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Atypical nevi [keywords]
- Long-term Echographic Surveillance of Elevated Choroidal Nevi. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 May 13.
PURPOSE:To report the outcomes of choroidal nevi monitoring and to compare the detection of ultrasonographic hollowness, a risk factor of malignant transformation, from a B-scan with results from an A-scan examination.
DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study.
METHODS:Standardized A- and B-scan echography and ophthalmoscopy in 358 consecutive patients with median age 69 years and baseline choroidal nevus higher or lower than 1.5 mm in 51 (14%) and 307 (86%) eyes, respectively.
RESULTS:No growth or change in echographic or ophthalmoscopic features were found in 307 nevi with a median elevation of 0.9 mm (range, 0.7 to 1.5 mm) and a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 4 to 9 years). After 2 to 6 years, decreased internal reflectivity on standardized A-scan and ultrasonographic hollowness on B-scan were detected in 7 (18%) of 38 initially highly reflective choroidal nevi (thickness, 1.98 ± 0.37 mm); 2 (5%) nevi grew into melanoma 15 years after the first observation. Of 13 choroidal nevi (thickness, 2.75 ± 0.66 mm), with initial atypical medium to high reflectivity on standardized A-scan (100%) and hollowness on B-scan (85%), 6 (46%) were plaqued 6 to 15 months later because of the presence of multiple risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS:No changes in thickness or echographic features of choroidal nevi elevated up to 1.5 mm were recorded during the follow-up period. In initially typical choroidal nevi higher than 1.5 mm, strong agreement was detected between decreased reflectivity on standardized A-scan and ultrasonographic hollowness on B-scan found after up to 15 years of stability. The vast majority of choroidal nevi with initial atypical standardized A-scan features showed ultrasonographic hollowness.
- A juvenile case of conjunctival atypical nevus. [Journal Article]
- Diagn Pathol 2013.:64.
Melanocytic nevi are the most common tumors of the conjunctiva, accounting for 28% of all neoplastic lesions. These tumors, despite their benign behavior, share some atypical histological features with nevi found in other anatomic sites like the genital and acral regions, globally designated as nevi with site-related atypia. Moreover, in children and adolescents, rapidly growing conjunctival nevi show sometimes worrisome histological patterns in association with a prominent inflammatory infiltrate that may lead to diagnostic problems. In this paper we describe a juvenile compound nevus characterized by marked melanocytic atypia and severe inflammation, which can be considered a rare case of juvenile conjunctival atypical nevus. The final diagnosis relied on morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of the large epithelioid melanocytic cells, and on the results of FISH analysis. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2973228795724608.
- Cutaneous Features of Crouzon Syndrome With Acanthosis Nigricans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA Dermatol 2013 Apr 9.:1-5.
IMPORTANCE Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is a distinct disorder caused by a mutation in the FGFR3 gene, featuring craniosynostosis, characteristic facial features, and atypical and extensive acanthosis nigricans. Other cutaneous findings have not been thoroughly described. OBSERVATIONS We report 6 cases and summarize the existing literature with regard to the cutaneous manifestations of this disorder. All patients have widespread, early-onset acanthosis nigricans. Patients often have prominent hypopigmented scars at surgical sites and nevi arising early in childhood.
CONCLUSIONSAND RELEVANCE In addition to craniofacial malformations, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans results in characteristic cutaneous findings.
- Spitz nevi: beliefs, behaviors, and experiences of pediatric dermatologists. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Dermatol 2013 Mar; 149(3):283-91.
Controversy exists regarding strategies for diagnosis and management of Spitz nevi, a type of melanocytic neoplasm that most often develops in children.To determine the beliefs, behaviors, and experiences of pediatric dermatologists with regard to Spitz nevi.Anonymous web-based survey.Private and academic dermatology practices.Respondents included 175 pediatric dermatologists from the United States and around the world, representing a 51.1% response rate (175 of 342). Analyses were limited to the 144 respondents whose practices included at least 50% children (younger than 18 years).Assessment of the following with regard to Spitz nevi: frequency of diagnosis, general beliefs, techniques used for evaluation (eg, dermoscopy and biopsy), management strategies, and observed outcomes.Collectively, respondents had seen approximately 20 000 Spitz nevi; 67.6% (96 of 142) had diagnosed at least 6 Spitz nevi yearly, whereas 90.1% (128 of 142) had diagnosed no more than 2 prepubertal melanomas in the past 5 years. Ninety-six percent of respondents (95.8%; 136 of 142) categorized typical Spitz nevi as benign. Eighty percent of respondents (79.6%; 113 of 142) used dermatoscopy, and 96.5% (137 of 142) avoided partial biopsies of Spitz nevi. In children with a suspected Spitz nevus, clinical follow-up was chosen by 49.3% (69 of 140) of respondents for a small, stable nonpigmented lesion and by 29.7% (41 of 138) for a pigmented lesion with a typical starburst pattern seen via dermatoscopy. Predictors of clinical follow-up of the latter lesion included believing that Spitz nevi are not melanoma precursors (P = .04). Forty-seven percent (62 of 132) of respondents had observed involution of Spitz nevi. No deaths had resulted from the approximately 10 000 Spitz nevi or atypical spitzoid neoplasms seen by the 91 respondents with academic or hospital-based practices.The results of our survey support conservative management of Spitz nevi in children, with clinical follow-up representing an option for typical lesions. This represents an important difference from strategies used for management of these lesions in adults.
