Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Auditory symptoms present [keywords]
- [Follow-up of a 16-year-old adolescent with early-onset schizophrenia and catatonic symptoms]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Encephale 2013 May.:S29-35.
The aim of this paper is to underline the need of a systematic monitoring (1) of atypical antipsychotics and (2) of catatonic symptoms in child psychiatry. We present in this paper the clinical history of a 16-year-old adolescent inpatient needing a prescription of atypical antipsychotic drug. We present the most relevant results of our clinical monitoring over 7months.A 16-year-old Caucasian male adolescent, by the name of Paul, was admitted in August 2009 to an Adolescent University Psychiatry Unit for an acute psychotic disorder. On admission, he presented paranoid delusion, auditory hallucinations and impulsive movements. The score on the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) was 17 (the threshold score for the diagnosis of catatonic symptoms is 2). Laboratory tests showed the lack of blood toxic levels, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level was 684IU/L. Paul was treated with clonazepam (0.05mg/kg/d). This particular day was considered to be day #1 of the clinical drug monitoring. Immediately after, regular follow-up of catatonic symptoms was performed. On day #15, the CPK level returned to normal with improvement of clinical catatonia but with still a score of 4 on the BFCRS scale. Auditory hallucinations and delusion persisted. Risperidone treatment was begun (1mg/d and 1.5mg/d after 24hours), associated with oral clonazepam (0.05mg/kg/d). On day #17, after 48hours of improvement of delusion, the catatonic symptoms rapidly worsened. Risperidone was stopped; Paul was transferred to intensive care where he was treated with clonazepam IV (0.1mg/kg/d). The score on BFCRS scale was 20, Paul presented no fever and the CPK level was below 170IU/L. The diagnosis was a relapse of the catatonic episode, which was caused by the administration of risperidone. On day #24, no improvement in the state of catatonia was obtained. The treatment was changed with the following combination of medicine: clonazepam (0.1mg/kg/d)-lorazepam (5mg/d)-carbamazepine (10mg/kg/d). With this combination, the state of catatonia improved quickly and on day #31, he was transferred to the adolescent psychiatry unit. However, delusion and hallucinations persisted; a treatment with olanzapine was started at 5mg/d and then progressively increased to 20mg/d for 10days. On day #115, after 3months with olanzapine, no improvement of the hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed; the diagnosis of early-onset refractory schizophrenia was established. The Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) confirmed the good compliance; clozapine was introduced and progressively increased up to 250mg/d. On day #199, after 3months under clozapine (250mg/d), the speech was coherent and delusion was rare. During this period, no relapse of the catatonic state was observed.In this case, the BFCRS scale was sensitive to catatonic symptom diagnosis. CPK levels vary differently for each atypical antipsychotic and are not a specific complication indicator. In complex cases, the TDM seems useful when choosing atypical antipsychotics.The association of two benzodiazepines (clonazepam-lorazepam) with carbamazepin allowed the improvement of catatonic symptoms. Plasma levels of atypical antipsychotics helped the practitioner in deciding the type of care required: plasma levels confirmed the patient's treatment adherence and thus reinforced the choice of clozapine.
- Phenotypes of hypofrontality in older female fragile x premutation carriers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Neurol 2013 May 20.
Objective To investigate the nature of cognitive impairments and underlying brain mechanisms in older female fragile X premutation carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Methods Extensive neuropsychological testing and cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs, particularly, the auditory P300) were examined in 84 female participants: 33 fragile X premutation carriers with FXTAS (mean age = 62.8), 25 premutation carriers without FXTAS (mean age = 55.4) and 26 normal healthy controls (mean age = 59.3). Results Both premutation groups exhibited executive dysfunction on the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS), with subtle impairments in inhibition and performance monitoring in female carriers without FXTAS, and more substantial deficits in FXTAS women. However, the female carrier group without FXTAS showed more pronounced deficiencies in working memory. Abnormal ERPs were recorded over the frontal lobes, where FXTAS patients showed both P300 amplitude reduction and latency prolongation, while only decreased frontal P300 amplitudes were found in carriers without FXTAS. These frontal P3 measures correlated with executive function and information processing speed. Interpretation The neuropsychological testing and ERP results of the present study provide support for the hypothesis that executive dysfunction is the primary cognitive impairment among older female premutation carriers both with and without FXTAS, although these deficits are relatively mild compared to those in FXTAS males. These findings are consistent with a synergistic effect of the premutation and aging on cognitive impairment among older female fragile X premutation carriers, even in those without FXTAS symptoms. ANN NEUROL 2013. © 2013 American Neurological Association.
- Inner ear disorders. [Journal Article]
- NeuroRehabilitation 2013 Jan 1; 32(3):455-62.
