Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Pharmacokinetics of fingolimod (FTY720) and a combined oral contraceptive coadministered in healthy women: drug-drug interaction study results. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2012 Aug; 50(8):540-4.
Fingolimod has a novel mechanism of action in multiple sclerosis, being a first-in-class sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator. Because of a potential risk of fetal toxicity based on animal studies, women of childbearing potential are advised to take effective contraceptive measures during and for 2 months after stopping fingolimod therapy. To assess whether the efficacy of a combined oral contraceptive (OC) could be compromised during fingolimod therapy, a steady-state, drug-drug interaction study of fingolimod with ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel was performed in healthy female volunteers.To assess the interaction between fingolimod 0.5 mg once daily and ethinylestradiol 30 μg/ levonorgestrel 150 μg once daily at a steady state.31 healthy women received the combined OC only on Days 1 - 14, followed by OC plus fingolimod on Days 15 - 28.In the presence of fingolimod, ethinylestradiol pharmacokinetics were unchanged, and levonorgestrel maximum plasma concentration at steady state and area under the concentration-time curve during a dosing interval increased by factors of 1.10 (90% CI 1.05 - 1.16) and 1.22 (90% CI 1.18 - 1.27), respectively.Fingolimod therapy does not alter the pharmacokinetics of the combined OC ethinylestradiol/ levonorgestrel to a clinically significant degree. Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel does not alter the pharmacokinetics of fingolimod. Women receiving fingolimod therapy are able to use a combined OC as a means of effective birth control.
- A randomized controlled trial of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline to prevent unscheduled bleeding with continuous oral contraceptive pill use. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Contraception 2012 Apr; 85(4):351-8.
Unscheduled bleeding is the main side effect of continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and has been correlated with the up-regulation of matrix metalloprotineases (MMPs). The study objective was to determine if prophylactic administration of doxycycline (an MMP inhibitor at low subantimicrobial doses) would prevent unscheduled bleeding during the initiation of a continuous OCP.Subjects using cyclic hormonal contraceptives (combined OCPs, patch or ring) without unscheduled bleeding were switched to continuous OCPs (20 mcg ethinyl estradiol/100 mcg levonorgestrel). They were randomized to receive daily doxycycline [sustained-release subantimicrobial dose (40 mg daily)] or placebo for the first 84 days and then observed for an additional 28 days on the continuous OCP alone. The number of bleeding/spotting days and the time in days it took to achieve amenorrhea were compared using a t test.Sixty-five subjects were randomized. Although the use of doxycycline did not significantly decrease the number of mean bleeding/spotting days in the first 84 days of the study [doxycycline 14.75 (SE 2.30), placebo 17.78 (2.31), p=.36], women who received doxycycline had a significantly earlier onset of amenorrhea [mean last day of bleeding/spotting doxycycline 61.7 (7.7), placebo 85.2 (6.7), p=.03].The coadministration of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline during initiation of continuous OCPs results in a significant reduction in the length of time needed to achieve amenorrhea.
- Assessment of the activity of an oral contraceptive on the levels of oxidative stress and changes in oxidative stress after co-treatment with two different types of physiological modulators with antioxidant action. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Contraception 2011 Oct; 84(4):418-22.
The aims of this research were to document the nature of oxidative stress (OS) while taking an estrogen/progestagen-combined oral contraceptive (OC) and to evaluate the action of two different products composed of a combination of antioxidant, vitamins and natural products in physiological quantity and classified as antioxidant/food supplement. For this reason, the two products are classified as physiological modulators (PM), able to restore the balance between antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in the organism.The Reactive Oxygen Metabolites-derived compound test, a photometric assay that measures the hydroperoxides levels in biological fluids, was used to determine the OS. OS was analyzed every 3 days (from t(1) to t(27)) for 28 days on 10 healthy volunteers during three successive OC treatment cycles with a contraceptive (Microgynon®: ethinylestradiol 50 mcg plus levonorgestrel 125 mcg). In the first cycle, the OC was administered by itself; in the successive two cycles, the OC was administered in association in an open crossover study with two different types of PMs with antioxidant action. The main difference in the composition of the two products is the presence/absence of catechins from green tea.With just OC treatment, all the volunteers showed an increase in the OS values from 240±22.3 (mean±SD) Carratelli Units. (normal value) up to values >400 Carratelli Units (severe OS), then returned to normal when the OC therapy was suspended. The concomitant use of the two PMs showed that only the product containing green tea catechins was able to reduce the OS values, on average, by approximately 50% (t test p<.05).We conclude that to control the OS generated by OC, specific types of physiological modulators are needed.
