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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia [keywords]
- Cold agglutinin disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Blood 2013 Jun 11.
Cold agglutinin disease is a rare and poorly understood disorder affecting 15% of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. We review the clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, and management in the literature, and we describe our institutional experience to improve strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Retrospective analysis identified 89 patients from our institution with cold agglutinin disease from 1970 through 2012. Median age at symptom onset was 65 years (range, 41-83 years), whereas the median age at diagnosis was 72 years (range, 43-91 years). Median survival of all patients was 10.6 years, and 68 patients (76%) were alive 5 years after the diagnosis. The most common symptom was acrocyanosis (n=39 [44%]), and many had symptoms triggered by cold (n=35 [39%]) or other factors (n=20 [22%]). An underlying hematologic disorder was detected in 69 patients (78%). Thirty-six patients (40%) received transfusions during their disease course and 82% received drug therapy. Rituximab was associated with the longest response duration (median, 24 months) and the lowest proportion of patients needing further treatment (55%). Our institution's experience and review of the literature confirms that early diagnostic evaluation and treatment improves outcomes in cold agglutinin disease.
- Refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia after intestinal transplant responding to conversion from a calcineurin to mTOR inhibitor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Transplant 2013 Jun 3.
AIHA is a rare and serious complication of solid organ transplantation. Herein, we report four cases of warm or mixed AIHA in pediatric patients following combined liver, small bowel and pancreas transplant. The hemolysis was refractory to multiple treatment modalities including steroids, rituximab, IVIG, plasmapheresis, cytoxan, discontinuation of prophylactic penicillin, and a change in immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine. All patients had resolution or marked improvement of hemolysis after discontinuation of maintenance of CNI and initiation of sirolimus immunosuppression. One patient developed nephrotic syndrome but responded to a change in immunosuppression to everolimus. Three of the four patients continue on immunosuppression with sirolimus or everolimus without further hemolysis, evidence of rejection or medication side effects. Based on our experience and review of similar cases in the literature, we have proposed a treatment algorithm for AIHA in the pediatric intestinal transplant patient population that recommends an early change in immunosuppressive regimen from CNIs to sirolimus therapy.
- Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. [Journal Article]
- Clin Nephrol 2013 Jun; 79(6):494-7.
A 25-year-old woman was admitted because of proteinuria. A renal biopsy showed mesangial/endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis with IgG2-κ deposits. Electron microscopy showed immune complex-type deposits. She also had Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia, anticardiolipin antibodies, and antinuclear antibodies. Middle-dose steroid therapy led to improvement of proteinuria and hemolytic anemia. Six years later, she developed crescentic glomerulonephritis with IgG2-κ deposits during pregnancy. Middle-dose steroid therapy improved renal dysfunction. This is an exceptional case of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits (PGNMID), a recently described rare dysproteinemia-related glomerulonephritis, associated with autoimmune disease. This case also suggests that crescentic glomerulonephritis can be superimposed on PGNMID.
- Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma: a rare association. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Hematol 2013.:567289.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has been associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma, but to the best of our knowledge, the association of AIHA and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) has not been reported previously. A 20-year-old woman presented with conjunctival jaundice, fever, asthenia, and hemoglobin 9.2 g/dL revealing IgG-mediated warm antibody AIHA. Computed tomography (CT) scan and positron-emission tomography (PET) scan showed mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes with increased [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. A mediastinal lymph node was biopsied during mediastinoscopy, and NLPHL was diagnosed by an expert hematopathologist. The hemoglobin level declined to 4.6 g/dL. The treatment consisted of four 28-day cycles of R-ABVD (rituximab 375 mg/m(2) IV, adriamycin 25 mg/m(2) IV, bleomycin 10 mg/m(2) IV, vinblastine 6 mg/m(2) IV, and dacarbazine 375 mg/m(2) IV, each on days 1 and 15). Prednisone was progressively tapered over 10 weeks. After the first chemotherapy cycle, the hemoglobin level rose to 12 g/dL. After the four cycles, PET and CT scans showed complete remission (CR). At the last followup (4 years), AIHA and NLPHL were in sustained CR.
- Ibuprofen-induced hemolytic anemia. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Hematol 2013.:142865.
Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 per million of the population. We report the case of a 36-year-old female who presented to the emergency department complaining of shortness of breath and dark colored urine. Physical examination was significant for pale mucous membranes. The patient reported using ibuprofen for a few days prior to presentation. Complete blood count performed before starting ibuprofen revealed normal platelets and hemoglobin values. On admission, the patient had evidence of hemolytic anemia with hemoglobin of 4.9 g/dL, hematocrit of 14.2%, lactate dehydrogenase 435 IU/L, and reticulocytosis 23.2%. Further testing ruled out autoimmune disease, lymphoma, and leukemia as etiologies for the patient's new onset hemolytic anemia. Ibuprofen was immediately stopped with a gradual hematologic recovery within 3 days.
- Successful treatment with rituximab of an infant with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Hematol 2013 May 24.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare disease in infants, for which steroids are recognized as a first-line therapy for patients. Rituximab, a humanized monoclonal antibody raised against CD20, has been used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including AIHA, in adults and children. Due to limited follow-up study of the use of rituximab in the treatment for AIHA, its long-term efficacy, adverse effects, and immunological reconstitution of B cells have not been fully evaluated in infants. Here, we report a 3-month-old female patient with refractory AIHA, who was successfully treated with rituximab. Hemolytic anemia improved rapidly, and there were no severe adverse effects caused by rituximab. After 4.5 months following rituximab treatment, peripheral B cells were gradually reconstituted and required no intravenous immunoglobulin replacement thereafter. The patient has remained disease-free for more than 30 months without any additional treatment. This case suggests that rituximab may be a valuable therapeutic option, given its efficacy and minimal adverse effects in infants with therapy-resistant AIHA.
- Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) in a teenager: A wolf in sheep's clothing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Haematol 2013 May 23.
This case report describes a 14 year old boy who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of severe anemia. He was diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and on further investigation, it was noted that he had no functioning T cells. Despite no antecedent history of severe infection, he was worked up for a severe combined immunodeficiency, and was found to have a compound hypomorphic mutation in an enzyme responsible for recombination of the B and T cell receptors. He was subsequently diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency, presenting with autoimmunity, and received a bone marrow transplant. As our knowledge of the immune system continues to expand, we are learning that dysregulation can occur in any one of the complex immune pathways, and may have a variety of clinical presentations. A high index of suspicion for immune defects should be maintained in cases of atypical or severe infections, autoimmunity or malignancy, particularly by the General Practitioner, who is often the first to encounter these challenging patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Autoimmune cytopenias in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. [Journal Article]
- Clin Dev Immunol 2013.:730131.
The clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be complicated at any time by autoimmune phenomena.The most common ones are hematologic disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune agranulocytosis (AG) are, indeed, more rarely seen. However, they are probably underestimated due to the possible misleading presence of cytopenias secondary to leukemic bone marrow involvement or to chemotherapy cytotoxicity. The source of autoantibodies is still uncertain, despite the most convincing data are in favor of the involvement of resting normal B-cells. In general, excluding the specific treatment of underlying CLL, the managementof these complications is not different from that of idiopathic autoimmune cytopenias or of those associated to other causes. Among different therapeutic approaches, monoclonal antibody rituximab, given alone or in combination, has shown to be very effective.