To present a framework for the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear disorders, with an emphasis on problems common to neuro-rehabilitation.Disorders of the inner ear can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and imbalance. Hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed; conductive hearing loss arises from the ear canal or middle ear, while sensorineural hearing loss arises from the inner ear or auditory nerve. Vertigo is a hallucination of motion, and is the cardinal symptom of vestibular system disease. It should be differentiated from other causes of dizziness: gait imbalance, disequilibrium, lightheadedness (pre-syncope). Vertigo can be caused by problems in the inner ear or central nervous system.The diagnosis of inner ear disorders begins with a targeted physical examination. The initial work-up of hearing loss is made by audiometry, and vertigo by electronystagmography (ENG). Supplemental tests and MRI are obtained when clinically indicated.The clinical pattern and duration of vertigo are the most important clinical features in the diagnosis. Common inner ear causes of vertigo include: vestibular neuritis (sudden, unilateral vestibular loss), Meniere's disease (episodic vertigo), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and bilateral vestibular loss. Common central nervous system causes of vertigo include: post concussion syndrome, cervical vertigo, vestibular migraine, cerebrovascular disease, and acoustic neuroma.A basic knowledge of vestibular physiology, coupled with a understanding of common vestibular syndromes, will lead to correct diagnosis and treatment in most cases.
- Pinpointing a Highly Specific Pathological Functional Connection That Turns Phantom Sound into Distress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cereb Cortex 2013 Apr 30.
It has been suggested that an auditory phantom percept is the result of multiple, parallel but overlapping networks. One of those networks encodes tinnitus loudness and is electrophysiologically separable from a nonspecific distress network. The present study investigates how these networks anatomically overlap, what networks are involved, and how and when these networks interact. Electroencephalography data of 317 tinnitus patients and 256 healthy subjects were analyzed, using independent component analysis. Results demonstrate that tinnitus is characterized by at least 2 major brain networks, each consisting of multiple independent components. One network reflects tinnitus distress, while another network reflects the loudness of the tinnitus. The component coherence analysis shows that the independent components that make up the distress and loudness networks communicate within their respective network at several discrete frequencies in parallel. The distress and loudness networks do not intercommunicate for patients without distress, but do when patients are distressed by their tinnitus. The obtained data demonstrate that the components that build up these 2 separable networks communicate at discrete frequencies within the network, and only between the distress and loudness networks in those patients in whom the symptoms are also clinically linked.
- Cognitive assessment of patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy in Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Brain Dis 2013 Apr 28.
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome caused by liver cirrhosis and accompanied by a broad spectrum of cognitive symptoms. The objective of the present study was to describe the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients and to compare their cognitive performance with controls using standardized tests. Patients receiving medication or experiencing comorbidities associated with cognitive disorders were excluded. The final cohort was compared with a control-matched group using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as Simple Drawing, Clock Drawing, Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Random Letter, Stroop, Trail-Making Test (TMT) A and B, Boston Naming, Category Verbal Fluency, Digit Span, Constructional Praxis, Processing Speed, and Similarities Tests. The results indicated no differences in the prevalence of cognitive complaints spontaneously reported by 29 patients with cirrhosis versus 22 healthy controls. The most affected tests included: MMSE (26.3 ± 2 vs. 28.1 ± 1.8 points; p = 0.004), learning (35.4 ± 9 vs. 41 ± 9.1 points; p = 0.041), retroactive interference (0.67 ± 0.22 vs. 0.84 ± 0.16 points; p = 0.004), and recognition (8.7 ± 2.6 vs. 11.2 ± 4.1 points; p = 0.024) in RAVLT, TMT-A (63.2 ± 29.3 vs. 47.6 ± 16.5 s; p = 0.029) and TMT-B (197.9 ± 88.1 vs. 146.8 ± 76.5 s; p = 0.03). No differences were observed with respect to age, gender, and education. In conclusion, MMSE proved to be a useful tool for detecting global cognitive impairment experienced by cirrhosis patients. Moreover, the most impaired cognitive functions were verbal episodic memory and information processing speed. These findings suggest that minimal hepatic encephalopathy represents a disorder that affects the medial temporal system and, possibly, the prefrontal cortex, and this requires further study.
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting as an orbital inflammatory pseudotumor: a case report. [Journal Article]
- J Med Case Rep 2013; 7(1):110.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a systemic inflammatory disease that often presents with necrosis, granuloma formation and vasculitis of small- to medium-sized vessels. Affected patients usually present with disease of the upper respiratory tract, lungs and kidneys, but this disease has been reported to involve almost any organ. We report the case of a patient with ocular manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis after the remission of renal and auditory manifestations.An 81-year-old Japanese woman had a four-year history of biopsy-proven antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related glomerulonephritis that had been treated with oral prednisolone and was in serological remission. She had also recovered from a one-year history of complete hearing loss immediately following the steroid treatment for glomerulonephritis. She gradually experienced right eye visual disturbance and exophthalmos over a two-month period. Radiographic and histopathological findings revealed an orbital inflammatory pseudotumor. The administration of prednisolone completely restored her right eye visual acuity and eye movement after two weeks. Considering this case retrospectively, our patient had an orbital inflammatory pseudotumor caused by granulomatosis with polyangiitis including a medical history of reversible hearing loss, although her glomerulonephritis had remitted with an undetectable level of specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.In this patient, hearing loss and visual loss occurred at different times during the course of treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Clinicians should consider a differential diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in patients with treatable hearing and visual loss.