- Metabolic and haemostatic effects of estradiol valerate/dienogest, a novel oral contraceptive: a randomized, open-label, single-centre study. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Clin Drug Investig 2011; 31(8):573-84.
The hormonal components of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have various metabolic and haemostatic effects. The objective of this study was to compare the metabolic and haemostatic effects of a novel COC comprising estradiol valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG) with ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (EE/LNG).In a randomized, open-label study conducted in Germany over seven cycles, healthy women aged 18-50 years received E(2)V/DNG (E(2)V 3 mg on days 1-2, E(2)V 2 mg/DNG 2 mg on days 3-7, E(2)V 2 mg/DNG 3 mg on days 8-24, E(2)V 1 mg on days 25-26, placebo on days 27-28; n = 30) or EE/LNG (EE 0.03 mg/LNG 0.05 mg on days 1-6, EE 0.04 mg/LNG 0.075 mg on days 7-11, EE 0.03 mg/LNG 0.125 mg on days 12-21, placebo on days 22-28; n = 28). The primary variables were the mean intraindividual relative changes from baseline to cycle 7 in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Changes in other lipid parameters, haemostatic parameters, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), carbohydrate metabolism parameters, blood pressure and body weight were also assessed.Mean ± SD HDL cholesterol increased by 7.9% ± 21.8% with E(2)V/DNG and decreased by 2.3% ± 14.4% with EE/LNG. Mean ± SD LDL cholesterol decreased by 6.5% ± 15.9% with E(2)V/DNG and by 3.0% ± 17.4% with EE/LNG. Mean ± SD prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and D-dimer levels remained essentially unchanged in the E(2)V/DNG group (-0.6% ± 30.3% and -2.1% ± 43.5%, respectively), but increased in the EE/LNG group (by 117.3% ± 358.0% and 62.9% ± 99.5%, respectively). Changes in other hepatic-induced parameters (SHBG, CBG) and carbohydrate metabolism were generally less pronounced with E(2)V/DNG versus EE/LNG. Body weight and blood pressure remained stable throughout the study in both treatment groups. Both formulations were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported.E(2)V/DNG had a minimal impact on metabolic and haemostatic parameters, and a more favourable effect than EE/LNG on lipid markers. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00185224.
- An open-label, comparative study of the effects of a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinylestradiol/2 mg chlormadinone acetate on hemostatic parameters and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism variables. [Clinical Trial, Phase II, Comparative Study, Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Contraception 2010 May; 81(5):391-400.
The study was conducted to compare the effects of 0.02 mg ethinylestradiol (EE)/2 mg chlormadinone acetate (CMA), given for 24 days each cycle, with those of 0.02 mg EE/0.15 mg desogestrel (DSG) and 0.03 mg EE/0.15 mg levonorgestrel (LNG), given for 21 days each cycle, on hemostatic, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism parameters in healthy subjects, over six medication cycles.A randomized, multicentre, open-label, Phase II trial measured markers of hemostasis, and of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in 165 subjects randomly assigned to treatment with one of three combined oral contraceptives (COCs).EE/CMA and EE/DSG had a similar effect on hemostatic parameters, the EE/LNG group showed comparatively smaller increases in the activity of factor VII [8.1% vs. 36.6% (EE/CMA) and 28.2% (EE/DSG)], protein C [5.9% vs. 32.9% (EE/CMA) and 21% (EE/DSG)] and endogenous thrombin potential-based activated protein C resistance [44.1% vs. 93.5% (EE/CMA) and 108.1% (EE/DSG)], and in contrast, free protein S levels decreased in the EE/CMA and EE/DSG groups (-12.7% and -4.3%, respectively) but rose in the EE/LNG group (20.4%). In all treatments, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and apolipoproteins increased. Levels of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particularly rose across all groups. Slight increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were observed for EE/CMA (14.6%) and EE/DSG (8.5%), with a rise above the upper limit of normal in 30% of the subjects taking EE/CMA. Conversely, for EE/LNG slight decreases in HDL cholesterol were observed (-12.4%) lipoprotein (a) levels decreased in the EE/CMA (-6.6%) and EE/LNG (-16.9%) groups and were unchanged in the EE/DSG group.The changes observed were typical of those seen across low-dose COCs that differ according to commonly-used progestogens.