungi in causing persistent superficial skin infection. This discovery will shed light on future research to explore on effective treatment for inhibition of pathogenic halophiles as well as to understand the interaction of multiple fungi in the progress of skin infection.
- The role of prism glass and postural restoration in managing a collegiate baseball player with bilateral sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Int J Sports Phys Ther 2013 Oct; 8(5):716-28.
Sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) is a condition affecting 15-30% of patients with low back pain seen in outpatient clinics. Currently there is no well-defined standard of care. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the multidisciplinary management between an athletic trainer and an optometrist for an athlete with bilateral SIJ dysfunction and a visual midline shift syndrome.A 21-year-old collegiate baseball player reported to the athletic training room, presenting with low back pain of three day duration, with tenderness over both posterior superior iliac spines (PSIS) (left > right). His pain at its worse was a 7/10 on the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS). The pain increased to the point that it limited his activities of daily living (ADLs) including getting dressed, putting on his shoes, sleeping, and getting in and out of a car.The athlete was initially treated using traditional muscle energy techniques (MET) based intervention to correct SIJD, and lumbar stabilization exercises directed by a licensed athletic trainer, as well as manipulation by a chiropractor. Three weeks of treatment did not prove to be beneficial with only a minimal (1 point on the NPRS) decrease in pain. The athlete was then referred to the head athletic trainer for consultation who prescribed orthotics, for bilateral rear-foot valgus, and Postural Restoration (PR) therapeutic exercises. After two weeks of orthotic use and PR exercises the athlete's pain decreased one additional point on the NPRS. Due to lack of progress, an optometrist was then consulted. The neuro-optometrist prescribed 2 diopter base-down prisms to be worn two hours a day, for four weeks. After four weeks of prisms and new exercises, the athlete was asymptomatic and returned to full pain-free baseball participation without further complications.The Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire (ODI) was 48% at initial (severe disability), 40% at five weeks and 0% at discharge. The Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) score went from 7/10 to 0/10.The athlete demonstrated only minimal relief of symptoms following MET, therapeutic exercises, and chiropractic manipulation. Intervention using prism glasses and PR exercises, designed to optimize posture and correct his visual midline shift syndrome, led to complete resolution of his symptoms.3a.
- Current and emerging options in the treatment of onychomycosis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Semin Cutan Med Surg 2013 Jun; 32(2 Suppl 1):S9-12.
Currently approved options for the treatment of onychomycosis include systemic therapy (the antifungal agents fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine), topical agents (ciclopirox, which has been available since 1996, efinaconazole, currently pending approval), and laser systems. Phase III studies on another topical, tavaborole, have been completed and this medication also shows promise. Mechanical modalities are sometimes used but are seldom necessary. Recurrence of infection is common; the risk for recurrence may be reduced by adherence to preventive measures, especially avoiding (if possible) or promptly treating tinea pedis infections.
- The epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of onychomycosis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Semin Cutan Med Surg 2013 Jun; 32(2 Suppl 1):S2-4.
The prevalence of onychomycosis in the United States is estimated to be at least 12%; prevalence increases with increasing age and is highest in individuals more than 65 years of age. Trichophyton rubrum, which also causes tinea pedis, is responsible for approximately 90% of cases of toenail onychomycosis. Risk factors include a family history of onychomycosis and previous injury to the nails, as well as advanced age and compromised peripheral circulation. Patients with compromised immune function may have an increased risk for onychomycosis and are susceptible to infection with less common dermatophytes and nondermatophyte organisms.
- Use of antifungal saponin SC-2 of Solanum chrysotrichum for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: in vitro studies and clinical experiences. [Journal Article]
- Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013; 10(3):410-7.
Saponin SC-2 from Solanum chrysotrichum showed antifungal activity, demonstrated in vitro, which inhibited the growth of dermatophytes, and in vivo, to be effective in the treatment against tinea pedis and pityriasis capitis. Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of saponin SC-2 on Candida albicans and other Candida species, fluconazole and ketoconazole resistaent strains was demostrated. SC-2-associated ultrastructural alterations in several Candida species were observed. An exploratory clinical, randomized, double-blind, and controlled ketoconazole study of ketoconazole was conducted with the aim of assessing the effectiveness and tolerability of an herbal medicinal product containing SC-2, on women with Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The results exhibited a percentage of therapeutic clinical effectiveness similar to that of ketoconazole (X(2), p ≥0.30), but obtained a smaller percentage of mycological effectiveness, and 100% tolerability. In conclusion, saponin SC-2 possesses fungicidale and fungistatic activity on Candida albicans and other multi resistant Candida species, causes morphological changes and fungal death, and it is an alternative therapy for the treatment of VVC.
- Onychomycosis in children: an experience of 59 cases. [Journal Article]
- Ann Dermatol 2013 Aug; 25(3):327-34.
Although tinea unguium in children has been studied in the past, no specific etiological agents of onychomycosis in children has been reported in Korea.The purpose of this study was to investigate onychomycosis in Korean children.We reviewed fifty nine patients with onychomycosis in children (0~18 years of age) who presented during the ten-year period between 1999 and 2009. Etiological agents were identified by cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. An isolated colony of yeasts was considered as pathogens if the same fungal element was identified at initial direct microscopy and in specimen-yielding cultures at a follow-up visit.Onychomycosis in children represented 2.3% of all onychomycosis. Of the 59 pediatric patients with onychomycosis, 66.1% had toenail onychomycosis with the rest (33.9%) having fingernail onychomycosis. The male-to-female ratio was 1.95:1. Fourteen (23.7%) children had concomitant tinea pedis infection, and tinea pedis or onychomycosis was also found in eight of the parents (13.6%). Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis was the most common (62.7%) clinical type. In toenails, Trichophyton rubrum was the most common etiological agent (51.3%), followed by Candida albicans (10.2%), C. parapsilosis (5.1%), C. tropicalis (2.6%), and C. guilliermondii (2.6%). In fingernails, C. albicans was the most common isolated pathogen (50.0%), followed by T. rubrum (10.0%), C. parapsilosis (10.0%), and C. glabrata (5.0%).Because of the increase in pediatric onychomycosis, we suggest the need for a careful mycological examination of children who are diagnosed with onychomycosis.