- Histopathologic features of Spitzoid lesions in different age groups. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Rom J Morphol Embryol 2013; 54(1):51-62.
Spitz nevus is one of the most difficult melanocytic lesions to diagnose in regard of malignancy, even for experienced dermatopathologists. We analyzed 28 tumors with Spitzoid morphology from 15 children (three little children 2-4-year-old, 12 peripubertary children 9-17-year-old) and 13 adults; there were 21 Spitz nevi, five atypical Spitz tumors and two Spitzoid melanomas in order to establish the diagnostic value of several morphologic parameters in different age groups. No significant differences in respect of age and/or tumor type occurred for gender, location, dimension, symmetry, sharp lateral demarcation, junctional nests orientation, adipose tissue extension, side-to-side cytologic symmetry, uniform melanin deposits, nuclear pleomorphism, presence of mitoses, inflammation and epidermal alterations. Pagetoid growth and/or melanin deposits in the keratin layer were significantly higher in little children. In adults, presence of isolated cells within the lateral margins allows differentiating Spitz nevus from atypical Spitz tumor and Spitzoid melanoma. Deep located mitoses were statistically associated with Spitzoid melanoma in adults. Ulceration was statistically more frequent in peripubertary patients than in adults, probably due to trauma. In conclusion, presence of worrisome morphologic features (pagetoid growth, isolated cells within the lateral margins or ulceration) is correlated to patient's age and less to tumor type; there is no unique morphologic feature to relay on when evaluating a Spitzoid tumor, the final diagnosis being the results of interpretation of multiple clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular data and not least dermatopathologist's personal experience.
- High hERG1 expression in advanced melanoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Melanoma Res 2013 Jun; 23(3):185-190.
Cutaneous melanoma represents the main cause of death among skin cancers. The thickness of the lesion at diagnosis is one of the most important prognostic indicators for survival, which is good for thin melanomas (≤1 mm) and worsens as thickness increases. Nevertheless, it is not rare to observe disease progression of thin melanomas or, conversely, a good outcome for those melanomas considered to be at high risk, according to the classical prognostic criteria. In the present paper, we analysed for the first time the expression of the hERG1 protein, a potassium channel frequently overexpressed and misexpressed in cancers, in cutaneous melanocytic lesions. The analysis was carried out on archival samples relative to (a) typical melanocytic nevi, (b) atypical melanocytic nevi, (c) thin (<1 mm) melanomas from patients who survived at least 10 years after surgery, (d) thick (>4 mm) melanomas from patients who died for melanoma and (e) melanoma metastases. Samples were analysed by immunohistochemistry using an hERG1-specific antibody. We showed that primary cutaneous melanomas with a thickness greater than 4 mm as well as metastatic melanoma lesions are characterized by a high level of hERG1 expression. Conversely, thin melanomas and benign melanocytic lesions (e.g. typical and atypical melanocytic nevi) express hERG1 at significantly lower levels. Although still preliminary, the data presented here enable us to consider hERG1 as a novel candidate biomarker for aggressive melanoma.
- Reply to: "Histologically dysplastic nevi that extend to a specimen border". [Comment, Letter]
- J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 Apr; 68(4):683-4.
- Histologically dysplastic nevi that extend to a specimen border. [Comment, Letter]
- J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 Apr; 68(4):682-3.
- Large Congenital Melanocytic Nevi With Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor. [LETTER]
- Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013 Mar 20.
- Dermoscopic Features of Melanocytic Nevi in Seven Different Anatomical Locations in Patients With Atypical Nevi Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dermatol Surg 2013 Mar 6.