- Intraosseous schwannoma originating in inferior alveolar nerve: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2013; 54(1):19-25.
Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are benign neoplasms derived from Schwann cells of the neurilemma and appear most frequently on the auditory nerve or peripheral nerves of the skin. They arise in the oral and maxillofacial region infrequently, and very rarely in the center of the jaw. We herein present a case of a rare mandibular intraosseous schwannoma derived from the main trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve in a 33-year-old man. Fusiform expansion in the mandibular canal was observed and a mass showing the target sign in the mandibular canal was confirmed on T2-weighted and Gd contrastenhanced T1-weighted MRI. Based on these findings, an inferior alveolar nerve-derived schwannoma or other benign nervous system neoplasm was diagnosed. A buccal side cortical bone flap in the mandibular molar region was removed to expose the mass, which was then peeled away from the nerve fibers and completely removed. Some inferior alveolar nerve fibers that were connected to the mass were removed at the same time, but the remaining nerve fiber bundle was preserved. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a schwannoma with Antoni type A and Antoni type B regions. Although the patient experienced extremely mild paresthesia in the skin over the mental region and mental foramen at immediately after surgery, this had almost entirely disappeared at 7 years and 4 months later, and there has been no tumor recurrence.
- The 'At-Risk Mental State' for Psychosis in Adolescents: Clinical Presentation, Transition and Remission. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2013 Apr 14.
Despite increased efforts over the last decade to prospectively identify individuals at ultra-high risk of developing a psychotic illness, limited attention has been specifically directed towards adolescent populations (<18 years). In order to evaluate how those under 18 fulfilling the operationalised criteria for an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) present and fare over time, we conducted an observational study. Participants (N = 30) generally reported a high degree of functional disability and frequent and distressing perceptual disturbance, mainly in the form of auditory hallucinations. Seventy percent (21/30) were found to fulfil the criteria for a co-morbid ICD-10 listed mental health disorder, with mood (affective; 13/30) disorders being most prevalent. Overall transition rates to psychosis were low at 24 months follow-up (2/28; 7.1 %) whilst many participants demonstrated a significant reduction in psychotic-like symptoms. The generalisation of these findings may be limited due to the small sample size and require replication in a larger sample.
- The otological manifestations associated with autistic spectrum disorders. [Journal Article]
- Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013 May; 77(5):629-34.
To elucidate the otological manifestations found in this increasingly commonly diagnosed condition. This paper will discuss the diagnosis, aetiology, pathogenesis, management and the outcomes of treatment.Systematic literature review.The following databases were searched for articles pertaining to the otological manifestations of autistic spectrum disorders: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CURRENT CONTENTS, PSYCHLIT, CINAHL and HEALTHSTAR. Articles from 1965 to June 2012 were extracted. Relevant articles from the literature were selected and reviewed by two independent authors. Each paper was assessed as to its level of evidence and validity. The relevant results are presented and discussed in order to present a practical approach to the management of these patients.Patients with ASD have an increased incidence of peripheral and central otological pathology. This pathology plays a key role in the behavioural, communication, and social aspects of the disease. ASD patients have a higher incidence of profound sensorineural hearing loss, middle ear infections, and abnormalities of the cochlear nerve and brainstem auditory pathways. There are cortical and brainstem neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the way auditory information is interpreted and processed in the ASD patient.The otolaryngologist plays a key role in the multidisciplinary management of individuals with ASD due to the high prevalence of otological pathology amongst these patients. Early diagnosis and expedient treatment focusing on normalisation of auditory input and development can maximise developmental outcomes.
- Vestibular schwannoma in the only hearing ear: role of cochlear implants. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2013 Feb; 122(2):91-9.
We sought to delineate the role of cochlear implantation in the management of vestibular schwannoma or other cerebellopontine angle tumors in the only hearing ear.We performed a retrospective analysis in a quaternary referral skull base center of all patients who were affected by vestibular schwannoma (or other lesions of the cerebellopontine angle) in the only hearing ear and received a cochlear implant before or after tumor treatment (surgery or radiotherapy) or during the wait-and-scan follow-up. We also performed a systematic review of the English-language literature.The clinical and audiological results of 10 patients are reported. All patients were managed with contralateral cochlear implantation. In 7 patients, cochlear implantation was performed before tumor removal, while hearing in the ear with the tumor was still present. In 3 patients, the implant was placed after curative surgery. Nine of the 10 patients routinely use their implant with subjective benefit and fairly good auditory performance (median disyllabic word recognition, 90%; median sentence comprehension, 75%). The literature search retrieved no major series with assessment of the long-term efficacy of cochlear implantation in this rare clinical scenario.Patients affected by vestibular schwannoma in their only hearing ear may significantly benefit from a cochlear implant on the contralateral side prior to tumor removal. Recent and significant hearing deterioration and tumor growth represent the main indications for cochlear implantation.